Abstract

In optical coherence tomography (OCT), axial resolution is one of the most critical parameters impacting image quality. It is commonly measured by determining the point spread function (PSF) based on a specular surface reflection. The contrast transfer function (CTF) provides more insights into an imaging system’s resolving characteristics and can be readily generated in a system-independent manner, without consideration for image pixel size. In this study, we developed a test method for determination of CTF based on multi-layer, thin-film phantoms, evaluated using spectral- and time-domain OCT platforms with different axial resolution values. Phantoms representing six spatial frequencies were fabricated and imaged. The fabrication process involved spin coating silicone films with precise thicknesses in the 8-40 μm range. Alternating layers were doped with a specified concentration of scattering particles. Validation of layer optical properties and thicknesses were achieved with spectrophotometry and stylus profilometry, respectively. OCT B-scans were used to calculate CTFs and results were compared with convetional PSF measurements based on specular reflections. Testing of these phantoms indicated that our approach can provide direct access to axial resolution characteristics highly relevant to image quality. Furthermore, tissue phantoms based on our thin-film fabrication approach may have a wide range of additional applications in optical imaging and spectroscopy.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (3)

2011 (2)

A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Structured three-dimensional optical phantom for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(20), 19480–19485 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Woolliams and P. H. Tomlins, “Estimating the resolution of a commercial optical coherence tomography system with limited spatial sampling,” Meas. Sci. Technol.22(6), 065502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, L. Ceklic, C. K. Brinkmann, M. E. Iliev, M. Frey, S. P. Rothenbuehler, V. Enzmann, and S. Wolf, “Macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using six different optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3432–3437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Koschwanez, R. H. Carlson, and D. R. Meldrum, “Thin PDMS films using long spin times or tert-butyl alcohol as a solvent,” PLoS ONE4(2), e4572 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: an adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(5), 2061–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agrawal, M. A. Gavrielides, S. Weininger, K. Chakrabarti, and T. J. Pfefer, “Regulatory perspectives and research activities at the FDA on the use of phantoms with in vivo diagnostic devices,” Proc. SPIE6870, 687005, 687005-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

G. V. Gelikonov, L. S. Dolin, E. A. Sergeeva, and I. V. Turchin, “Multiple backscattering effects in optical coherence tomography images of layered turbid media,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron.46(7), 565–576 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. K. Wang, “Signal degradation by multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: a Monte Carlo study towards optical clearing of biotissues,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(13), 2281–2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, E. Thamm, and A. Kolb, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues determined by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun.186(1-3), 149–153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues--an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(6), 963–978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aalders, M. C.

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

A. Agrawal, T. J. Pfefer, N. Gilani, and R. Drezek, “Three-dimensional characterization of optical coherence tomography point spread functions with a nanoparticle-embedded phantom,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2269–2271 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agrawal, M. A. Gavrielides, S. Weininger, K. Chakrabarti, and T. J. Pfefer, “Regulatory perspectives and research activities at the FDA on the use of phantoms with in vivo diagnostic devices,” Proc. SPIE6870, 687005, 687005-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnaby, A. M.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: an adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(5), 2061–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigelow, C. E.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: an adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(5), 2061–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bisaillon, C. E.

Boppart, S. A.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bremmer, R. H.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brinkmann, C. K.

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, L. Ceklic, C. K. Brinkmann, M. E. Iliev, M. Frey, S. P. Rothenbuehler, V. Enzmann, and S. Wolf, “Macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using six different optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3432–3437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, G.

Carlson, R. H.

J. H. Koschwanez, R. H. Carlson, and D. R. Meldrum, “Thin PDMS films using long spin times or tert-butyl alcohol as a solvent,” PLoS ONE4(2), e4572 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ceklic, L.

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, L. Ceklic, C. K. Brinkmann, M. E. Iliev, M. Frey, S. P. Rothenbuehler, V. Enzmann, and S. Wolf, “Macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using six different optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3432–3437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakrabarti, K.

A. Agrawal, M. A. Gavrielides, S. Weininger, K. Chakrabarti, and T. J. Pfefer, “Regulatory perspectives and research activities at the FDA on the use of phantoms with in vivo diagnostic devices,” Proc. SPIE6870, 687005, 687005-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. C.

Curatolo, A.

de Bruin, D. M.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Kinkelder, R.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolin, L. S.

G. V. Gelikonov, L. S. Dolin, E. A. Sergeeva, and I. V. Turchin, “Multiple backscattering effects in optical coherence tomography images of layered turbid media,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron.46(7), 565–576 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R.

Drezek, R. A.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellerbee, A. K.

Enzmann, V.

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, L. Ceklic, C. K. Brinkmann, M. E. Iliev, M. Frey, S. P. Rothenbuehler, V. Enzmann, and S. Wolf, “Macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using six different optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3432–3437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faber, D. J.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, R. A.

Ferguson, R. D.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: an adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(5), 2061–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frey, M.

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, L. Ceklic, C. K. Brinkmann, M. E. Iliev, M. Frey, S. P. Rothenbuehler, V. Enzmann, and S. Wolf, “Macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using six different optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3432–3437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fulton, A. B.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: an adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(5), 2061–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gavrielides, M. A.

A. Agrawal, M. A. Gavrielides, S. Weininger, K. Chakrabarti, and T. J. Pfefer, “Regulatory perspectives and research activities at the FDA on the use of phantoms with in vivo diagnostic devices,” Proc. SPIE6870, 687005, 687005-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gelikonov, G. V.

G. V. Gelikonov, L. S. Dolin, E. A. Sergeeva, and I. V. Turchin, “Multiple backscattering effects in optical coherence tomography images of layered turbid media,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron.46(7), 565–576 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gilani, N.

Grimwood, A.

Gu, R. Y.

Hammer, D. X.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: an adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(5), 2061–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, M.

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, E. Thamm, and A. Kolb, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues determined by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun.186(1-3), 149–153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues--an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(6), 963–978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, C.

Huang, S.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, J.

Iftimia, N. V.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: an adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(5), 2061–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iliev, M. E.

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, L. Ceklic, C. K. Brinkmann, M. E. Iliev, M. Frey, S. P. Rothenbuehler, V. Enzmann, and S. Wolf, “Macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using six different optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3432–3437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P.

Kennedy, B. F.

Kennedy, K. M.

Kodach, V. M.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolb, A.

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, E. Thamm, and A. Kolb, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues determined by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun.186(1-3), 149–153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koschwanez, J. H.

J. H. Koschwanez, R. H. Carlson, and D. R. Meldrum, “Thin PDMS films using long spin times or tert-butyl alcohol as a solvent,” PLoS ONE4(2), e4572 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamouche, G.

Lee, M. H.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lurie, K. L.

Marks, D. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meldrum, D. R.

J. H. Koschwanez, R. H. Carlson, and D. R. Meldrum, “Thin PDMS films using long spin times or tert-butyl alcohol as a solvent,” PLoS ONE4(2), e4572 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, G.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues--an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(6), 963–978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, F. T.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, A. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pazos, V.

Pfefer, T. J.

A. Agrawal, T. J. Pfefer, N. Gilani, and R. Drezek, “Three-dimensional characterization of optical coherence tomography point spread functions with a nanoparticle-embedded phantom,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2269–2271 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agrawal, M. A. Gavrielides, S. Weininger, K. Chakrabarti, and T. J. Pfefer, “Regulatory perspectives and research activities at the FDA on the use of phantoms with in vivo diagnostic devices,” Proc. SPIE6870, 687005, 687005-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pipes, M.

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roggan, A.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues--an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(6), 963–978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothenbuehler, S. P.

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, L. Ceklic, C. K. Brinkmann, M. E. Iliev, M. Frey, S. P. Rothenbuehler, V. Enzmann, and S. Wolf, “Macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using six different optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3432–3437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

Schweitzer, D.

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, E. Thamm, and A. Kolb, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues determined by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun.186(1-3), 149–153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues--an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(6), 963–978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergeeva, E. A.

G. V. Gelikonov, L. S. Dolin, E. A. Sergeeva, and I. V. Turchin, “Multiple backscattering effects in optical coherence tomography images of layered turbid media,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron.46(7), 565–576 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stafford, C. M.

Thamm, E.

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, E. Thamm, and A. Kolb, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues determined by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun.186(1-3), 149–153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tomlins, P. H.

P. D. Woolliams and P. H. Tomlins, “Estimating the resolution of a commercial optical coherence tomography system with limited spatial sampling,” Meas. Sci. Technol.22(6), 065502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Woolliams, R. A. Ferguson, C. Hart, A. Grimwood, and P. H. Tomlins, “Spatially deconvolved optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt.49(11), 2014–2021 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turchin, I. V.

G. V. Gelikonov, L. S. Dolin, E. A. Sergeeva, and I. V. Turchin, “Multiple backscattering effects in optical coherence tomography images of layered turbid media,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron.46(7), 565–576 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ustun, T. E.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: an adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(5), 2061–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Marle, J.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, “Signal degradation by multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: a Monte Carlo study towards optical clearing of biotissues,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(13), 2281–2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei Haw Lin, A.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weininger, S.

A. Agrawal, M. A. Gavrielides, S. Weininger, K. Chakrabarti, and T. J. Pfefer, “Regulatory perspectives and research activities at the FDA on the use of phantoms with in vivo diagnostic devices,” Proc. SPIE6870, 687005, 687005-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, S.

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, L. Ceklic, C. K. Brinkmann, M. E. Iliev, M. Frey, S. P. Rothenbuehler, V. Enzmann, and S. Wolf, “Macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using six different optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3432–3437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf-Schnurrbusch, U. E. K.

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, L. Ceklic, C. K. Brinkmann, M. E. Iliev, M. Frey, S. P. Rothenbuehler, V. Enzmann, and S. Wolf, “Macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using six different optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3432–3437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woolliams, P. D.

P. D. Woolliams and P. H. Tomlins, “Estimating the resolution of a commercial optical coherence tomography system with limited spatial sampling,” Meas. Sci. Technol.22(6), 065502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Woolliams, R. A. Ferguson, C. Hart, A. Grimwood, and P. H. Tomlins, “Spatially deconvolved optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt.49(11), 2014–2021 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zysk, A. M.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, L. Ceklic, C. K. Brinkmann, M. E. Iliev, M. Frey, S. P. Rothenbuehler, V. Enzmann, and S. Wolf, “Macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using six different optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3432–3437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: an adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(5), 2061–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. D. Woolliams and P. H. Tomlins, “Estimating the resolution of a commercial optical coherence tomography system with limited spatial sampling,” Meas. Sci. Technol.22(6), 065502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, E. Thamm, and A. Kolb, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues determined by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun.186(1-3), 149–153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues--an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(6), 963–978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, “Signal degradation by multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: a Monte Carlo study towards optical clearing of biotissues,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(13), 2281–2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE (1)

J. H. Koschwanez, R. H. Carlson, and D. R. Meldrum, “Thin PDMS films using long spin times or tert-butyl alcohol as a solvent,” PLoS ONE4(2), e4572 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Agrawal, M. A. Gavrielides, S. Weininger, K. Chakrabarti, and T. J. Pfefer, “Regulatory perspectives and research activities at the FDA on the use of phantoms with in vivo diagnostic devices,” Proc. SPIE6870, 687005, 687005-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Radiophys. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. V. Gelikonov, L. S. Dolin, E. A. Sergeeva, and I. V. Turchin, “Multiple backscattering effects in optical coherence tomography images of layered turbid media,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron.46(7), 565–576 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. Ciullo, Industrial Minerals and Their Uses: A Handbook and Formulary (Noyes, 1996).

IEC International Standard 61223–2-6, “Evaluation and routine testing in medical imaging departments – Part 2–6: Constancy tests – Imaing performance of computed tomography X-ray equipment” (International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006).

A. A. Michelson, Studies in Optics (Univ. Chicago Press, 1927).

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1998).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phantom design. The colors of the five layers represent their appearance with OCT. Dimensions are not to scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scattering coefficient of 5% (by mass) BaSO4 in PDMS. Ripples in spectrum are a result of interference between the front and back surfaces of the test film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Surface profile of phantom C. Blue region indicates substrate surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OCT images of the six phantoms, with the average A-scans in blue next to the images. All images are 500 μm wide. Images for phantoms A-D are 150 μm optical depth, while those for phantoms E and F are 300 μm optical depth (wS: wideband SDOCT, nS: narrowband SDOCT, wT: wideband TDOCT, nT: narrowband TDOCT).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CTF curves for the four OCT configurations. Error bars represent the standard deviation of each data point. Horizontal error bars are shown only on the wT curve for clarity; they are the same for all curves. Vertical dashed lines indicate the equivalent spatial frequency to the FWHM of each configuration’s axial PSF. Inset shows axial PSFs for the four OCT configurations (wS: wideband SDOCT, nS: narrowband SDOCT, wT: wideband TDOCT, nT: narrowband TDOCT).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Profilometry Results for CTF Phantoms

Equations (1)

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C= I bright I dark I bright + I dark

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