Abstract

The feasibility of terahertz (THz) imaging at frozen temperature for the clinical application of oral cancer detection was investigated by analyzing seven oral tissues resected from four patients. The size, shape, and internal position of the oral cancers were mapped by THz radiation in the frequency range of 0.2–1.2 THz at −20 °C and 20 °C, and compared with those identified in the histological examination. THz imaging of frozen tissue was found to offer greater sensitivity in distinguishing cancerous areas from surrounding tissue and a larger THz-frequency spectral difference between the oral cancer and normal mucosa than room-temperature THz imaging. A cancerous tumor hidden inside tissue was also detected using this method by observing the THz temporal domain waveform. The histological analysis showed that these findings resulted from cell structure deformations involving the invasion of oral tumor and neoplastic transformations of mucous cells. Therefore, a cytological approach using THz radiation at a frozen temperature might be applied to detect oral cancer.

© 2013 OSA

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  6. S. Ram and C. H. Siar, “Chemiluminescence as a diagnostic aid in the detection of oral cancer and potentially malignant epithelial lesions,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.34(5), 521–527 (2005).
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  7. E. S. Oh and D. M. Laskin, “Efficacy of the vizilite system in the identification of oral lesions,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.65(3), 424–426 (2007).
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  8. D. C. De Veld, M. J. Witjes, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol.41(2), 117–131 (2005).
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  14. S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
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  20. R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. E. Cole, R. M. Woodward, D. A. Crawley, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of human skin in vivo,” Proc. SPIE4276, 1–10 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. B. Ji, E. S. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Son, and T.-I. Jeon, “A miniaturized fiber-coupled terahertz endoscope system,” Opt. Express17(19), 17082–17087 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Nishizawa, T. Sasaki, K. Suto, T. Yamada, T. Tanabe, T. Tanno, T. Sawai, and Y. Miura, “THz imaging of nucleobases and cancerous tissue using a GaP THz-wave generator,” Opt. Commun.244(1-6), 469–474 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. G. Fitzpatrick, A. N. Neuman, D. M. Cohen, and I. Bhattacharyya, “The clinical and histologic presentation of gingival squamous cell carcinoma: a study of 519 cases,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol114(4), 509–515 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. P. Shah and Z. Gil, “Current concepts in management of oral cancer--surgery,” Oral Oncol.45(4-5), 394–401 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. W. Chan and I. R. Titze, “Effect of postmortem changes and freezing on the viscoelastic properties of vocal fold tissues,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.31(4), 482–491 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Geerligs, G. W. Peters, P. A. Ackermans, C. W. Oomens, and F. P. Baaijens, “Linear viscoelastic behavior of subcutaneous adipose tissue,” Biorheology45(6), 677–688 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  30. G. A. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. W. Kim, G. Lee, E. Lee, J. Y. Ahn, J. H. Park, and J. M. Lim, “Effectiveness of slow freezing and vitrification for long-term preservation of mouse ovarian tissue,” Theriogenology75(6), 1045–1051 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. Z. Higgins, D. K. Cullen, M. C. LaPlaca, and J. O. Karlsson, “Effects of freezing profile parameters on the survival of cryopreserved rat embryonic neural cells,” J. Neurosci. Methods201(1), 9–16 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. Szarko, K. Muldrew, and J. E. Bertram, “Freeze-thaw treatment effects on the dynamic mechanical properties of articular cartilage,” BMC Musculoskelet. Disord.11(1), 231 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. P. N. Nonaka, N. Campillo, J. J. Uriarte, E. Garreta, E. Melo, L. V. de Oliveira, D. Navajas, and R. Farré, “Effects of freezing/thawing on the mechanical properties of decellularized lungs,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A (to be published).
    [PubMed]

2013

J.-H. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology24(21), 214001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, G.-E. Nam, K.-S. Cho, and J.-H. Son, “In vivo dual-modality terahertz/magnetic resonance imaging using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a dual contrast agent,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.2(1), 93–98 (2012).

I. Ganly, S. Patel, and J. Shah, “Early stage squamous cell cancer of the oral tongue--clinicopathologic features affecting outcome,” Cancer118(1), 101–111 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Fitzpatrick, A. N. Neuman, D. M. Cohen, and I. Bhattacharyya, “The clinical and histologic presentation of gingival squamous cell carcinoma: a study of 519 cases,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol114(4), 509–515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. W. Kim, G. Lee, E. Lee, J. Y. Ahn, J. H. Park, and J. M. Lim, “Effectiveness of slow freezing and vitrification for long-term preservation of mouse ovarian tissue,” Theriogenology75(6), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Z. Higgins, D. K. Cullen, M. C. LaPlaca, and J. O. Karlsson, “Effects of freezing profile parameters on the survival of cryopreserved rat embryonic neural cells,” J. Neurosci. Methods201(1), 9–16 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Oh, J. H. Choi, I. H. Maeng, J. Y. Park, K. G. Lee, Y.-M. Huh, J.-S. Suh, S. J. Haam, and J.-H. Son, “Molecular imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Express19(5), 4009–4016 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. Szarko, K. Muldrew, and J. E. Bertram, “Freeze-thaw treatment effects on the dynamic mechanical properties of articular cartilage,” BMC Musculoskelet. Disord.11(1), 231 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. P. Shah and Z. Gil, “Current concepts in management of oral cancer--surgery,” Oral Oncol.45(4-5), 394–401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Warnakulasuriya, “Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer,” Oral Oncol.45(4-5), 309–316 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Petersen, “Oral cancer prevention and control--the approach of the World Health Organization,” Oral Oncol.45(4-5), 454–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Oh, J. Y. Kang, I. H. Maeng, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, S. J. Haam, and J.-H. Son, “Nanoparticle-enabled terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis,” Opt. Express17(5), 3469–3475 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Ji, E. S. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Son, and T.-I. Jeon, “A miniaturized fiber-coupled terahertz endoscope system,” Opt. Express17(19), 17082–17087 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M. Geerligs, G. W. Peters, P. A. Ackermans, C. W. Oomens, and F. P. Baaijens, “Linear viscoelastic behavior of subcutaneous adipose tissue,” Biorheology45(6), 677–688 (2008).
[PubMed]

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

E. S. Oh and D. M. Laskin, “Efficacy of the vizilite system in the identification of oral lesions,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.65(3), 424–426 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.39(17), 301–310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. C. De Veld, M. J. Witjes, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol.41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Scott, E. A. Grunfeld, and M. McGurk, “The idiosyncratic relationship between diagnostic delay and stage of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Oral Oncol.41(4), 396–403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ram and C. H. Siar, “Chemiluminescence as a diagnostic aid in the detection of oral cancer and potentially malignant epithelial lesions,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.34(5), 521–527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishizawa, T. Sasaki, K. Suto, T. Yamada, T. Tanabe, T. Tanno, T. Sawai, and Y. Miura, “THz imaging of nucleobases and cancerous tissue using a GaP THz-wave generator,” Opt. Commun.244(1-6), 469–474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

R. W. Chan and I. R. Titze, “Effect of postmortem changes and freezing on the viscoelastic properties of vocal fold tissues,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.31(4), 482–491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Globus, D. L. Woolard, T. Khromova, T. W. Crowe, M. Bykhovskaia, B. L. Gelmont, J. Hesler, and A. C. Samuels, “THz-spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys.29(2/3), 89–100 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

B. W. Neville and T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” CA Cancer J. Clin.52(4), 195–215 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

B. E. Cole, R. M. Woodward, D. A. Crawley, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of human skin in vivo,” Proc. SPIE4276, 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ackermans, P. A.

M. Geerligs, G. W. Peters, P. A. Ackermans, C. W. Oomens, and F. P. Baaijens, “Linear viscoelastic behavior of subcutaneous adipose tissue,” Biorheology45(6), 677–688 (2008).
[PubMed]

Ahn, J. Y.

G. A. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. W. Kim, G. Lee, E. Lee, J. Y. Ahn, J. H. Park, and J. M. Lim, “Effectiveness of slow freezing and vitrification for long-term preservation of mouse ovarian tissue,” Theriogenology75(6), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahuja, A. T.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Cole, R. M. Woodward, D. A. Crawley, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of human skin in vivo,” Proc. SPIE4276, 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baaijens, F. P.

M. Geerligs, G. W. Peters, P. A. Ackermans, C. W. Oomens, and F. P. Baaijens, “Linear viscoelastic behavior of subcutaneous adipose tissue,” Biorheology45(6), 677–688 (2008).
[PubMed]

Bertram, J. E.

M. Szarko, K. Muldrew, and J. E. Bertram, “Freeze-thaw treatment effects on the dynamic mechanical properties of articular cartilage,” BMC Musculoskelet. Disord.11(1), 231 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhattacharyya, I.

S. G. Fitzpatrick, A. N. Neuman, D. M. Cohen, and I. Bhattacharyya, “The clinical and histologic presentation of gingival squamous cell carcinoma: a study of 519 cases,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol114(4), 509–515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bykhovskaia, M.

T. R. Globus, D. L. Woolard, T. Khromova, T. W. Crowe, M. Bykhovskaia, B. L. Gelmont, J. Hesler, and A. C. Samuels, “THz-spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys.29(2/3), 89–100 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campillo, N.

P. N. Nonaka, N. Campillo, J. J. Uriarte, E. Garreta, E. Melo, L. V. de Oliveira, D. Navajas, and R. Farré, “Effects of freezing/thawing on the mechanical properties of decellularized lungs,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A (to be published).
[PubMed]

Chan, R. W.

R. W. Chan and I. R. Titze, “Effect of postmortem changes and freezing on the viscoelastic properties of vocal fold tissues,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.31(4), 482–491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, K.-S.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, G.-E. Nam, K.-S. Cho, and J.-H. Son, “In vivo dual-modality terahertz/magnetic resonance imaging using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a dual contrast agent,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.2(1), 93–98 (2012).

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. J.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, G.-E. Nam, K.-S. Cho, and J.-H. Son, “In vivo dual-modality terahertz/magnetic resonance imaging using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a dual contrast agent,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.2(1), 93–98 (2012).

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. H.

Choi, J. W.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, D. M.

S. G. Fitzpatrick, A. N. Neuman, D. M. Cohen, and I. Bhattacharyya, “The clinical and histologic presentation of gingival squamous cell carcinoma: a study of 519 cases,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol114(4), 509–515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Cole, R. M. Woodward, D. A. Crawley, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of human skin in vivo,” Proc. SPIE4276, 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crawley, D. A.

B. E. Cole, R. M. Woodward, D. A. Crawley, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of human skin in vivo,” Proc. SPIE4276, 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crowe, T. W.

T. R. Globus, D. L. Woolard, T. Khromova, T. W. Crowe, M. Bykhovskaia, B. L. Gelmont, J. Hesler, and A. C. Samuels, “THz-spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys.29(2/3), 89–100 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cullen, D. K.

A. Z. Higgins, D. K. Cullen, M. C. LaPlaca, and J. O. Karlsson, “Effects of freezing profile parameters on the survival of cryopreserved rat embryonic neural cells,” J. Neurosci. Methods201(1), 9–16 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, T. A.

B. W. Neville and T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” CA Cancer J. Clin.52(4), 195–215 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Oliveira, L. V.

P. N. Nonaka, N. Campillo, J. J. Uriarte, E. Garreta, E. Melo, L. V. de Oliveira, D. Navajas, and R. Farré, “Effects of freezing/thawing on the mechanical properties of decellularized lungs,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A (to be published).
[PubMed]

De Veld, D. C.

D. C. De Veld, M. J. Witjes, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol.41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Naggar, A. K.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farré, R.

P. N. Nonaka, N. Campillo, J. J. Uriarte, E. Garreta, E. Melo, L. V. de Oliveira, D. Navajas, and R. Farré, “Effects of freezing/thawing on the mechanical properties of decellularized lungs,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A (to be published).
[PubMed]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzpatrick, S. G.

S. G. Fitzpatrick, A. N. Neuman, D. M. Cohen, and I. Bhattacharyya, “The clinical and histologic presentation of gingival squamous cell carcinoma: a study of 519 cases,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol114(4), 509–515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganly, I.

I. Ganly, S. Patel, and J. Shah, “Early stage squamous cell cancer of the oral tongue--clinicopathologic features affecting outcome,” Cancer118(1), 101–111 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garreta, E.

P. N. Nonaka, N. Campillo, J. J. Uriarte, E. Garreta, E. Melo, L. V. de Oliveira, D. Navajas, and R. Farré, “Effects of freezing/thawing on the mechanical properties of decellularized lungs,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A (to be published).
[PubMed]

Geerligs, M.

M. Geerligs, G. W. Peters, P. A. Ackermans, C. W. Oomens, and F. P. Baaijens, “Linear viscoelastic behavior of subcutaneous adipose tissue,” Biorheology45(6), 677–688 (2008).
[PubMed]

Gelmont, B. L.

T. R. Globus, D. L. Woolard, T. Khromova, T. W. Crowe, M. Bykhovskaia, B. L. Gelmont, J. Hesler, and A. C. Samuels, “THz-spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys.29(2/3), 89–100 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gil, Z.

J. P. Shah and Z. Gil, “Current concepts in management of oral cancer--surgery,” Oral Oncol.45(4-5), 394–401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A. M.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Globus, T. R.

T. R. Globus, D. L. Woolard, T. Khromova, T. W. Crowe, M. Bykhovskaia, B. L. Gelmont, J. Hesler, and A. C. Samuels, “THz-spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys.29(2/3), 89–100 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grunfeld, E. A.

S. E. Scott, E. A. Grunfeld, and M. McGurk, “The idiosyncratic relationship between diagnostic delay and stage of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Oral Oncol.41(4), 396–403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haam, S. J.

Hesler, J.

T. R. Globus, D. L. Woolard, T. Khromova, T. W. Crowe, M. Bykhovskaia, B. L. Gelmont, J. Hesler, and A. C. Samuels, “THz-spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys.29(2/3), 89–100 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higgins, A. Z.

A. Z. Higgins, D. K. Cullen, M. C. LaPlaca, and J. O. Karlsson, “Effects of freezing profile parameters on the survival of cryopreserved rat embryonic neural cells,” J. Neurosci. Methods201(1), 9–16 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huh, Y.-M.

Jeon, T.-I.

Ji, Y. B.

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. Y.

Karlsson, J. O.

A. Z. Higgins, D. K. Cullen, M. C. LaPlaca, and J. O. Karlsson, “Effects of freezing profile parameters on the survival of cryopreserved rat embryonic neural cells,” J. Neurosci. Methods201(1), 9–16 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khromova, T.

T. R. Globus, D. L. Woolard, T. Khromova, T. W. Crowe, M. Bykhovskaia, B. L. Gelmont, J. Hesler, and A. C. Samuels, “THz-spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys.29(2/3), 89–100 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, G. A.

G. A. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. W. Kim, G. Lee, E. Lee, J. Y. Ahn, J. H. Park, and J. M. Lim, “Effectiveness of slow freezing and vitrification for long-term preservation of mouse ovarian tissue,” Theriogenology75(6), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. Y.

G. A. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. W. Kim, G. Lee, E. Lee, J. Y. Ahn, J. H. Park, and J. M. Lim, “Effectiveness of slow freezing and vitrification for long-term preservation of mouse ovarian tissue,” Theriogenology75(6), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

G. A. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. W. Kim, G. Lee, E. Lee, J. Y. Ahn, J. H. Park, and J. M. Lim, “Effectiveness of slow freezing and vitrification for long-term preservation of mouse ovarian tissue,” Theriogenology75(6), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-R.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

Kurachi, C.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaPlaca, M. C.

A. Z. Higgins, D. K. Cullen, M. C. LaPlaca, and J. O. Karlsson, “Effects of freezing profile parameters on the survival of cryopreserved rat embryonic neural cells,” J. Neurosci. Methods201(1), 9–16 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laskin, D. M.

E. S. Oh and D. M. Laskin, “Efficacy of the vizilite system in the identification of oral lesions,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.65(3), 424–426 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, E.

G. A. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. W. Kim, G. Lee, E. Lee, J. Y. Ahn, J. H. Park, and J. M. Lim, “Effectiveness of slow freezing and vitrification for long-term preservation of mouse ovarian tissue,” Theriogenology75(6), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, E. S.

Lee, G.

G. A. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. W. Kim, G. Lee, E. Lee, J. Y. Ahn, J. H. Park, and J. M. Lim, “Effectiveness of slow freezing and vitrification for long-term preservation of mouse ovarian tissue,” Theriogenology75(6), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. G.

Lim, J. M.

G. A. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. W. Kim, G. Lee, E. Lee, J. Y. Ahn, J. H. Park, and J. M. Lim, “Effectiveness of slow freezing and vitrification for long-term preservation of mouse ovarian tissue,” Theriogenology75(6), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeng, I. H.

McGurk, M.

S. E. Scott, E. A. Grunfeld, and M. McGurk, “The idiosyncratic relationship between diagnostic delay and stage of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Oral Oncol.41(4), 396–403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melo, E.

P. N. Nonaka, N. Campillo, J. J. Uriarte, E. Garreta, E. Melo, L. V. de Oliveira, D. Navajas, and R. Farré, “Effects of freezing/thawing on the mechanical properties of decellularized lungs,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A (to be published).
[PubMed]

Mickan, S. P.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, Y.

J. Nishizawa, T. Sasaki, K. Suto, T. Yamada, T. Tanabe, T. Tanno, T. Sawai, and Y. Miura, “THz imaging of nucleobases and cancerous tissue using a GaP THz-wave generator,” Opt. Commun.244(1-6), 469–474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muldrew, K.

M. Szarko, K. Muldrew, and J. E. Bertram, “Freeze-thaw treatment effects on the dynamic mechanical properties of articular cartilage,” BMC Musculoskelet. Disord.11(1), 231 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, G.-E.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, G.-E. Nam, K.-S. Cho, and J.-H. Son, “In vivo dual-modality terahertz/magnetic resonance imaging using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a dual contrast agent,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.2(1), 93–98 (2012).

Navajas, D.

P. N. Nonaka, N. Campillo, J. J. Uriarte, E. Garreta, E. Melo, L. V. de Oliveira, D. Navajas, and R. Farré, “Effects of freezing/thawing on the mechanical properties of decellularized lungs,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A (to be published).
[PubMed]

Neuman, A. N.

S. G. Fitzpatrick, A. N. Neuman, D. M. Cohen, and I. Bhattacharyya, “The clinical and histologic presentation of gingival squamous cell carcinoma: a study of 519 cases,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol114(4), 509–515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neville, B. W.

B. W. Neville and T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” CA Cancer J. Clin.52(4), 195–215 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, B. W.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, J.

J. Nishizawa, T. Sasaki, K. Suto, T. Yamada, T. Tanabe, T. Tanno, T. Sawai, and Y. Miura, “THz imaging of nucleobases and cancerous tissue using a GaP THz-wave generator,” Opt. Commun.244(1-6), 469–474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nonaka, P. N.

P. N. Nonaka, N. Campillo, J. J. Uriarte, E. Garreta, E. Melo, L. V. de Oliveira, D. Navajas, and R. Farré, “Effects of freezing/thawing on the mechanical properties of decellularized lungs,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A (to be published).
[PubMed]

Oh, E. S.

E. S. Oh and D. M. Laskin, “Efficacy of the vizilite system in the identification of oral lesions,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.65(3), 424–426 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S. J.

Oomens, C. W.

M. Geerligs, G. W. Peters, P. A. Ackermans, C. W. Oomens, and F. P. Baaijens, “Linear viscoelastic behavior of subcutaneous adipose tissue,” Biorheology45(6), 677–688 (2008).
[PubMed]

Park, J. H.

G. A. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. W. Kim, G. Lee, E. Lee, J. Y. Ahn, J. H. Park, and J. M. Lim, “Effectiveness of slow freezing and vitrification for long-term preservation of mouse ovarian tissue,” Theriogenology75(6), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J. Y.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, G.-E. Nam, K.-S. Cho, and J.-H. Son, “In vivo dual-modality terahertz/magnetic resonance imaging using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a dual contrast agent,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.2(1), 93–98 (2012).

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oh, J. H. Choi, I. H. Maeng, J. Y. Park, K. G. Lee, Y.-M. Huh, J.-S. Suh, S. J. Haam, and J.-H. Son, “Molecular imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Express19(5), 4009–4016 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, S.

I. Ganly, S. Patel, and J. Shah, “Early stage squamous cell cancer of the oral tongue--clinicopathologic features affecting outcome,” Cancer118(1), 101–111 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pepper, M.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Cole, R. M. Woodward, D. A. Crawley, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of human skin in vivo,” Proc. SPIE4276, 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peters, G. W.

M. Geerligs, G. W. Peters, P. A. Ackermans, C. W. Oomens, and F. P. Baaijens, “Linear viscoelastic behavior of subcutaneous adipose tissue,” Biorheology45(6), 677–688 (2008).
[PubMed]

Petersen, P. E.

P. E. Petersen, “Oral cancer prevention and control--the approach of the World Health Organization,” Oral Oncol.45(4-5), 454–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.39(17), 301–310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Png, G. M.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ram, S.

S. Ram and C. H. Siar, “Chemiluminescence as a diagnostic aid in the detection of oral cancer and potentially malignant epithelial lesions,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.34(5), 521–527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roblyer, D.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roodenburg, J. L.

D. C. De Veld, M. J. Witjes, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol.41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samuels, A. C.

T. R. Globus, D. L. Woolard, T. Khromova, T. W. Crowe, M. Bykhovskaia, B. L. Gelmont, J. Hesler, and A. C. Samuels, “THz-spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys.29(2/3), 89–100 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, T.

J. Nishizawa, T. Sasaki, K. Suto, T. Yamada, T. Tanabe, T. Tanno, T. Sawai, and Y. Miura, “THz imaging of nucleobases and cancerous tissue using a GaP THz-wave generator,” Opt. Commun.244(1-6), 469–474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sawai, T.

J. Nishizawa, T. Sasaki, K. Suto, T. Yamada, T. Tanabe, T. Tanno, T. Sawai, and Y. Miura, “THz imaging of nucleobases and cancerous tissue using a GaP THz-wave generator,” Opt. Commun.244(1-6), 469–474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scott, S. E.

S. E. Scott, E. A. Grunfeld, and M. McGurk, “The idiosyncratic relationship between diagnostic delay and stage of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Oral Oncol.41(4), 396–403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, J.

I. Ganly, S. Patel, and J. Shah, “Early stage squamous cell cancer of the oral tongue--clinicopathologic features affecting outcome,” Cancer118(1), 101–111 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, J. P.

J. P. Shah and Z. Gil, “Current concepts in management of oral cancer--surgery,” Oral Oncol.45(4-5), 394–401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siar, C. H.

S. Ram and C. H. Siar, “Chemiluminescence as a diagnostic aid in the detection of oral cancer and potentially malignant epithelial lesions,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.34(5), 521–527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Son, J.-H.

J.-H. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology24(21), 214001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, G.-E. Nam, K.-S. Cho, and J.-H. Son, “In vivo dual-modality terahertz/magnetic resonance imaging using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a dual contrast agent,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.2(1), 93–98 (2012).

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oh, J. H. Choi, I. H. Maeng, J. Y. Park, K. G. Lee, Y.-M. Huh, J.-S. Suh, S. J. Haam, and J.-H. Son, “Molecular imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Express19(5), 4009–4016 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Ji, E. S. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Son, and T.-I. Jeon, “A miniaturized fiber-coupled terahertz endoscope system,” Opt. Express17(19), 17082–17087 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Oh, J. Y. Kang, I. H. Maeng, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, S. J. Haam, and J.-H. Son, “Nanoparticle-enabled terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis,” Opt. Express17(5), 3469–3475 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

D. C. De Veld, M. J. Witjes, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol.41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, J.-S.

Suto, K.

J. Nishizawa, T. Sasaki, K. Suto, T. Yamada, T. Tanabe, T. Tanno, T. Sawai, and Y. Miura, “THz imaging of nucleobases and cancerous tissue using a GaP THz-wave generator,” Opt. Commun.244(1-6), 469–474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sy, S.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szarko, M.

M. Szarko, K. Muldrew, and J. E. Bertram, “Freeze-thaw treatment effects on the dynamic mechanical properties of articular cartilage,” BMC Musculoskelet. Disord.11(1), 231 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanabe, T.

J. Nishizawa, T. Sasaki, K. Suto, T. Yamada, T. Tanabe, T. Tanno, T. Sawai, and Y. Miura, “THz imaging of nucleobases and cancerous tissue using a GaP THz-wave generator,” Opt. Commun.244(1-6), 469–474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanno, T.

J. Nishizawa, T. Sasaki, K. Suto, T. Yamada, T. Tanabe, T. Tanno, T. Sawai, and Y. Miura, “THz imaging of nucleobases and cancerous tissue using a GaP THz-wave generator,” Opt. Commun.244(1-6), 469–474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Titze, I. R.

R. W. Chan and I. R. Titze, “Effect of postmortem changes and freezing on the viscoelastic properties of vocal fold tissues,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.31(4), 482–491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uriarte, J. J.

P. N. Nonaka, N. Campillo, J. J. Uriarte, E. Garreta, E. Melo, L. V. de Oliveira, D. Navajas, and R. Farré, “Effects of freezing/thawing on the mechanical properties of decellularized lungs,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A (to be published).
[PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.39(17), 301–310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Cole, R. M. Woodward, D. A. Crawley, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of human skin in vivo,” Proc. SPIE4276, 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-X.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warnakulasuriya, S.

S. Warnakulasuriya, “Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer,” Oral Oncol.45(4-5), 309–316 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, M. D.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witjes, M. J.

D. C. De Veld, M. J. Witjes, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol.41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Cole, R. M. Woodward, D. A. Crawley, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of human skin in vivo,” Proc. SPIE4276, 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Woolard, D. L.

T. R. Globus, D. L. Woolard, T. Khromova, T. W. Crowe, M. Bykhovskaia, B. L. Gelmont, J. Hesler, and A. C. Samuels, “THz-spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys.29(2/3), 89–100 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, T.

J. Nishizawa, T. Sasaki, K. Suto, T. Yamada, T. Tanabe, T. Tanno, T. Sawai, and Y. Miura, “THz imaging of nucleobases and cancerous tissue using a GaP THz-wave generator,” Opt. Commun.244(1-6), 469–474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.-T.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng.

R. W. Chan and I. R. Titze, “Effect of postmortem changes and freezing on the viscoelastic properties of vocal fold tissues,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.31(4), 482–491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biorheology

M. Geerligs, G. W. Peters, P. A. Ackermans, C. W. Oomens, and F. P. Baaijens, “Linear viscoelastic behavior of subcutaneous adipose tissue,” Biorheology45(6), 677–688 (2008).
[PubMed]

BMC Musculoskelet. Disord.

M. Szarko, K. Muldrew, and J. E. Bertram, “Freeze-thaw treatment effects on the dynamic mechanical properties of articular cartilage,” BMC Musculoskelet. Disord.11(1), 231 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

CA Cancer J. Clin.

B. W. Neville and T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” CA Cancer J. Clin.52(4), 195–215 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer

I. Ganly, S. Patel, and J. Shah, “Early stage squamous cell cancer of the oral tongue--clinicopathologic features affecting outcome,” Cancer118(1), 101–111 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, G.-E. Nam, K.-S. Cho, and J.-H. Son, “In vivo dual-modality terahertz/magnetic resonance imaging using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a dual contrast agent,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.2(1), 93–98 (2012).

Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.

S. Ram and C. H. Siar, “Chemiluminescence as a diagnostic aid in the detection of oral cancer and potentially malignant epithelial lesions,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.34(5), 521–527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

J.-H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Phys.

T. R. Globus, D. L. Woolard, T. Khromova, T. W. Crowe, M. Bykhovskaia, B. L. Gelmont, J. Hesler, and A. C. Samuels, “THz-spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys.29(2/3), 89–100 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A

P. N. Nonaka, N. Campillo, J. J. Uriarte, E. Garreta, E. Melo, L. V. de Oliveira, D. Navajas, and R. Farré, “Effects of freezing/thawing on the mechanical properties of decellularized lungs,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A (to be published).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods

A. Z. Higgins, D. K. Cullen, M. C. LaPlaca, and J. O. Karlsson, “Effects of freezing profile parameters on the survival of cryopreserved rat embryonic neural cells,” J. Neurosci. Methods201(1), 9–16 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.

E. S. Oh and D. M. Laskin, “Efficacy of the vizilite system in the identification of oral lesions,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.65(3), 424–426 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.39(17), 301–310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

J.-H. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology24(21), 214001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

J. Nishizawa, T. Sasaki, K. Suto, T. Yamada, T. Tanabe, T. Tanno, T. Sawai, and Y. Miura, “THz imaging of nucleobases and cancerous tissue using a GaP THz-wave generator,” Opt. Commun.244(1-6), 469–474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Oral Oncol.

J. P. Shah and Z. Gil, “Current concepts in management of oral cancer--surgery,” Oral Oncol.45(4-5), 394–401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. De Veld, M. J. Witjes, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol.41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Scott, E. A. Grunfeld, and M. McGurk, “The idiosyncratic relationship between diagnostic delay and stage of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Oral Oncol.41(4), 396–403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Warnakulasuriya, “Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer,” Oral Oncol.45(4-5), 309–316 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Petersen, “Oral cancer prevention and control--the approach of the World Health Organization,” Oral Oncol.45(4-5), 454–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol

S. G. Fitzpatrick, A. N. Neuman, D. M. Cohen, and I. Bhattacharyya, “The clinical and histologic presentation of gingival squamous cell carcinoma: a study of 519 cases,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol114(4), 509–515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

B. E. Cole, R. M. Woodward, D. A. Crawley, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of human skin in vivo,” Proc. SPIE4276, 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Radiology

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Theriogenology

G. A. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. W. Kim, G. Lee, E. Lee, J. Y. Ahn, J. H. Park, and J. M. Lim, “Effectiveness of slow freezing and vitrification for long-term preservation of mouse ovarian tissue,” Theriogenology75(6), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Oral cancer diagnosis in the operating room. The cancer is located on the lateral surface of the tongue and a safety margin of 1.5 cm is marked.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

THz imaging setup for detecting oral cancer at −20 °C and 20 °C. The setup is designed in reflection mode and the sealed chamber is utilized to control the temperature inside. The aluminum film in the chamber is used to reflect the reference signal. (SC: sealed chamber, S: specimen, AL: aluminum film, QP: quartz plate, GC: gas controller, TL: Ti:sapphire laser, BS: beam splitter, M: mirror, G: THz generator, THz: THz radiation, OM: oscillating mirror, D: THz detector, PA: preamplifier)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical images, (b) frozen and (c) room temperature THz images, and (d) histopathological images of six oral samples. THz images are displayed by the index of refraction at 0.5 THz, and the cancerous areas are marked with blue loops in the histological images.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The correlation of cancerous areas from THz imaging at −20 °C and histological imaging. The correlation factor is the area ratio of the whole size of specimen and the cancerous area (or purple area) within it on both images.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) A nest of deformed mucosal cells with hyperchromatic nuclei from sample #1 ( × 400), (b) a mixture of inflammatory cells from sample #2 ( × 400), (c) mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the tongue showing subepithelial invasion from sample #1 ( × 40).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The THz refractive indices and absorptions of normal mucosa and oral cancer of the six oral samples at (a) 20 °C and (b) −20 °C in the frequency range of 0.2–1.2 THz. The dots are the average values and the error bars represent the 95% confidence interval.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A cancerous tumor inside sample #7 was detected by observation of the THz time-domain waveform obtained at frozen temperature. (a) Optical image, (b) frozen, and (c) room temperature THz images, and (d) a pathological image of a perpendicular section. (e) The THz waveforms from regions indicated by the red arrow in (b) and (c). The second pulse in the THz waveform of (b) indicated by the arrow was reflected by the cancerous tumor inside the sample. (THz: THz radiation, QP: quartz plate).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Table of tissue sample categories (MEC: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, SCC: squamous cell carcinoma).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ˜ (ω)=n+iκ= (1r) 2 n q 2 +4rsinφ 1r .
α(ω)= 2κω c .

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