Abstract

We developed a micromotor based miniature catheter with an outer diameter of 3.2 mm for ultrahigh speed endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) at a 1 MHz axial scan rate. The micromotor can rotate a micro-prism at several hundred frames per second with less than 5 V drive voltage to provide fast and stable scanning, which is not sensitive to the bending of the catheter. The side-viewing probe can be pulled back to acquire a three-dimensional (3D) data set covering a large area on the specimen. The VCSEL provides a high axial scan rate to support dense sampling under high frame rate operation. Using a high speed data acquisition system, in vivo 3D-OCT imaging in the rabbit GI tract and ex vivo imaging of a human colon specimen with 8 μm axial resolution, 8 μm lateral resolution and 1.2 mm depth range in tissue at a frame rate of 400 fps was demonstrated.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 543–545 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 060502 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(2), 346–353 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. F. Xi, L. Huo, Y. C. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett.34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Kang, H. Wang, Y. S. Pan, M. W. Jenkins, G. A. Isenberg, A. Chak, M. Atkinson, D. Agrawal, Z. L. Hu, and A. M. Rollins, “Endoscopically guided spectral-domain OCT with double-balloon catheters,” Opt. Express18(16), 17364–17372 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Sergeev, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, N. Gladkova, N. Shakhova, L. Snopova, A. Shakhov, I. Kuznetzova, A. Denisenko, V. Pochinko, Y. Chumakov, and O. Streltzova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express1(13), 432–440 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. X. M. Liu, M. J. Cobb, Y. C. Chen, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, “Rapid-scanning forward-imaging miniature endoscope for real-time optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(15), 1763–1765 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. D. Aguirre, J. Sawinski, S. W. Huang, C. Zhou, W. Denk, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High speed optical coherence microscopy with autofocus adjustment and a miniaturized endoscopic imaging probe,” Opt. Express18(5), 4222–4239 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, Y. K. Tao, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Piezoelectric-transducer-based miniature catheter for ultrahigh-speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2438–2448 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. T. Pan, H. K. Xie, and G. K. Fedder, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Lett.26(24), 1966–1968 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. P. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 163901 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. H. Kim, B. H. Park, G. N. Maguluri, T. W. Lee, F. J. Rogomentich, M. G. Bancu, B. E. Bouma, J. F. de Boer, and J. J. Bernstein, “Two-axis magnetically-driven MEMS scanning catheter for endoscopic high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(26), 18130–18140 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. J. Sun, S. G. Guo, L. Wu, L. Liu, S. W. Choe, B. S. Sorg, and H. K. Xie, “3D in vivo optical coherence tomography based on a low-voltage, large-scan-range 2D MEMS mirror,” Opt. Express18(12), 12065–12075 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett.29(11), 1236–1238 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, K. Schneider, P. Hsiung, J. G. Fujimoto, K. Madden, J. Schmitt, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Micromotor endoscope catheter for in vivo, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(19), 2261–2263 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S.-W. Lee, A. E. Heidari, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(2), 243–254 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Li, M. de Groot, F. Helderman, J. Mo, J. M. A. Daniels, K. Grünberg, T. G. Sutedja, and J. F. de Boer, “High speed miniature motorized endoscopic probe for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express20(22), 24132–24138 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett.22(5), 340–342 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.22(22), 1704–1706 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett.28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044009 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett.30(23), 3159–3161 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett.31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “High-sweep-rate 1310 nm MEMS-VCSEL with 150 nm continuous tuning range,” Electron. Lett.48(14), 867–868 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  38. I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett.38(5), 673–675 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. J. S. Heim, G. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, “OCT imaging up to 760 kHz axial scan rate using single-mode 1310nm MEMS-tunable VCSELs with 100nm tuning range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB2.
  40. B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

J. Li, M. de Groot, F. Helderman, J. Mo, J. M. A. Daniels, K. Grünberg, T. G. Sutedja, and J. F. de Boer, “High speed miniature motorized endoscopic probe for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express20(22), 24132–24138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “High-sweep-rate 1310 nm MEMS-VCSEL with 150 nm continuous tuning range,” Electron. Lett.48(14), 867–868 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (6)

A. D. Aguirre, J. Sawinski, S. W. Huang, C. Zhou, W. Denk, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High speed optical coherence microscopy with autofocus adjustment and a miniaturized endoscopic imaging probe,” Opt. Express18(5), 4222–4239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Sun, S. G. Guo, L. Wu, L. Liu, S. W. Choe, B. S. Sorg, and H. K. Xie, “3D in vivo optical coherence tomography based on a low-voltage, large-scan-range 2D MEMS mirror,” Opt. Express18(12), 12065–12075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Kang, H. Wang, Y. S. Pan, M. W. Jenkins, G. A. Isenberg, A. Chak, M. Atkinson, D. Agrawal, Z. L. Hu, and A. M. Rollins, “Endoscopically guided spectral-domain OCT with double-balloon catheters,” Opt. Express18(16), 17364–17372 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, B. H. Park, G. N. Maguluri, T. W. Lee, F. J. Rogomentich, M. G. Bancu, B. E. Bouma, J. F. de Boer, and J. J. Bernstein, “Two-axis magnetically-driven MEMS scanning catheter for endoscopic high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(26), 18130–18140 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

2001 (1)

1997 (4)

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett.31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrawal, D.

Aguirre, A. D.

Atkinson, M.

Bancu, M. G.

Barry, S.

Baumann, B.

Bernstein, J. J.

Biedermann, B. R.

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, B. H. Park, G. N. Maguluri, T. W. Lee, F. J. Rogomentich, M. G. Bancu, B. E. Bouma, J. F. de Boer, and J. J. Bernstein, “Two-axis magnetically-driven MEMS scanning catheter for endoscopic high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(26), 18130–18140 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett.30(23), 3159–3161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett.28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.22(22), 1704–1706 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “High-sweep-rate 1310 nm MEMS-VCSEL with 150 nm continuous tuning range,” Electron. Lett.48(14), 867–868 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A. E.

Chak, A.

Chan, R. C.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. C.

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. P.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. P. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chinn, S. R.

Choe, S. W.

Choma, M. A.

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044009 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chumakov, Y.

Cobb, M. J.

Cole, G. D.

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “High-sweep-rate 1310 nm MEMS-VCSEL with 150 nm continuous tuning range,” Electron. Lett.48(14), 867–868 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Daniels, J. M. A.

de Boer, J. F.

de Groot, M.

Denisenko, A.

Denk, W.

Desjardins, A. E.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Evans, J. A.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedder, G. K.

Feldchtein, F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, H. L.

H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett.38(5), 673–675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, Y. K. Tao, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Piezoelectric-transducer-based miniature catheter for ultrahigh-speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2438–2448 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Aguirre, J. Sawinski, S. W. Huang, C. Zhou, W. Denk, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High speed optical coherence microscopy with autofocus adjustment and a miniaturized endoscopic imaging probe,” Opt. Express18(5), 4222–4239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett.31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, K. Schneider, P. Hsiung, J. G. Fujimoto, K. Madden, J. Schmitt, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Micromotor endoscope catheter for in vivo, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(19), 2261–2263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett.22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.22(22), 1704–1706 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G.

Gelikonov, V.

Gladkova, N.

Golubovic, B.

Goodnow, J.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Grünberg, K.

Guo, S. G.

Halpern, E. F.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidari, A. E.

Helderman, F.

Herz, P. R.

Hornegger, J.

Hsiung, P.

Hsu, K.

H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044009 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Z. L.

Huang, D.

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S. W.

Huber, R.

Huo, L.

Hwang, J. H.

J. F. Xi, L. Huo, Y. C. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett.34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Isenberg, G. A.

Izatt, J. A.

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044009 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, I.-K.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jayaraman, V.

Jenkins, M. W.

Jiang, J.

Jillella, P. A.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jing, J.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Lee, A. E. Heidari, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, W.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. P. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, W.

Kim, K. H.

Kimmey, M. B.

Klein, T.

Kraus, M. F.

Kuranov, R.

Kuznetzova, I.

Lauwers, G. Y.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-W.

Lee, T. W.

Leng, Y. X.

H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, M. de Groot, F. Helderman, J. Mo, J. M. A. Daniels, K. Grünberg, T. G. Sutedja, and J. F. de Boer, “High speed miniature motorized endoscopic probe for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express20(22), 24132–24138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

Liang, S.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Lee, A. E. Heidari, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

Liu, X. M.

Madden, K.

Maguluri, G. N.

Mahon, S.

McCormick, D. T.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. P. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mino-Kenudson, M.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mo, J.

Mukai, D.

Mukai, D. S.

Narula, J.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett.30(23), 3159–3161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Y. S.

Pan, Y. T.

Park, B. H.

Petersen, C.

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pochinko, V.

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramalingam, T.

Robertson, M.

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “High-sweep-rate 1310 nm MEMS-VCSEL with 150 nm continuous tuning range,” Electron. Lett.48(14), 867–868 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rogomentich, F. J.

Rollins, A. M.

Saidi, A.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Sawinski, J.

Schmitt, J.

Schneider, K.

Schuman, J. S.

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A.

Shakhov, A.

Shakhova, N.

Shishko, M.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snopova, L.

Sorg, B. S.

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streltzova, O.

Sun, C.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, J. J.

Sutedja, T. G.

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett.22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taira, K.

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G. J.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett.30(23), 3159–3161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett.28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.22(22), 1704–1706 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tien, N. C.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. P. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tran, P. H.

Tsai, T.-H.

Uddin, A.

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “High-sweep-rate 1310 nm MEMS-VCSEL with 150 nm continuous tuning range,” Electron. Lett.48(14), 867–868 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vakoc, B. J.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Wang, L.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. P. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weissman, N. J.

Wieser, W.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wu, L.

Wu, Y. C.

Xi, J. F.

Xie, H. K.

Yachimski, P. S.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

Yin, J.

Yoon, D.

Yun, S. H.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett.30(23), 3159–3161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett.28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. P. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. P. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “High-sweep-rate 1310 nm MEMS-VCSEL with 150 nm continuous tuning range,” Electron. Lett.48(14), 867–868 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (3)

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044009 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (13)

K. H. Kim, B. H. Park, G. N. Maguluri, T. W. Lee, F. J. Rogomentich, M. G. Bancu, B. E. Bouma, J. F. de Boer, and J. J. Bernstein, “Two-axis magnetically-driven MEMS scanning catheter for endoscopic high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(26), 18130–18140 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Sun, S. G. Guo, L. Wu, L. Liu, S. W. Choe, B. S. Sorg, and H. K. Xie, “3D in vivo optical coherence tomography based on a low-voltage, large-scan-range 2D MEMS mirror,” Opt. Express18(12), 12065–12075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Kang, H. Wang, Y. S. Pan, M. W. Jenkins, G. A. Isenberg, A. Chak, M. Atkinson, D. Agrawal, Z. L. Hu, and A. M. Rollins, “Endoscopically guided spectral-domain OCT with double-balloon catheters,” Opt. Express18(16), 17364–17372 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sergeev, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, N. Gladkova, N. Shakhova, L. Snopova, A. Shakhov, I. Kuznetzova, A. Denisenko, V. Pochinko, Y. Chumakov, and O. Streltzova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express1(13), 432–440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Aguirre, J. Sawinski, S. W. Huang, C. Zhou, W. Denk, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High speed optical coherence microscopy with autofocus adjustment and a miniaturized endoscopic imaging probe,” Opt. Express18(5), 4222–4239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, M. de Groot, F. Helderman, J. Mo, J. M. A. Daniels, K. Grünberg, T. G. Sutedja, and J. F. de Boer, “High speed miniature motorized endoscopic probe for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express20(22), 24132–24138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (12)

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett.38(5), 673–675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett.31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett.30(23), 3159–3161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett.28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Pan, H. K. Xie, and G. K. Fedder, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Lett.26(24), 1966–1968 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett.22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.22(22), 1704–1706 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Liu, M. J. Cobb, Y. C. Chen, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, “Rapid-scanning forward-imaging miniature endoscope for real-time optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(15), 1763–1765 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett.29(11), 1236–1238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, K. Schneider, P. Hsiung, J. G. Fujimoto, K. Madden, J. Schmitt, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Micromotor endoscope catheter for in vivo, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(19), 2261–2263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Xi, L. Huo, Y. C. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett.34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. J. S. Heim, G. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, “OCT imaging up to 760 kHz axial scan rate using single-mode 1310nm MEMS-tunable VCSELs with 100nm tuning range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB2.

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MPG (3783 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (3722 KB)     
» Media 3: MPG (3722 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of swept source OCT system (optics: blue; electronics: green) and a summary of the system performance (the depth range, axial resolution, and transverse resolution are the numbers in tissue). The inset showing the catheter indicates the rotary scanning direction of the focused spot. C: circulator; MZI: Mach-Zehnder interferometer; RM: reference mirror; DA: differential amplifier; P: photodetector; PIU: patient interface unit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the VCSEL swept source. (b) The VCSEL device structure. (c) Optical spectrum of the laser output. (d) Interferometric trace from the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. ISO: optical isolator; WDM: wavelength-division multiplexer; SOA: semiconductor optical amplifier; PC: polarization controller.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic diagram and (b) a photograph of the micromotor probe. The micromotor is held by a hypotube which is open over 70% of its circumference. The wire is folded back along the hypotube and it is covered with a transparent sheath when fully assembled.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Sensitivity roll-off measured using the 500 MSPS A/D card, (b) sensitivity roll-off measured using the 1 GHz oscilloscope, and (c) point spread function of the ultrahigh speed endoscopic OCT system. The point spread function was measured at imaging depth of ~1.1 mm and has 11 μm axial resolution, corresponding to 8 μm in tissue.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image contrast enhancement by averaging. (a) Single image with 2x enlargement in box on left. (b) Averaged of 2 consecutive images, corresponding to a 5 μm pullback distance. (c) Averaged of 4 consecutive images, corresponding to a 10 μm pullback distance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

In vivo volumetric OCT images from rabbit esophagus. (a) En face image averaged over 15 μm at depth of 190 μm. (b) A cross-sectional image transverse to the probe direction averaged over 12 μm. (c) Longitudinal cross-sectional image along the pullback direction averaged over 7.5 μm. (d) Enlarged view of (c). (e) Representative histology of the rabbit esophagus. Red arrows: blood vessels. Media 1 shows a 3D rendering and cross-sectional flythrough of volumetric OCT data at the gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

In vivo volumetric OCT images from rabbit colon. (a) En face image at imaging depth of 300 μm. (b) Cross-sectional images along the rotary direction. (c) Cross-sectional image along the pullback direction. (d) Representative cross-sectional histology of the rabbit colon with hematoxylin and eosin stain. Red arrows: blood vessels (Media 2).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ex vivo volumetric OCT images from human colon. (a) Cross-sectional image along the rotary direction. (b) En face image at imaging depth of 350 μm. (c) Enlarged view of the red box in (a). (d) Cross-sectional image along the pullback direction. (e) Representative en face histology of the human colon with hematoxylin and eosin stain. (f, g) Enlarged view of the en face image at the same location as the red box in (b) at imaging depths of 250 μm and 350 μm. Red arrows: crypts (Media 3).

Metrics