Abstract

Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for cell counting and biomarker detection in biotechnology and medicine especially with regards to blood analysis. Standard flow cytometers perform cell type classification both by estimating size and granularity of cells using forward- and side-scattered light signals and through the collection of emission spectra of fluorescently-labeled cells. However, cell surface labeling as a means of marking cells is often undesirable as many reagents negatively impact cellular viability or provide activating/inhibitory signals, which can alter the behavior of the desired cellular subtypes for downstream applications or analysis. To eliminate the need for labeling, we introduce a label-free imaging-based flow cytometer that measures size and cell protein concentration simultaneously either as a stand-alone instrument or as an add-on to conventional flow cytometers. Cell protein concentration adds a parameter to cell classification, which improves the specificity and sensitivity of flow cytometers without the requirement of cell labeling. This system uses coherent dispersive Fourier transform to perform phase imaging at flow speeds as high as a few meters per second.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, M. Diez-Silva, S. Suresh, J. M. Higgins, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring single-cell density,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(27), 10992–10996 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. E. Mrema, G. H. Campbell, R. Miranda, A. L. Jaramillo, and K. H. Rieckmann, “Concentration and separation of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum by gradient centrifugation,” Bull. World Health Organ.57(1), 133–138 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  3. J. Chun, T. A. Zangle, T. Kolarova, R. S. Finn, M. A. Teitell, and J. Reed, “Rapidly quantifying drug sensitivity of dispersed and clumped breast cancer cells by mass profiling,” Analyst (Lond.)137(23), 5495–5498 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. J. Martin, J. G. Bradley, and T. G. Cotter, “HL-60 cells induced to differentiate towards neutrophils subsequently die via apoptosis,” Clin. Exp. Immunol.79(3), 448–453 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. H. Wyllie and R. G. Morris, “Hormone-induced cell death. Purification ad properties of thymocytes undergoing apoptosis after glucocorticoid treatment,” Am. J. Pathol.109(1), 78–87 (1982).
    [PubMed]
  6. D. A. Wolff and H. Pertoft, “Separation of HeLa cells by colloidal silica density gradient centrifugation. I. Separation and partial synchrony of mitotic cells,” J. Cell Biol.55(3), 579–585 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Maric, I. Maric, and J. L. Barker, “Buoyant density gradient fractionation and flow cytometric analysis of embryonic rat cortical neurons and progenitor cells,” Methods16(3), 247–259 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Bosslet, R. Ruffmann, P. Altevogt, and V. Schirrmacher, “A rapid method for the isolation of metastasizing tumour cells from internal organs with the help of isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation in Percoll,” Br. J. Cancer44(3), 356–362 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. G. Phillips, A. Kolatkar, K. J. Rees, R. Rigg, D. Marrinucci, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Quantification of cellular volume and sub-cellular density fluctuations: comparison of normal peripheral blood cells and circulating tumor cells identified in a breast cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 96 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  11. K. G. Phillips, C. R. Velasco, J. Li, A. Kolatkar, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, B. Duggan, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Optical quantification of cellular mass, volume, and density of circulating tumor cells identified in an ovarian cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 72 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  12. V. Gupta, I. Jafferji, M. Garza, V. O. Melnikova, D. K. Hasegawa, R. Pethig, and D. W. Davis, “ApoStream™, a new dielectrophoretic device for antibody independent isolation and recovery of viable cancer cells from blood,” Biomicrofluidics6(2), 024133 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. H. Tycko, M. H. Metz, E. A. Epstein, and A. Grinbaum, “Flow-cytometric light scattering measurement of red blood cell volume and hemoglobin concentration,” Appl. Opt.24(9), 1355–1365 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. J. Liang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, T. C. Ayi, and P. H. Yap, “Determining refractive index of single living cell using an integrated microchip,” Sens. Actuator A-Phys.133(2), 349–354 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Rappaz, P. Marquet, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, C. Depeursinge, and P. Magistretti, “Measurement of the integral refractive index and dynamic cell morphometry of living cells with digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express13(23), 9361–9373 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A65(1), 88–92 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. S. Gorthi and E. Schonbrun, “Phase imaging flow cytometry using a focus-stack collecting microscope,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 707–709 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical Measurement of Cell Membrane Tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. G. Di Caprio, D. Schaak, and E. F. Schonbrun, “Hyperspectral Microscopy of Flowing Cells,” in Imaging and Applied Optics, J. Christou and D. Miller, eds., OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper IM4E.3.
  22. R. Barer and S. Joseph, “Refractometry of living cells,” J. Cell Sci.95, 399–423 (1954).
  23. K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. M. Fard, A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, D. R. Gossett, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Nomarski serial time-encoded amplified microscopy for high-speed contrast-enhanced imaging of transparent media,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(12), 3387–3392 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics7(2), 102–112 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  30. O. Boyraz, J. Kim, M. N. Islam, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Broadband, high-brightness 10-Gbit/s supercontinuum source for A/D conversion,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Francisco, 2000), pp. 489–490.
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems,” Opt. Lett.30(10), 1165–1167 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. P. Revel, P. Hoch, and D. Ho, “Adhesion of culture cells to their substratum,” Exp. Cell Res.84(1), 207–218 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. P. Whur, H. Koppel, C. M. Urquhart, and D. C. Williams, “Substrate retention of fractured retraction fibres during detachment of trypsinized BHK21 fibroblasts,” J. Cell Sci.24, 265–273 (1977).
    [PubMed]
  34. Broad Institute Imaging Platform, “CellProfiler: cell image analysis software,” http://www.cellprofiler.org/ .

2013 (2)

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics7(2), 102–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (7)

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Gorthi and E. Schonbrun, “Phase imaging flow cytometry using a focus-stack collecting microscope,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 707–709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chun, T. A. Zangle, T. Kolarova, R. S. Finn, M. A. Teitell, and J. Reed, “Rapidly quantifying drug sensitivity of dispersed and clumped breast cancer cells by mass profiling,” Analyst (Lond.)137(23), 5495–5498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Phillips, A. Kolatkar, K. J. Rees, R. Rigg, D. Marrinucci, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Quantification of cellular volume and sub-cellular density fluctuations: comparison of normal peripheral blood cells and circulating tumor cells identified in a breast cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 96 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. G. Phillips, C. R. Velasco, J. Li, A. Kolatkar, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, B. Duggan, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Optical quantification of cellular mass, volume, and density of circulating tumor cells identified in an ovarian cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 72 (2012).
[PubMed]

V. Gupta, I. Jafferji, M. Garza, V. O. Melnikova, D. K. Hasegawa, R. Pethig, and D. W. Davis, “ApoStream™, a new dielectrophoretic device for antibody independent isolation and recovery of viable cancer cells from blood,” Biomicrofluidics6(2), 024133 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, M. Diez-Silva, S. Suresh, J. M. Higgins, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring single-cell density,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(27), 10992–10996 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Fard, A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, D. R. Gossett, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Nomarski serial time-encoded amplified microscopy for high-speed contrast-enhanced imaging of transparent media,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(12), 3387–3392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

X. J. Liang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, T. C. Ayi, and P. H. Yap, “Determining refractive index of single living cell using an integrated microchip,” Sens. Actuator A-Phys.133(2), 349–354 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical Measurement of Cell Membrane Tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2000 (1)

G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

D. Maric, I. Maric, and J. L. Barker, “Buoyant density gradient fractionation and flow cytometric analysis of embryonic rat cortical neurons and progenitor cells,” Methods16(3), 247–259 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

S. J. Martin, J. G. Bradley, and T. G. Cotter, “HL-60 cells induced to differentiate towards neutrophils subsequently die via apoptosis,” Clin. Exp. Immunol.79(3), 448–453 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

A. H. Wyllie and R. G. Morris, “Hormone-induced cell death. Purification ad properties of thymocytes undergoing apoptosis after glucocorticoid treatment,” Am. J. Pathol.109(1), 78–87 (1982).
[PubMed]

1981 (1)

K. Bosslet, R. Ruffmann, P. Altevogt, and V. Schirrmacher, “A rapid method for the isolation of metastasizing tumour cells from internal organs with the help of isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation in Percoll,” Br. J. Cancer44(3), 356–362 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

J. E. Mrema, G. H. Campbell, R. Miranda, A. L. Jaramillo, and K. H. Rieckmann, “Concentration and separation of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum by gradient centrifugation,” Bull. World Health Organ.57(1), 133–138 (1979).
[PubMed]

1977 (1)

P. Whur, H. Koppel, C. M. Urquhart, and D. C. Williams, “Substrate retention of fractured retraction fibres during detachment of trypsinized BHK21 fibroblasts,” J. Cell Sci.24, 265–273 (1977).
[PubMed]

1974 (1)

J. P. Revel, P. Hoch, and D. Ho, “Adhesion of culture cells to their substratum,” Exp. Cell Res.84(1), 207–218 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

D. A. Wolff and H. Pertoft, “Separation of HeLa cells by colloidal silica density gradient centrifugation. I. Separation and partial synchrony of mitotic cells,” J. Cell Biol.55(3), 579–585 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

R. Barer and S. Joseph, “Refractometry of living cells,” J. Cell Sci.95, 399–423 (1954).

Adam, J.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allman, B. E.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A65(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altevogt, P.

K. Bosslet, R. Ruffmann, P. Altevogt, and V. Schirrmacher, “A rapid method for the isolation of metastasizing tumour cells from internal organs with the help of isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation in Percoll,” Br. J. Cancer44(3), 356–362 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayazi, A.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ayi, T. C.

X. J. Liang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, T. C. Ayi, and P. H. Yap, “Determining refractive index of single living cell using an integrated microchip,” Sens. Actuator A-Phys.133(2), 349–354 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical Measurement of Cell Membrane Tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakkenist, C. J.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barer, R.

R. Barer and S. Joseph, “Refractometry of living cells,” J. Cell Sci.95, 399–423 (1954).

Barker, J. L.

D. Maric, I. Maric, and J. L. Barker, “Buoyant density gradient fractionation and flow cytometric analysis of embryonic rat cortical neurons and progenitor cells,” Methods16(3), 247–259 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellair, C. J.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A65(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Best-Popescu, C. A.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical Measurement of Cell Membrane Tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bethel, K.

K. G. Phillips, A. Kolatkar, K. J. Rees, R. Rigg, D. Marrinucci, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Quantification of cellular volume and sub-cellular density fluctuations: comparison of normal peripheral blood cells and circulating tumor cells identified in a breast cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 96 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. G. Phillips, C. R. Velasco, J. Li, A. Kolatkar, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, B. Duggan, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Optical quantification of cellular mass, volume, and density of circulating tumor cells identified in an ovarian cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 72 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bista, R. K.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosslet, K.

K. Bosslet, R. Ruffmann, P. Altevogt, and V. Schirrmacher, “A rapid method for the isolation of metastasizing tumour cells from internal organs with the help of isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation in Percoll,” Br. J. Cancer44(3), 356–362 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brackbill, N.

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, J. G.

S. J. Martin, J. G. Bradley, and T. G. Cotter, “HL-60 cells induced to differentiate towards neutrophils subsequently die via apoptosis,” Clin. Exp. Immunol.79(3), 448–453 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, R. E.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bréchot, C.

G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, R.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryan, A. K.

W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, M. Diez-Silva, S. Suresh, J. M. Higgins, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring single-cell density,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(27), 10992–10996 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, G. H.

J. E. Mrema, G. H. Campbell, R. Miranda, A. L. Jaramillo, and K. H. Rieckmann, “Concentration and separation of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum by gradient centrifugation,” Bull. World Health Organ.57(1), 133–138 (1979).
[PubMed]

Capron, F.

G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, E.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chun, J.

J. Chun, T. A. Zangle, T. Kolarova, R. S. Finn, M. A. Teitell, and J. Reed, “Rapidly quantifying drug sensitivity of dispersed and clumped breast cancer cells by mass profiling,” Analyst (Lond.)137(23), 5495–5498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cotter, T. G.

S. J. Martin, J. G. Bradley, and T. G. Cotter, “HL-60 cells induced to differentiate towards neutrophils subsequently die via apoptosis,” Clin. Exp. Immunol.79(3), 448–453 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuche, E.

Curl, C. L.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A65(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical Measurement of Cell Membrane Tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems,” Opt. Lett.30(10), 1165–1167 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, D. W.

V. Gupta, I. Jafferji, M. Garza, V. O. Melnikova, D. K. Hasegawa, R. Pethig, and D. W. Davis, “ApoStream™, a new dielectrophoretic device for antibody independent isolation and recovery of viable cancer cells from blood,” Biomicrofluidics6(2), 024133 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delbridge, L. M. D.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A65(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Di Carlo, D.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Fard, A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, D. R. Gossett, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Nomarski serial time-encoded amplified microscopy for high-speed contrast-enhanced imaging of transparent media,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(12), 3387–3392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diez-Silva, M.

W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, M. Diez-Silva, S. Suresh, J. M. Higgins, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring single-cell density,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(27), 10992–10996 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duggan, B.

K. G. Phillips, C. R. Velasco, J. Li, A. Kolatkar, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, B. Duggan, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Optical quantification of cellular mass, volume, and density of circulating tumor cells identified in an ovarian cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 72 (2012).
[PubMed]

Emery, Y.

Epstein, E. A.

Fard, A.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fard, A. M.

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Fard, A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, D. R. Gossett, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Nomarski serial time-encoded amplified microscopy for high-speed contrast-enhanced imaging of transparent media,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(12), 3387–3392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical Measurement of Cell Membrane Tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems,” Opt. Lett.30(10), 1165–1167 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finn, R. S.

J. Chun, T. A. Zangle, T. Kolarova, R. S. Finn, M. A. Teitell, and J. Reed, “Rapidly quantifying drug sensitivity of dispersed and clumped breast cancer cells by mass profiling,” Analyst (Lond.)137(23), 5495–5498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franco, D.

G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garza, M.

V. Gupta, I. Jafferji, M. Garza, V. O. Melnikova, D. K. Hasegawa, R. Pethig, and D. W. Davis, “ApoStream™, a new dielectrophoretic device for antibody independent isolation and recovery of viable cancer cells from blood,” Biomicrofluidics6(2), 024133 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goda, K.

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics7(2), 102–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fard, A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, D. R. Gossett, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Nomarski serial time-encoded amplified microscopy for high-speed contrast-enhanced imaging of transparent media,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(12), 3387–3392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical Measurement of Cell Membrane Tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorthi, S. S.

Gossett, D. R.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Fard, A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, D. R. Gossett, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Nomarski serial time-encoded amplified microscopy for high-speed contrast-enhanced imaging of transparent media,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(12), 3387–3392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grinbaum, A.

Grover, W. H.

W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, M. Diez-Silva, S. Suresh, J. M. Higgins, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring single-cell density,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(27), 10992–10996 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, V.

V. Gupta, I. Jafferji, M. Garza, V. O. Melnikova, D. K. Hasegawa, R. Pethig, and D. W. Davis, “ApoStream™, a new dielectrophoretic device for antibody independent isolation and recovery of viable cancer cells from blood,” Biomicrofluidics6(2), 024133 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, P. J.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A65(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, T.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A65(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartman, D. J.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasegawa, D. K.

V. Gupta, I. Jafferji, M. Garza, V. O. Melnikova, D. K. Hasegawa, R. Pethig, and D. W. Davis, “ApoStream™, a new dielectrophoretic device for antibody independent isolation and recovery of viable cancer cells from blood,” Biomicrofluidics6(2), 024133 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higgins, J. M.

W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, M. Diez-Silva, S. Suresh, J. M. Higgins, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring single-cell density,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(27), 10992–10996 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, D.

J. P. Revel, P. Hoch, and D. Ho, “Adhesion of culture cells to their substratum,” Exp. Cell Res.84(1), 207–218 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoch, P.

J. P. Revel, P. Hoch, and D. Ho, “Adhesion of culture cells to their substratum,” Exp. Cell Res.84(1), 207–218 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hur, S. C.

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical Measurement of Cell Membrane Tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems,” Opt. Lett.30(10), 1165–1167 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jafferji, I.

V. Gupta, I. Jafferji, M. Garza, V. O. Melnikova, D. K. Hasegawa, R. Pethig, and D. W. Davis, “ApoStream™, a new dielectrophoretic device for antibody independent isolation and recovery of viable cancer cells from blood,” Biomicrofluidics6(2), 024133 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalali, B.

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics7(2), 102–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fard, A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, D. R. Gossett, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Nomarski serial time-encoded amplified microscopy for high-speed contrast-enhanced imaging of transparent media,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(12), 3387–3392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaramillo, A. L.

J. E. Mrema, G. H. Campbell, R. Miranda, A. L. Jaramillo, and K. H. Rieckmann, “Concentration and separation of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum by gradient centrifugation,” Bull. World Health Organ.57(1), 133–138 (1979).
[PubMed]

Joseph, S.

R. Barer and S. Joseph, “Refractometry of living cells,” J. Cell Sci.95, 399–423 (1954).

Kim, S. H.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kolarova, T.

J. Chun, T. A. Zangle, T. Kolarova, R. S. Finn, M. A. Teitell, and J. Reed, “Rapidly quantifying drug sensitivity of dispersed and clumped breast cancer cells by mass profiling,” Analyst (Lond.)137(23), 5495–5498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolatkar, A.

K. G. Phillips, C. R. Velasco, J. Li, A. Kolatkar, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, B. Duggan, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Optical quantification of cellular mass, volume, and density of circulating tumor cells identified in an ovarian cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 72 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. G. Phillips, A. Kolatkar, K. J. Rees, R. Rigg, D. Marrinucci, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Quantification of cellular volume and sub-cellular density fluctuations: comparison of normal peripheral blood cells and circulating tumor cells identified in a breast cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 96 (2012).
[PubMed]

Koppel, H.

P. Whur, H. Koppel, C. M. Urquhart, and D. C. Williams, “Substrate retention of fractured retraction fibres during detachment of trypsinized BHK21 fibroblasts,” J. Cell Sci.24, 265–273 (1977).
[PubMed]

Kuhn, P.

K. G. Phillips, C. R. Velasco, J. Li, A. Kolatkar, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, B. Duggan, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Optical quantification of cellular mass, volume, and density of circulating tumor cells identified in an ovarian cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 72 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. G. Phillips, A. Kolatkar, K. J. Rees, R. Rigg, D. Marrinucci, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Quantification of cellular volume and sub-cellular density fluctuations: comparison of normal peripheral blood cells and circulating tumor cells identified in a breast cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 96 (2012).
[PubMed]

Lacour, B.

G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laposata, M.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical Measurement of Cell Membrane Tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

K. G. Phillips, C. R. Velasco, J. Li, A. Kolatkar, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, B. Duggan, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Optical quantification of cellular mass, volume, and density of circulating tumor cells identified in an ovarian cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 72 (2012).
[PubMed]

Liang, X. J.

X. J. Liang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, T. C. Ayi, and P. H. Yap, “Determining refractive index of single living cell using an integrated microchip,” Sens. Actuator A-Phys.133(2), 349–354 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C. S.

X. J. Liang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, T. C. Ayi, and P. H. Yap, “Determining refractive index of single living cell using an integrated microchip,” Sens. Actuator A-Phys.133(2), 349–354 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. Q.

X. J. Liang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, T. C. Ayi, and P. H. Yap, “Determining refractive index of single living cell using an integrated microchip,” Sens. Actuator A-Phys.133(2), 349–354 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lonappan, C. K.

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Louha, M.

G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lue, N.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luttgen, M.

K. G. Phillips, A. Kolatkar, K. J. Rees, R. Rigg, D. Marrinucci, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Quantification of cellular volume and sub-cellular density fluctuations: comparison of normal peripheral blood cells and circulating tumor cells identified in a breast cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 96 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. G. Phillips, C. R. Velasco, J. Li, A. Kolatkar, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, B. Duggan, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Optical quantification of cellular mass, volume, and density of circulating tumor cells identified in an ovarian cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 72 (2012).
[PubMed]

Magistretti, P.

Mahjoubfar, A.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fard, A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, D. R. Gossett, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Nomarski serial time-encoded amplified microscopy for high-speed contrast-enhanced imaging of transparent media,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(12), 3387–3392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malik, O.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manalis, S. R.

W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, M. Diez-Silva, S. Suresh, J. M. Higgins, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring single-cell density,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(27), 10992–10996 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manley, S.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical Measurement of Cell Membrane Tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maric, D.

D. Maric, I. Maric, and J. L. Barker, “Buoyant density gradient fractionation and flow cytometric analysis of embryonic rat cortical neurons and progenitor cells,” Methods16(3), 247–259 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maric, I.

D. Maric, I. Maric, and J. L. Barker, “Buoyant density gradient fractionation and flow cytometric analysis of embryonic rat cortical neurons and progenitor cells,” Methods16(3), 247–259 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquet, P.

Marrinucci, D.

K. G. Phillips, A. Kolatkar, K. J. Rees, R. Rigg, D. Marrinucci, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Quantification of cellular volume and sub-cellular density fluctuations: comparison of normal peripheral blood cells and circulating tumor cells identified in a breast cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 96 (2012).
[PubMed]

Martin, S. J.

S. J. Martin, J. G. Bradley, and T. G. Cotter, “HL-60 cells induced to differentiate towards neutrophils subsequently die via apoptosis,” Clin. Exp. Immunol.79(3), 448–453 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCarty, O. J. T.

K. G. Phillips, A. Kolatkar, K. J. Rees, R. Rigg, D. Marrinucci, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Quantification of cellular volume and sub-cellular density fluctuations: comparison of normal peripheral blood cells and circulating tumor cells identified in a breast cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 96 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. G. Phillips, C. R. Velasco, J. Li, A. Kolatkar, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, B. Duggan, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Optical quantification of cellular mass, volume, and density of circulating tumor cells identified in an ovarian cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 72 (2012).
[PubMed]

Melnikova, V. O.

V. Gupta, I. Jafferji, M. Garza, V. O. Melnikova, D. K. Hasegawa, R. Pethig, and D. W. Davis, “ApoStream™, a new dielectrophoretic device for antibody independent isolation and recovery of viable cancer cells from blood,” Biomicrofluidics6(2), 024133 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metz, M. H.

Miranda, R.

J. E. Mrema, G. H. Campbell, R. Miranda, A. L. Jaramillo, and K. H. Rieckmann, “Concentration and separation of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum by gradient centrifugation,” Bull. World Health Organ.57(1), 133–138 (1979).
[PubMed]

Morris, R. G.

A. H. Wyllie and R. G. Morris, “Hormone-induced cell death. Purification ad properties of thymocytes undergoing apoptosis after glucocorticoid treatment,” Am. J. Pathol.109(1), 78–87 (1982).
[PubMed]

Mrema, J. E.

J. E. Mrema, G. H. Campbell, R. Miranda, A. L. Jaramillo, and K. H. Rieckmann, “Concentration and separation of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum by gradient centrifugation,” Bull. World Health Organ.57(1), 133–138 (1979).
[PubMed]

Murray, C.

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nugent, K. A.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A65(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paterlini-Bréchot, P.

G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pazzagli, M.

G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pertoft, H.

D. A. Wolff and H. Pertoft, “Separation of HeLa cells by colloidal silica density gradient centrifugation. I. Separation and partial synchrony of mitotic cells,” J. Cell Biol.55(3), 579–585 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pethig, R.

V. Gupta, I. Jafferji, M. Garza, V. O. Melnikova, D. K. Hasegawa, R. Pethig, and D. W. Davis, “ApoStream™, a new dielectrophoretic device for antibody independent isolation and recovery of viable cancer cells from blood,” Biomicrofluidics6(2), 024133 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, K. G.

K. G. Phillips, C. R. Velasco, J. Li, A. Kolatkar, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, B. Duggan, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Optical quantification of cellular mass, volume, and density of circulating tumor cells identified in an ovarian cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 72 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. G. Phillips, A. Kolatkar, K. J. Rees, R. Rigg, D. Marrinucci, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Quantification of cellular volume and sub-cellular density fluctuations: comparison of normal peripheral blood cells and circulating tumor cells identified in a breast cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 96 (2012).
[PubMed]

Popescu, G.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical Measurement of Cell Membrane Tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems,” Opt. Lett.30(10), 1165–1167 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rappaz, B.

Reed, J.

J. Chun, T. A. Zangle, T. Kolarova, R. S. Finn, M. A. Teitell, and J. Reed, “Rapidly quantifying drug sensitivity of dispersed and clumped breast cancer cells by mass profiling,” Analyst (Lond.)137(23), 5495–5498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rees, K. J.

K. G. Phillips, A. Kolatkar, K. J. Rees, R. Rigg, D. Marrinucci, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Quantification of cellular volume and sub-cellular density fluctuations: comparison of normal peripheral blood cells and circulating tumor cells identified in a breast cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 96 (2012).
[PubMed]

Revel, J. P.

J. P. Revel, P. Hoch, and D. Ho, “Adhesion of culture cells to their substratum,” Exp. Cell Res.84(1), 207–218 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rieckmann, K. H.

J. E. Mrema, G. H. Campbell, R. Miranda, A. L. Jaramillo, and K. H. Rieckmann, “Concentration and separation of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum by gradient centrifugation,” Bull. World Health Organ.57(1), 133–138 (1979).
[PubMed]

Rigg, R.

K. G. Phillips, A. Kolatkar, K. J. Rees, R. Rigg, D. Marrinucci, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Quantification of cellular volume and sub-cellular density fluctuations: comparison of normal peripheral blood cells and circulating tumor cells identified in a breast cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 96 (2012).
[PubMed]

Roberts, A.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A65(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romana, S.

G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruffmann, R.

K. Bosslet, R. Ruffmann, P. Altevogt, and V. Schirrmacher, “A rapid method for the isolation of metastasizing tumour cells from internal organs with the help of isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation in Percoll,” Br. J. Cancer44(3), 356–362 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabile, A.

G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sadasivam, J.

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarkhosh, N.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirrmacher, V.

K. Bosslet, R. Ruffmann, P. Altevogt, and V. Schirrmacher, “A rapid method for the isolation of metastasizing tumour cells from internal organs with the help of isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation in Percoll,” Br. J. Cancer44(3), 356–362 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schonbrun, E.

Schütze, K.

G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sitruk, V.

G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sollier, E.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staton, K.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, A. G.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A65(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suresh, S.

W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, M. Diez-Silva, S. Suresh, J. M. Higgins, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring single-cell density,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(27), 10992–10996 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teitell, M. A.

J. Chun, T. A. Zangle, T. Kolarova, R. S. Finn, M. A. Teitell, and J. Reed, “Rapidly quantifying drug sensitivity of dispersed and clumped breast cancer cells by mass profiling,” Analyst (Lond.)137(23), 5495–5498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsia, K. K.

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tycko, D. H.

Urquhart, C. M.

P. Whur, H. Koppel, C. M. Urquhart, and D. C. Williams, “Substrate retention of fractured retraction fibres during detachment of trypsinized BHK21 fibroblasts,” J. Cell Sci.24, 265–273 (1977).
[PubMed]

Uttam, S.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vekemans, M.

G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velasco, C. R.

K. G. Phillips, C. R. Velasco, J. Li, A. Kolatkar, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, B. Duggan, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Optical quantification of cellular mass, volume, and density of circulating tumor cells identified in an ovarian cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 72 (2012).
[PubMed]

Vona, G.

G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whur, P.

P. Whur, H. Koppel, C. M. Urquhart, and D. C. Williams, “Substrate retention of fractured retraction fibres during detachment of trypsinized BHK21 fibroblasts,” J. Cell Sci.24, 265–273 (1977).
[PubMed]

Williams, D. C.

P. Whur, H. Koppel, C. M. Urquhart, and D. C. Williams, “Substrate retention of fractured retraction fibres during detachment of trypsinized BHK21 fibroblasts,” J. Cell Sci.24, 265–273 (1977).
[PubMed]

Wolff, D. A.

D. A. Wolff and H. Pertoft, “Separation of HeLa cells by colloidal silica density gradient centrifugation. I. Separation and partial synchrony of mitotic cells,” J. Cell Biol.55(3), 579–585 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyllie, A. H.

A. H. Wyllie and R. G. Morris, “Hormone-induced cell death. Purification ad properties of thymocytes undergoing apoptosis after glucocorticoid treatment,” Am. J. Pathol.109(1), 78–87 (1982).
[PubMed]

Yap, P. H.

X. J. Liang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, T. C. Ayi, and P. H. Yap, “Determining refractive index of single living cell using an integrated microchip,” Sens. Actuator A-Phys.133(2), 349–354 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yaqoob, Z.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zangle, T. A.

J. Chun, T. A. Zangle, T. Kolarova, R. S. Finn, M. A. Teitell, and J. Reed, “Rapidly quantifying drug sensitivity of dispersed and clumped breast cancer cells by mass profiling,” Analyst (Lond.)137(23), 5495–5498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Pathol. (2)

A. H. Wyllie and R. G. Morris, “Hormone-induced cell death. Purification ad properties of thymocytes undergoing apoptosis after glucocorticoid treatment,” Am. J. Pathol.109(1), 78–87 (1982).
[PubMed]

G. Vona, A. Sabile, M. Louha, V. Sitruk, S. Romana, K. Schütze, F. Capron, D. Franco, M. Pazzagli, M. Vekemans, B. Lacour, C. Bréchot, and P. Paterlini-Bréchot, “Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells : a new method for the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulatingtumor cells,” Am. J. Pathol.156(1), 57–63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

J. Chun, T. A. Zangle, T. Kolarova, R. S. Finn, M. A. Teitell, and J. Reed, “Rapidly quantifying drug sensitivity of dispersed and clumped breast cancer cells by mass profiling,” Analyst (Lond.)137(23), 5495–5498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biomicrofluidics (1)

V. Gupta, I. Jafferji, M. Garza, V. O. Melnikova, D. K. Hasegawa, R. Pethig, and D. W. Davis, “ApoStream™, a new dielectrophoretic device for antibody independent isolation and recovery of viable cancer cells from blood,” Biomicrofluidics6(2), 024133 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer (1)

K. Bosslet, R. Ruffmann, P. Altevogt, and V. Schirrmacher, “A rapid method for the isolation of metastasizing tumour cells from internal organs with the help of isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation in Percoll,” Br. J. Cancer44(3), 356–362 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. World Health Organ. (1)

J. E. Mrema, G. H. Campbell, R. Miranda, A. L. Jaramillo, and K. H. Rieckmann, “Concentration and separation of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum by gradient centrifugation,” Bull. World Health Organ.57(1), 133–138 (1979).
[PubMed]

Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1)

S. J. Martin, J. G. Bradley, and T. G. Cotter, “HL-60 cells induced to differentiate towards neutrophils subsequently die via apoptosis,” Clin. Exp. Immunol.79(3), 448–453 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytometry A (1)

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A65(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Cell Res. (1)

J. P. Revel, P. Hoch, and D. Ho, “Adhesion of culture cells to their substratum,” Exp. Cell Res.84(1), 207–218 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Front Oncol (2)

K. G. Phillips, A. Kolatkar, K. J. Rees, R. Rigg, D. Marrinucci, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Quantification of cellular volume and sub-cellular density fluctuations: comparison of normal peripheral blood cells and circulating tumor cells identified in a breast cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 96 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. G. Phillips, C. R. Velasco, J. Li, A. Kolatkar, M. Luttgen, K. Bethel, B. Duggan, P. Kuhn, and O. J. T. McCarty, “Optical quantification of cellular mass, volume, and density of circulating tumor cells identified in an ovarian cancer patient,” Front Oncol2, 72 (2012).
[PubMed]

Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial Applications (1)

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “3D ultrafast laser scanner,” Proc. SPIE 8611,Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial ApplicationsXIII, 86110N, 86110N-7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell Biol. (1)

D. A. Wolff and H. Pertoft, “Separation of HeLa cells by colloidal silica density gradient centrifugation. I. Separation and partial synchrony of mitotic cells,” J. Cell Biol.55(3), 579–585 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell Sci. (2)

R. Barer and S. Joseph, “Refractometry of living cells,” J. Cell Sci.95, 399–423 (1954).

P. Whur, H. Koppel, C. M. Urquhart, and D. C. Williams, “Substrate retention of fractured retraction fibres during detachment of trypsinized BHK21 fibroblasts,” J. Cell Sci.24, 265–273 (1977).
[PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Methods (1)

D. Maric, I. Maric, and J. L. Barker, “Buoyant density gradient fractionation and flow cytometric analysis of embryonic rat cortical neurons and progenitor cells,” Methods16(3), 247–259 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics7(2), 102–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical Measurement of Cell Membrane Tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

K. Goda, A. Ayazi, D. R. Gossett, J. Sadasivam, C. K. Lonappan, E. Sollier, A. M. Fard, S. C. Hur, J. Adam, C. Murray, C. Wang, N. Brackbill, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput single-microparticle imaging flow analyzer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(29), 11630–11635 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, M. Diez-Silva, S. Suresh, J. M. Higgins, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring single-cell density,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(27), 10992–10996 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci Rep (1)

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuator A-Phys. (1)

X. J. Liang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, T. C. Ayi, and P. H. Yap, “Determining refractive index of single living cell using an integrated microchip,” Sens. Actuator A-Phys.133(2), 349–354 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Di Caprio, D. Schaak, and E. F. Schonbrun, “Hyperspectral Microscopy of Flowing Cells,” in Imaging and Applied Optics, J. Christou and D. Miller, eds., OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper IM4E.3.

Broad Institute Imaging Platform, “CellProfiler: cell image analysis software,” http://www.cellprofiler.org/ .

O. Boyraz, J. Kim, M. N. Islam, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Broadband, high-brightness 10-Gbit/s supercontinuum source for A/D conversion,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Francisco, 2000), pp. 489–490.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup of Coherent-STEAM; A Coherent-STEAM setup is formed by combination of STEAM and a Michelson interferometer. A pair of diffraction gratings generates a 1D rainbow with different wavelength components imaging different points on the cells flowing in a microfluidic channel. A pellicle beam-splitter and two identical long working-distance objective lenses are used to form the interferometer for phase measurement. Back apertures of objective lenses are fully illuminated with each wavelength component of the broadband mode-locked laser pulses to ensure diffraction-limited resolution. An amplified time-stretch system chirps, stretches, and amplifies each pulse, so that different wavelength components reach the photodetector serially. A very shallow microfluidic channel with hydrodynamic focusing is designed and fabricated to align cells within the focal depth of the system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Digital signal processing of Coherent-STEAM; (a) The photodetector output signal is digitized and recorded by an ADC. This signal shows sequential laser pulses. (b) Each pulse is saved separately as a frame for further processing. (c) The analytic form of high-frequency components of each pulse is generated using Hilbert transformation, and the phase component of this analytic form is extracted. (d) An unwrapping algorithm is used to fix unrealistic phase jumps, and the result shows an approximately linear phase increase. (e) If the phase component of the interferometer fringe frequency is removed, the phase induced by cells in optical pulse can be seen. (f) Many of these line images generated from subsequent frames are used to form a spatial map of optical path difference in two dimensions, which is used for cell characterization.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calibration with NIST traceable beads; Polystyrene beads with a NIST traceable diameter of 5 μm are used to calibrate the image processing algorithm for size measurements. (a) A custom designed image processing algorithm in CellProfiler software is used to find the beads in spatial map of optical path difference and measure the diameter. (b) Histogram of bead diameters demonstrates the measured size distribution has an expected mean of 5 µm and a standard deviation within the range of optical resolution limit. (c) Since all the beads are made out of the same material, the coefficient of variation for refractive indices (0.014/1.57 = 0.89%) is much smaller than that of diameters (0.405/5.06 = 8.00%).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cell classification based on size and protein concentration measurement by Coherent-STEAM; Images of (a) SW480 and (b) OTII cells taken by Coherent-STEAM setup show that they are spherical. (c) Scattering plot of cell protein concentration versus diameter is shown for OTII (blue) and SW480 (green) cells. (d) Comparison of the ROC curves of size measurement only (purple line) to that of simultaneous size and protein concentration measurement (orange line) shows significant improvement in sensitivity.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δφ(t)=unwrap(arg( I BP (t)+j I ^ BP (t)))2π f m t φ 0
OPD(x,y)= λ(x) 2π Δφ(x,y)
OPD(x,y)=2Δ n cell t(x,y)
Δ n cell = cell OPD(x,y)dxdy 2V

Metrics