Abstract

Optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) can identify key components related to plaque vulnerability but can suffer from artifacts that could prevent accurate identification of lipid rich regions. In this paper, we present a model of depth resolved spectral analysis of OFDI data for improved detection of lipid. A quadratic Discriminant analysis model was developed based on phantom compositions known chemical mixtures and applied to a tissue phantom of a lipid-rich plaque. We demonstrate that a combined spectral and attenuation model can be used to predict the presence of lipid in OFDI images.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (1)

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

D. Chamié, Z. Wang, H. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, and M. A. Costa, “Optical Coherence Tomography and Fibrous Cap Characterization,” Curr. Cardiovasc. Imaging Rep.4(4), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

A. Tanaka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Challenges on the frontier of intracoronary imaging: atherosclerotic plaque macrophage measurement by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011104 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061711 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Finn, M. Nakano, J. Narula, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Concept of Vulnerable/Unstable Plaque,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.30(7), 1282–1292 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takarada, T. Imanishi, Y. Liu, H. Ikejima, H. Tsujioka, A. Kuroi, K. Ishibashi, K. Komukai, T. Tanimoto, Y. Ino, H. Kitabata, T. Kubo, N. Nakamura, K. Hirata, A. Tanaka, M. Mizukoshi, and T. Akasaka, “Advantage of Next-Generation Frequency-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Compared with Conventional Time-Domain System in the Assessment of Coronary Lesion,” Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv.75(2), 202–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061711 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. K. Nadkarni, B. E. Bouma, J. de Boer, and G. J. Tearney, “Evaluation of collagen in atherosclerotic plaques: the use of two coherent laser-based imaging methods,” Lasers Med. Sci.24(3), 439–445 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Graf, F. E. Robles, X. Chen, and A. Wax, “Detecting precancerous lesions in the hamster cheek pouch using spectroscopic white-light optical coherence tomography to assess nuclear morphology via spectral oscillations,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 064030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography and Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(6), 1629–1640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kubo, T. Imanishi, S. Takarada, A. Kuroi, S. Ueno, T. Yamano, T. Tanimoto, Y. Matsuo, T. Masho, H. Kitabata, K. Tsuda, Y. Tomobuchi, and T. Akasaka, “Assessment of Culprit Lesion Morphology in Acute Myocardial Infarction: Ability of Optical Coherence Tomography Compared with Intravascular Ultrasound and Coronary Angioscopy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.50(10), 933–939 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

C. Xu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Wavelength-dependent scattering in spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express13(14), 5450–5462 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cang, T. Sun, Z.-Y. Li, J. Chen, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and X. Li, “Gold nanocages as contrast agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(22), 3048–3050 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(9), 1015–1017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. Baraznji Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized Measurement of Optical Attenuation Coefficients of Atherosclerotic Plaque Constituents by Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, J. Perrée, G. Pasterkamp, D. Baraznji Sassoon, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography of arterial wall components,” Lasers Med. Sci.20(1), 45–51 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

2003 (2)

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Light absorption of (oxy-)hemoglobin assessed by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(16), 1436–1438 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of Macrophage Content in Atherosclerotic Plaques by Optical Coherence Tomography,” Circulation107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of Human Atherosclerosis by Optical Coherence Tomography,” Circulation106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

C.-L. Tsai, J.-C. Chen, and W.-J. Wang, “Near-infrared Absorption Property of Biological Soft Tissue Constituents,” J. Med. Biol. Eng.21(1), 7–14 (2001).

L. Marcu, M. C. Fishbein, J.-M. I. Maarek, and W. S. Grundfest, “Discrimination of Human Coronary Artery Atherosclerotic Lipid-Rich Lesions by Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.21(7), 1244–1250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

1999 (2)

U. G. Indahl, N. S. Sahni, B. Kirkhus, and T. Næs, “Multivariate strategies for classification based on NIR-spectra—with application to mayonnaise,” Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst.49(1), 19–31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Jaross, V. Neumeister, P. Lattke, and D. Schuh, “Determination of cholesterol in atherosclerotic plaques using near infrared diffuse reflection spectroscopy,” Atherosclerosis147(2), 327–337 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

P. Weinmann, M. Jouan, Q. D. Nguyen, B. Lacroix, C. Groiselle, J.-P. Bonte, and G. Luc, “Quantitative analysis of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in human atherosclerotic plaques using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Atherosclerosis140(1), 81–88 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. P. Burke, A. Farb, G. T. Malcom, Y.-H. Liang, J. Smialek, and R. Virmani, “Coronary Risk Factors and Plaque Morphology in Men with Coronary Disease who Died Suddenly,” N. Engl. J. Med.336(18), 1276–1282 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol.39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

T. W. de Bruin, C. B. Brouwer, M. van Linde-Sibenius Trip, H. Jansen, and D. W. Erkelens, “Different postprandial metabolism of olive oil and soybean oil: a possible mechanism of the high-density lipoprotein conserving effect of olive oil,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr.58(4), 477–483 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, and R. P. Rava, “Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B16(2), 211–233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Aalders, M. C.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. Baraznji Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized Measurement of Optical Attenuation Coefficients of Atherosclerotic Plaque Constituents by Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aalders, M. C. G.

Akasaka, T.

S. Takarada, T. Imanishi, Y. Liu, H. Ikejima, H. Tsujioka, A. Kuroi, K. Ishibashi, K. Komukai, T. Tanimoto, Y. Ino, H. Kitabata, T. Kubo, N. Nakamura, K. Hirata, A. Tanaka, M. Mizukoshi, and T. Akasaka, “Advantage of Next-Generation Frequency-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Compared with Conventional Time-Domain System in the Assessment of Coronary Lesion,” Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv.75(2), 202–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kubo, T. Imanishi, S. Takarada, A. Kuroi, S. Ueno, T. Yamano, T. Tanimoto, Y. Matsuo, T. Masho, H. Kitabata, K. Tsuda, Y. Tomobuchi, and T. Akasaka, “Assessment of Culprit Lesion Morphology in Acute Myocardial Infarction: Ability of Optical Coherence Tomography Compared with Intravascular Ultrasound and Coronary Angioscopy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.50(10), 933–939 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alraies, C.

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V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
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Lacroix, B.

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Lasser, T.

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W. Jaross, V. Neumeister, P. Lattke, and D. Schuh, “Determination of cholesterol in atherosclerotic plaques using near infrared diffuse reflection spectroscopy,” Atherosclerosis147(2), 327–337 (1999).
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Laubscher, M.

M. Laubscher, S. e. Bourquin, L. Froehly, B. Karamata, and T. Lasser, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography based on wavelength de-multiplexing and smart pixel array detection,” Opt. Commun.237(4-6), 275–283 (2004).
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Leitgeb, R.

Levitz, D.

Li, X.

Li, X. D.

Li, Z.-Y.

Liang, Y.-H.

A. P. Burke, A. Farb, G. T. Malcom, Y.-H. Liang, J. Smialek, and R. Virmani, “Coronary Risk Factors and Plaque Morphology in Men with Coronary Disease who Died Suddenly,” N. Engl. J. Med.336(18), 1276–1282 (1997).
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Lichtman, J. H.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
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V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
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Liu, Y.

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V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
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V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
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V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
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Marelli, A.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
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Marks, D. L.

Masho, T.

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V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
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Mik, E. G.

Mizukoshi, M.

S. Takarada, T. Imanishi, Y. Liu, H. Ikejima, H. Tsujioka, A. Kuroi, K. Ishibashi, K. Komukai, T. Tanimoto, Y. Ino, H. Kitabata, T. Kubo, N. Nakamura, K. Hirata, A. Tanaka, M. Mizukoshi, and T. Akasaka, “Advantage of Next-Generation Frequency-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Compared with Conventional Time-Domain System in the Assessment of Coronary Lesion,” Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv.75(2), 202–206 (2010).
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Morgner, U.

Moy, C. S.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
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V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
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V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
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P. Weinmann, M. Jouan, Q. D. Nguyen, B. Lacroix, C. Groiselle, J.-P. Bonte, and G. Luc, “Quantitative analysis of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in human atherosclerotic plaques using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Atherosclerosis140(1), 81–88 (1998).
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V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
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G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
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S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
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V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
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S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
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Povazay, B.

Rava, R. P.

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, and R. P. Rava, “Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B16(2), 211–233 (1992).
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G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
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G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Soest, G.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virani, S. S.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virmani, R.

A. V. Finn, M. Nakano, J. Narula, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Concept of Vulnerable/Unstable Plaque,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.30(7), 1282–1292 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Burke, A. Farb, G. T. Malcom, Y.-H. Liang, J. Smialek, and R. Virmani, “Coronary Risk Factors and Plaque Morphology in Men with Coronary Disease who Died Suddenly,” N. Engl. J. Med.336(18), 1276–1282 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061711 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061711 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W.-J.

C.-L. Tsai, J.-C. Chen, and W.-J. Wang, “Near-infrared Absorption Property of Biological Soft Tissue Constituents,” J. Med. Biol. Eng.21(1), 7–14 (2001).

Wang, Z.

D. Chamié, Z. Wang, H. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, and M. A. Costa, “Optical Coherence Tomography and Fibrous Cap Characterization,” Curr. Cardiovasc. Imaging Rep.4(4), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061711 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061711 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

R. N. Graf, F. E. Robles, X. Chen, and A. Wax, “Detecting precancerous lesions in the hamster cheek pouch using spectroscopic white-light optical coherence tomography to assess nuclear morphology via spectral oscillations,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 064030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinmann, P.

P. Weinmann, M. Jouan, Q. D. Nguyen, B. Lacroix, C. Groiselle, J.-P. Bonte, and G. Luc, “Quantitative analysis of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in human atherosclerotic plaques using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Atherosclerosis140(1), 81–88 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wesolowska, T.

E. Stachowska, B. Dołegowska, D. Chlubek, T. Wesołowska, K. Ciechanowski, P. Gutowski, H. Szumiłowicz, and R. A. Turowski, “Dietary trans fatty acids and composition of human atheromatous plaques,” Eur. J. Nutr.43(5), 313–318 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whittaker, P.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiley, B. J.

Wilson, D. L.

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061711 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061711 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wong, N. D.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woo, D.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, E. Z. Soliman, P. D. Sorlie, N. Sotoodehnia, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, M. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation125(1), e2–e220 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

Xu, C.

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061711 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061711 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography and Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(6), 1629–1640 (2007).
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C. Xu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Wavelength-dependent scattering in spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express13(14), 5450–5462 (2005).
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H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of Human Atherosclerosis by Optical Coherence Tomography,” Circulation106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol.39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
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T. Kubo, T. Imanishi, S. Takarada, A. Kuroi, S. Ueno, T. Yamano, T. Tanimoto, Y. Matsuo, T. Masho, H. Kitabata, K. Tsuda, Y. Tomobuchi, and T. Akasaka, “Assessment of Culprit Lesion Morphology in Acute Myocardial Infarction: Ability of Optical Coherence Tomography Compared with Intravascular Ultrasound and Coronary Angioscopy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.50(10), 933–939 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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P. Weinmann, M. Jouan, Q. D. Nguyen, B. Lacroix, C. Groiselle, J.-P. Bonte, and G. Luc, “Quantitative analysis of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in human atherosclerotic plaques using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Atherosclerosis140(1), 81–88 (1998).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography and Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(6), 1629–1640 (2007).
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S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
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Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061711 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Near infrared absorbance spectra of pure substances related to plaque vulnerability and intravascular OCT imaging. (b) Absorbance spectra over OFDI source bandwidth. The wavelength range used within our study was 1250 to 1350 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Classification model using quadratic Discriminant analysis. The training data set consisted of fitting coefficients for the first three principal component spectra, pc1, pc2, pc3, the attenuation coefficient, and the class (composition outlined in Table 1). Quadratic Discriminant analysis was conducted discriminant functions to describe each class.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Attenuation spectra measured using time frequency analysis from phantoms imaged within 1mm path length cuvette. (a) Attenuation spectra of phantoms composed of distilled water and varying concentrations of cholesterol. (b) Attenuation of phantoms composed of distilled water and various concentrations of calcium. (c) Attenuation of phantoms composed of distilled water, collagen, and various concentrations of cholesterol. (d-f) Preprocessing of attenuation spectra using SVN and a Savasky Golay filter corresponding to attenuation spectra in a-c. Preprocessing reduced intensity bias and high frequency oscillations to highlight spectral shape. The mean is plotted as a solid line with the shaded area representing the standard error.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modeling attenuation spectra using principal component spectra. (a) Principal component spectra derived from principal component (PC) analysis. The first three PC spectra were included for modeling. (b) Example of preprocessed cholesterol 30% spectra (solid line). Fit is the linear combination of principal component spectra (dashed line). (c) Example of pure water preprocessed spectrum (solid line). Fit is the linear combination of principal component spectra (dashed line). Residuals of fit within (b) and (c) are shown in grey.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized confusion matrices are used to show the results of the Discriminant analysis model. (a) Model incorporating attenuation coefficients only. (b) Model incorporating spectral fitting coefficients only. (c) Model incorporating both attenuation coefficient and spectral fitting parameters. The classification accuracy improves significantly by combining information from both the magnitude of the attenuation coefficient and the spectral shape. Dashed lines indicate compositions with similar components but varying concentrations. Within the model incorporating spectral shape and magnitude of attenuation, we observe a high degree of misclassification between groups of similar components. W-water, T-trioleate, Ch-Cholesterol, Ca-Calcium, Co-Collagen, Co-Ch-Collagen and Cholesterol.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized Confusion matrices are used to show the results of the Discriminant analysis model. (a) Model incorporating attenuation coefficient. (b) Model incorporating spectral fitting coefficients. (c) A model incorporating both attenuation coefficient and spectral fitting parameters. The classification accuracy improves significantly by combining information from both the magnitude of the attenuation coefficient and the spectral shape. W-water, T-trioleate, Ch-Cholesterol, Ca-Calcium, Co-Collagen, Co-Ch-Collagen and Cholesterol.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Representative classification of normal swine aorta. Two sites within volumetric data set are shown in (a-d) and (e-h). H&E (a,e) of normal sites are shown for corresponding OFDI images (b,f). (c,g) Corresponding depth resolved probability maps for cholesterol are shown for OFDI images, with a model output of nearly no probability of cholesterol within images. (b,f). High probability of cholesterol appears yellow and low probability of cholesterol appears black. (d, h) Model output images incorporating classification and probability associate with the classification, where hue is dedicated as the class and probability associated with that classification encoded as value and saturation. Cholesterol – Yellow, Other – Red. (i) depth integration of cholesterol probability within volumetric OFDI data set showing low probability over volume of normal aorta. Low probability of lipid was coded as black and high probability of lipid was coded as bright yellow. (j) Depth integration of cholesterol probability within volumetric OFDI data set showing high probability over volume. Low probability of collagen was coded as black and high probability of collagen was coded as bright red. Scale bar 1mm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Representative classification of lipid plaque phantom. Two sites within volumetric data set are shown in (a-d) and (e-h). (a,e) Histology taken through two cross sections within phantom plaque, showing void created by injection of fat emulsion. Corresponding H&E and oil-red-o stains respectively showing void created by the injection of a fat emulsion within center of plaque. (b, f) OFDI image of phantom lipid plaque corresponding to histology shown in panels a and e respectively. OFDI image shown in panel b is taken through the center of the artificial plaque whereas panel f is taken from the edge of the plaque. (c,g) Probability of cholesterol image derived from the output of the classification algorithm. A high probability of cholesterol is measured from the OFDI image taken through the center of the plaque. A low probability of cholesterol is measured through the edge of the plaque. (d, h) Classification and probability image utilizing a HSV convention where hue encodes class (red-other, yellow-cholesterol) and saturation and value encode probability. (i) Depth resolved integration of cholesterol probability. (j) Depth resolved integration of collagen probability. Within chemograms, lipid plaque can be seen as a circular region with increased cholesterol (i) and decreased collagen probability (j). Low probability of lipid was coded as black and high probability of lipid was coded as bright yellow. Low probability of collagen was coded as black and high probability of collagen was coded as bright red. Scale bar = 1mm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of histology to classification of OFDI images by depth resolved spectral analysis. Lipid and cap thickness measured from histology slides versus fraction of pixels classified as cholesterol or collagen. Each point on the graph represents a separate sample. (a) Comparison of fraction of pixels classified as cholesterol to total pixels within volume versus lipid thickness measured from frozen histology slides at center of lipid plaque. Importantly, for three dimensional image sets of normal areas, nearly 0% of pixels were classified as cholesterol. (b) Comparison of fraction of pixels classified as cholesterol to total pixels with thickness of cap measured from frozen sections. We observed a significant negative trend, as cap thickness increases, the fraction of pixels classified as cholesterol decreases. We also observed a significant increase in pixels classified as cholesterol with increasing lipid thinness. (c) Comparison of the fraction of pixels classified as collagen versus lipid thickness has a significant negative trend, also observed within chemogram shown in 8i.(d) Comparison o fraction of pixels classified as collagen versus measured cap thickness did not have a significant correlation. Normal areas: red – squares, lipid plaques: black circles.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Composition of Phantoms

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Table 2 McNemar’s Values to Compare Discriminant Analysis Models Using Attenuation Coefficient and Spectral Fitting Parameters, Where the Output for the Model Are the 12 Compositions Described in Table 1*

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Table 3 McNemar’s Values to Compare Discriminant Analysis Models of 6 Classes (W, T, Ch, Ca, Co, Co-Ch) Using Attenuation Coefficient and Spectral Fitting Parameters*

Equations (3)

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I d ( r ) = I o T( r ) S ^ ( r )exp( 2 μ t r ) T( r )= [ ( r z o z R ) 2 +1 ] 1 /2 S ^ ( r )=exp[ ( r z c z w ) 2 ].
SN V i = I i I ¯ ( I i I ¯ ) 2 n1 .
PC( λ )c( x,z )= μ t ( x,z,λ ) [ P C 1 ( λ )P C n ( λ ) ][ c 1 ( x,z ) c n ( x,z ) ]= μ t ( x,z,λ ) c=P C 1 μ t ( x,z,λ ) μ t ( x,z,λ ) c 1 ( x,z )P C 1 ( λ )+ c 2 ( x,z )P C 2 ( λ )+ c 3 ( x,z )P C 3 ( λ ).

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