Abstract

We present a miniature endomicroscope that combines large field-of-view (FOV) (1.15 mm) reflectance imaging with high-resolution (~0.5 μm) multiphoton intrinsic fluorescence imaging. We acquired in vivo and ex vivo images of unstained normal and tumor-laden tissues by using the large-FOV mode to navigate to the site of interest and then switching to the high-resolution modality to resolve cellular details.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  27. I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. E. L. Jackson, N. Willis, K. Mercer, R. T. Bronson, D. Crowley, R. Montoya, T. Jacks, and D. A. Tuveson, “Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression using conditional expression of oncogenic K-ras,” Genes Dev.15(24), 3243–3248 (2001).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Xi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhang, K. Murari, M. J. Li, and X. Li, “Integrated multimodal endomicroscopy platform for simultaneous en face optical coherence and two-photon fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 362–364 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Landau, C. Liang, R. T. Kester, T. S. Tkaczyk, and M. R. Descour, “Design and evaluation of an ultra-slim objective for in-vivo deep optical biopsy,” Opt. Express18(5), 4758–4775 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, M. J. Cobb, and X. D. Li, “Scanning fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy with miniature aspherical compound lens and multimode fiber collector,” Opt. Lett.34(7), 953–955 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Liu, T. Xie, I. V. Tomov, J. Su, L. Yu, J. Zhang, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Rotational multiphoton endoscopy with a 1 μm fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett.34(15), 2249–2251 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo fluorescence imaging with high-resolution microlenses,” Nat. Methods6(7), 511–512 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. Lee, M. Rubin, F. Maxfield, W. Webb, and S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 96839 (2009).

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

R. T. Kester, T. S. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, T. Christenson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High numerical aperture microendoscope objective for a fiber confocal reflectance microscope,” Opt. Express15(5), 2409–2420 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich and M. F. Neurath, “Endomicroscopy is born--do we still need the pathologist?” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(1), 150–153 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. K. Xie, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional nonlinear optical endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 040501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (4)

2003 (3)

D. Bird and M. Gu, “Two-photon fluorescence endoscopy with a micro-optic scanning head,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1552–1554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

E. L. Jackson, N. Willis, K. Mercer, R. T. Bronson, D. Crowley, R. Montoya, T. Jacks, and D. A. Tuveson, “Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression using conditional expression of oncogenic K-ras,” Genes Dev.15(24), 3243–3248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

M. Gu, J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, “Optimization of axial resolution in confocal imaging using annular pupils,” Optik (Stuttg.)93, 87–90 (1993).

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. Minsky, “Memoir on inventing the confocal scanning microscope,” Scanning10(4), 128–138 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. R. Sheppard, “The use of lenses with annular aperture in scanning optical microscopy,” Optik (Stuttg.)48, 329–334 (1977).

Akhtar, M.

S. S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. Lee, M. Rubin, F. Maxfield, W. Webb, and S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 96839 (2009).

Allen, J.

Anderson, E. P.

Bao, H. C.

Barretto, R. P.

R. P. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo fluorescence imaging with high-resolution microlenses,” Nat. Methods6(7), 511–512 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaurepaire, E.

Bentley, J.

D. G. Ouzounov, D. R. Rivera, W. W. Webb, J. Bentley, and C. Xu, “Miniature varifocal objective lens for endomicroscopy,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Bird, D.

Bronson, R. T.

E. L. Jackson, N. Willis, K. Mercer, R. T. Bronson, D. Crowley, R. Montoya, T. Jacks, and D. A. Tuveson, “Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression using conditional expression of oncogenic K-ras,” Genes Dev.15(24), 3243–3248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, C. M.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, K.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Chidley, M.

Christenson, T.

Christie, R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, E.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cobb, M. J.

Cocker, E. D.

Cranfield, C.

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. K. Xie, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional nonlinear optical endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 040501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowley, D.

E. L. Jackson, N. Willis, K. Mercer, R. T. Bronson, D. Crowley, R. Montoya, T. Jacks, and D. A. Tuveson, “Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression using conditional expression of oncogenic K-ras,” Genes Dev.15(24), 3243–3248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Descour, M.

Descour, M. R.

Engelbrecht, C. J.

Flanders, J.

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flusberg, B. A.

Follen, M.

Fu, L.

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. K. Xie, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional nonlinear optical endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 040501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukumura, D.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galle, P. R.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.15(4), 715–731 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

Goetz, M.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.15(4), 715–731 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

H. C. Bao, J. Allen, R. Pattie, R. Vance, and M. Gu, “Fast handheld two-photon fluorescence microendoscope with a 475 μm x 475 μm field of view for in vivo imaging,” Opt. Lett.33(12), 1333–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. K. Xie, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional nonlinear optical endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 040501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bird and M. Gu, “Two-photon fluorescence endoscopy with a micro-optic scanning head,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1552–1554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gu, J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, “Optimization of axial resolution in confocal imaging using annular pupils,” Optik (Stuttg.)93, 87–90 (1993).

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helmchen, F.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hume, K. R.

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, K. E.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyman, B. T.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacks, T.

E. L. Jackson, N. Willis, K. Mercer, R. T. Bronson, D. Crowley, R. Montoya, T. Jacks, and D. A. Tuveson, “Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression using conditional expression of oncogenic K-ras,” Genes Dev.15(24), 3243–3248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, E. L.

E. L. Jackson, N. Willis, K. Mercer, R. T. Bronson, D. Crowley, R. Montoya, T. Jacks, and D. A. Tuveson, “Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression using conditional expression of oncogenic K-ras,” Genes Dev.15(24), 3243–3248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, A.

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. K. Xie, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional nonlinear optical endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 040501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnston, R. S.

Jung, J. C.

Kester, R. T.

Kiesslich, R.

R. Kiesslich and M. F. Neurath, “Endomicroscopy is born--do we still need the pathologist?” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(1), 150–153 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.15(4), 715–731 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobat, D.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

König, K.

Kucherlapati, R.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landau, S. M.

Le Harzic, R.

Lee, M.

S. S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. Lee, M. Rubin, F. Maxfield, W. Webb, and S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 96839 (2009).

Li, M. J.

Li, X.

Li, X. D.

Liang, C.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G. J.

MacDonald, D. J.

Maxfield, F.

S. S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. Lee, M. Rubin, F. Maxfield, W. Webb, and S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 96839 (2009).

Mercer, K.

E. L. Jackson, N. Willis, K. Mercer, R. T. Bronson, D. Crowley, R. Montoya, T. Jacks, and D. A. Tuveson, “Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression using conditional expression of oncogenic K-ras,” Genes Dev.15(24), 3243–3248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mertz, J.

Messerschmidt, B.

Minsky, M.

M. Minsky, “Memoir on inventing the confocal scanning microscope,” Scanning10(4), 128–138 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mizoguchi, A.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montoya, R.

E. L. Jackson, N. Willis, K. Mercer, R. T. Bronson, D. Crowley, R. Montoya, T. Jacks, and D. A. Tuveson, “Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression using conditional expression of oncogenic K-ras,” Genes Dev.15(24), 3243–3248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukherjee, S. S.

S. S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. Lee, M. Rubin, F. Maxfield, W. Webb, and S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 96839 (2009).

Murari, K.

Myaing, M. T.

Neurath, M. F.

R. Kiesslich and M. F. Neurath, “Endomicroscopy is born--do we still need the pathologist?” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(1), 150–153 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.15(4), 715–731 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, C. K.

S. S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. Lee, M. Rubin, F. Maxfield, W. Webb, and S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 96839 (2009).

Nikitin, A. Y.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, D. R. Rivera, W. W. Webb, J. Bentley, and C. Xu, “Miniature varifocal objective lens for endomicroscopy,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Pattie, R.

Pavlova, I.

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perner, S.

S. S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. Lee, M. Rubin, F. Maxfield, W. Webb, and S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 96839 (2009).

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

Riemann, I.

Rivera, D. R.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, D. R. Rivera, W. W. Webb, J. Bentley, and C. Xu, “Miniature varifocal objective lens for endomicroscopy,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Rubin, M.

S. S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. Lee, M. Rubin, F. Maxfield, W. Webb, and S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 96839 (2009).

Scherr, S.

S. S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. Lee, M. Rubin, F. Maxfield, W. Webb, and S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 96839 (2009).

Schnitzer, M. J.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibel, E. J.

Sheppard, J. R.

M. Gu, J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, “Optimization of axial resolution in confocal imaging using annular pupils,” Optik (Stuttg.)93, 87–90 (1993).

J. R. Sheppard, “The use of lenses with annular aperture in scanning optical microscopy,” Optik (Stuttg.)48, 329–334 (1977).

Smithwick, Q. Y.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med.30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southard, T. L.

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J.

Sung, K. B.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tkaczyk, T. S.

Tomov, I. V.

Tromberg, B. J.

Tuveson, D. A.

E. L. Jackson, N. Willis, K. Mercer, R. T. Bronson, D. Crowley, R. Montoya, T. Jacks, and D. A. Tuveson, “Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression using conditional expression of oncogenic K-ras,” Genes Dev.15(24), 3243–3248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vance, R.

Vieth, M.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.15(4), 715–731 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W.

S. S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. Lee, M. Rubin, F. Maxfield, W. Webb, and S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 96839 (2009).

Webb, W. W.

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, D. R. Rivera, W. W. Webb, J. Bentley, and C. Xu, “Miniature varifocal objective lens for endomicroscopy,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Weinigel, M.

Weiss, R. S.

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willis, N.

E. L. Jackson, N. Willis, K. Mercer, R. T. Bronson, D. Crowley, R. Montoya, T. Jacks, and D. A. Tuveson, “Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression using conditional expression of oncogenic K-ras,” Genes Dev.15(24), 3243–3248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. C.

Wysock, J. S.

S. S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. Lee, M. Rubin, F. Maxfield, W. Webb, and S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 96839 (2009).

Xi, J. F.

Xie, H. K.

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. K. Xie, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional nonlinear optical endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 040501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, T.

Xu, C.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, D. R. Rivera, W. W. Webb, J. Bentley, and C. Xu, “Miniature varifocal objective lens for endomicroscopy,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Yamashita, H.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazinski, S. A.

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

Yun, S. H.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, H.

M. Gu, J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, “Optimization of axial resolution in confocal imaging using annular pupils,” Optik (Stuttg.)93, 87–90 (1993).

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

R. Kiesslich and M. F. Neurath, “Endomicroscopy is born--do we still need the pathologist?” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(1), 150–153 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. (1)

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.15(4), 715–731 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genes Dev. (1)

E. L. Jackson, N. Willis, K. Mercer, R. T. Bronson, D. Crowley, R. Montoya, T. Jacks, and D. A. Tuveson, “Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression using conditional expression of oncogenic K-ras,” Genes Dev.15(24), 3243–3248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. K. Xie, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional nonlinear optical endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 040501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med.30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (3)

R. P. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo fluorescence imaging with high-resolution microlenses,” Nat. Methods6(7), 511–512 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (8)

J. F. Xi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhang, K. Murari, M. J. Li, and X. Li, “Integrated multimodal endomicroscopy platform for simultaneous en face optical coherence and two-photon fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 362–364 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, M. J. Cobb, and X. D. Li, “Scanning fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy with miniature aspherical compound lens and multimode fiber collector,” Opt. Lett.34(7), 953–955 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Liu, T. Xie, I. V. Tomov, J. Su, L. Yu, J. Zhang, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Rotational multiphoton endoscopy with a 1 μm fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett.34(15), 2249–2251 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Bao, J. Allen, R. Pattie, R. Vance, and M. Gu, “Fast handheld two-photon fluorescence microendoscope with a 475 μm x 475 μm field of view for in vivo imaging,” Opt. Lett.33(12), 1333–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Jung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo brain imaging using a portable 3.9 gram two-photon fluorescence microendoscope,” Opt. Lett.30(17), 2272–2274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. D. Li, “Fiber-optic scanning two-photon fluorescence endoscope,” Opt. Lett.31(8), 1076–1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bird and M. Gu, “Two-photon fluorescence endoscopy with a micro-optic scanning head,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1552–1554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, D. R. Rivera, W. W. Webb, J. Bentley, and C. Xu, “Miniature varifocal objective lens for endomicroscopy,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Optik (Stuttg.) (2)

M. Gu, J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, “Optimization of axial resolution in confocal imaging using annular pupils,” Optik (Stuttg.)93, 87–90 (1993).

J. R. Sheppard, “The use of lenses with annular aperture in scanning optical microscopy,” Optik (Stuttg.)48, 329–334 (1977).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. Lee, M. Rubin, F. Maxfield, W. Webb, and S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 96839 (2009).

Scanning (1)

M. Minsky, “Memoir on inventing the confocal scanning microscope,” Scanning10(4), 128–138 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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