Abstract

Mid-infrared transmission spectroscopy using broadband mid-infrared or Quantum Cascade laser sources is used to predict glucose concentrations of aqueous and serum solutions containing physiologically relevant amounts of glucose (50-400 mg/dL). We employ partial least squares regression to generate a calibration model using a subset of the spectra taken and to predict concentrations from new spectra. Clinically accurate measurements with respect to a Clarke error grid were made for concentrations as low as 30 mg/dL, regardless of background solvent. These results are an important and encouraging step in the work towards developing a noninvasive in vivo glucose sensor in the mid-infrared.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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  1. World Health Organization facts, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/index.html .
  2. O. S. Khalil, “Spectroscopic and clinical aspects of noninvasive glucose measurements,” Clin. Chem.45(2), 165–177 (1999).
    [PubMed]
  3. V. Tuchin, Handbook of Optical Sensing of Glucose in Biological Fluids and Tissues (CRC, 2009).
  4. K. Maruo, M. Tsurugi, M. Tamura, and Y. Ozaki, “In vivo noninvasive measurement of blood glucose by near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.57(10), 1236–1244 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Marbach, “A new method for multivariate calibration,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.13(1), 241–254 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, G. P. Singh, J. W. Kang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Investigation of the specificity of Raman spectroscopy in non-invasive blood glucose measurements,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2871–2880 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Ullah, B. Davoudi, A. Mariampillai, G. Hussain, M. Ikram, and I. A. Vitkin, “Quantification of glucose levels in flowing blood using M-mode swept source optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys.22(4), 797–804 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. B. Christison and H. A. MacKenzie, “Laser photoacoustic determination of physiological glucose concentrations in human whole blood,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.31(3), 284–290 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. X. Guo, A. Mandelis, and B. Zinman, “Noninvasive glucose detection in human skin using wavelength modulated differential laser photothermal radiometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 3012–3021 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 061103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Liakat, A. Michel, K. Bors, and C. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared (λ=8.4-9.9 μm) light scattering from porcine tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(9), 093705 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. P. Michel, S. Liakat, K. Bors, and C. F. Gmachl, “In vivo measurement of mid-infrared light scattering from human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(4), 520–530 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Brandstetter, L. Volgger, A. Genner, C. Jungbauer, and B. Lendl, “Direct determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum by a tunable quantum cascade laser-based mid-IR sensor,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 233–239 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. von Lilienfeld-Toal, M. Weidenmüller, A. Xhelaj, and W. Mäntele, “A novel approach to noninvasive glucose measurement by mid-infrared spectroscopy: The combination of quantum cascade lasers (QCL) and photoacoustic detection,” Vib. Spectrosc.38(1-2), 209–215 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. B. Martin, S. Mirov, and R. Venugopalan, “Middle infrared, quantum cascade laser optoelectronic absorption system for monitoring glucose in serum,” Appl. Spectrosc.59(7), 881–884 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. L. Clarke, D. Cox, L. A. Gonder-Frederick, W. Carter, and S. L. Pohl, “Evaluating clinical accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose,” Diabetes Care10(5), 622–628 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Guyton and J. Hall, “Insulin, glucagon, and diabetes mellitus,” in Textbook of Medical Physiology (W.B. Saunders Co., 1996), Chap. 78, pp. 971–983.
  18. American Diabetes Association, “Living with diabetes: blood glucose control,” http://www.diabetes.org .
  19. S. de Jong, “SIMPLS: an alternative approach to partial least squares regression,” Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst.18(3), 251–263 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2013

A. P. Michel, S. Liakat, K. Bors, and C. F. Gmachl, “In vivo measurement of mid-infrared light scattering from human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(4), 520–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brandstetter, L. Volgger, A. Genner, C. Jungbauer, and B. Lendl, “Direct determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum by a tunable quantum cascade laser-based mid-IR sensor,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 233–239 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

S. Liakat, A. Michel, K. Bors, and C. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared (λ=8.4-9.9 μm) light scattering from porcine tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(9), 093705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Ullah, B. Davoudi, A. Mariampillai, G. Hussain, M. Ikram, and I. A. Vitkin, “Quantification of glucose levels in flowing blood using M-mode swept source optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys.22(4), 797–804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, A. Mandelis, and B. Zinman, “Noninvasive glucose detection in human skin using wavelength modulated differential laser photothermal radiometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 3012–3021 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, G. P. Singh, J. W. Kang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Investigation of the specificity of Raman spectroscopy in non-invasive blood glucose measurements,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2871–2880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Marbach, “A new method for multivariate calibration,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.13(1), 241–254 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. von Lilienfeld-Toal, M. Weidenmüller, A. Xhelaj, and W. Mäntele, “A novel approach to noninvasive glucose measurement by mid-infrared spectroscopy: The combination of quantum cascade lasers (QCL) and photoacoustic detection,” Vib. Spectrosc.38(1-2), 209–215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Martin, S. Mirov, and R. Venugopalan, “Middle infrared, quantum cascade laser optoelectronic absorption system for monitoring glucose in serum,” Appl. Spectrosc.59(7), 881–884 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

1999

O. S. Khalil, “Spectroscopic and clinical aspects of noninvasive glucose measurements,” Clin. Chem.45(2), 165–177 (1999).
[PubMed]

1993

G. B. Christison and H. A. MacKenzie, “Laser photoacoustic determination of physiological glucose concentrations in human whole blood,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.31(3), 284–290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. de Jong, “SIMPLS: an alternative approach to partial least squares regression,” Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst.18(3), 251–263 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987

W. L. Clarke, D. Cox, L. A. Gonder-Frederick, W. Carter, and S. L. Pohl, “Evaluating clinical accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose,” Diabetes Care10(5), 622–628 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barman, I.

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, G. P. Singh, J. W. Kang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Investigation of the specificity of Raman spectroscopy in non-invasive blood glucose measurements,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2871–2880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonetti, Y.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bors, K.

A. P. Michel, S. Liakat, K. Bors, and C. F. Gmachl, “In vivo measurement of mid-infrared light scattering from human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(4), 520–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liakat, A. Michel, K. Bors, and C. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared (λ=8.4-9.9 μm) light scattering from porcine tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(9), 093705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brandstetter, M.

M. Brandstetter, L. Volgger, A. Genner, C. Jungbauer, and B. Lendl, “Direct determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum by a tunable quantum cascade laser-based mid-IR sensor,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 233–239 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Carter, W.

W. L. Clarke, D. Cox, L. A. Gonder-Frederick, W. Carter, and S. L. Pohl, “Evaluating clinical accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose,” Diabetes Care10(5), 622–628 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christison, G. B.

G. B. Christison and H. A. MacKenzie, “Laser photoacoustic determination of physiological glucose concentrations in human whole blood,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.31(3), 284–290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarke, W. L.

W. L. Clarke, D. Cox, L. A. Gonder-Frederick, W. Carter, and S. L. Pohl, “Evaluating clinical accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose,” Diabetes Care10(5), 622–628 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, D.

W. L. Clarke, D. Cox, L. A. Gonder-Frederick, W. Carter, and S. L. Pohl, “Evaluating clinical accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose,” Diabetes Care10(5), 622–628 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, G. P. Singh, J. W. Kang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Investigation of the specificity of Raman spectroscopy in non-invasive blood glucose measurements,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2871–2880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davoudi, B.

H. Ullah, B. Davoudi, A. Mariampillai, G. Hussain, M. Ikram, and I. A. Vitkin, “Quantification of glucose levels in flowing blood using M-mode swept source optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys.22(4), 797–804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

de Jong, S.

S. de Jong, “SIMPLS: an alternative approach to partial least squares regression,” Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst.18(3), 251–263 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dingari, N. C.

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, G. P. Singh, J. W. Kang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Investigation of the specificity of Raman spectroscopy in non-invasive blood glucose measurements,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2871–2880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, G. P. Singh, J. W. Kang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Investigation of the specificity of Raman spectroscopy in non-invasive blood glucose measurements,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2871–2880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, M.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Genner, A.

M. Brandstetter, L. Volgger, A. Genner, C. Jungbauer, and B. Lendl, “Direct determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum by a tunable quantum cascade laser-based mid-IR sensor,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 233–239 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

S. Liakat, A. Michel, K. Bors, and C. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared (λ=8.4-9.9 μm) light scattering from porcine tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(9), 093705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C. F.

Gonder-Frederick, L. A.

W. L. Clarke, D. Cox, L. A. Gonder-Frederick, W. Carter, and S. L. Pohl, “Evaluating clinical accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose,” Diabetes Care10(5), 622–628 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, X.

Hugi, A.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hussain, G.

H. Ullah, B. Davoudi, A. Mariampillai, G. Hussain, M. Ikram, and I. A. Vitkin, “Quantification of glucose levels in flowing blood using M-mode swept source optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys.22(4), 797–804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ikram, M.

H. Ullah, B. Davoudi, A. Mariampillai, G. Hussain, M. Ikram, and I. A. Vitkin, “Quantification of glucose levels in flowing blood using M-mode swept source optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys.22(4), 797–804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jungbauer, C.

M. Brandstetter, L. Volgger, A. Genner, C. Jungbauer, and B. Lendl, “Direct determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum by a tunable quantum cascade laser-based mid-IR sensor,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 233–239 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. W.

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, G. P. Singh, J. W. Kang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Investigation of the specificity of Raman spectroscopy in non-invasive blood glucose measurements,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2871–2880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khalil, O. S.

O. S. Khalil, “Spectroscopic and clinical aspects of noninvasive glucose measurements,” Clin. Chem.45(2), 165–177 (1999).
[PubMed]

Lendl, B.

M. Brandstetter, L. Volgger, A. Genner, C. Jungbauer, and B. Lendl, “Direct determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum by a tunable quantum cascade laser-based mid-IR sensor,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 233–239 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liakat, S.

A. P. Michel, S. Liakat, K. Bors, and C. F. Gmachl, “In vivo measurement of mid-infrared light scattering from human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(4), 520–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liakat, A. Michel, K. Bors, and C. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared (λ=8.4-9.9 μm) light scattering from porcine tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(9), 093705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

MacKenzie, H. A.

G. B. Christison and H. A. MacKenzie, “Laser photoacoustic determination of physiological glucose concentrations in human whole blood,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.31(3), 284–290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandelis, A.

Mäntele, W.

H. von Lilienfeld-Toal, M. Weidenmüller, A. Xhelaj, and W. Mäntele, “A novel approach to noninvasive glucose measurement by mid-infrared spectroscopy: The combination of quantum cascade lasers (QCL) and photoacoustic detection,” Vib. Spectrosc.38(1-2), 209–215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marbach, R.

R. Marbach, “A new method for multivariate calibration,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.13(1), 241–254 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mariampillai, A.

H. Ullah, B. Davoudi, A. Mariampillai, G. Hussain, M. Ikram, and I. A. Vitkin, “Quantification of glucose levels in flowing blood using M-mode swept source optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys.22(4), 797–804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martin, W. B.

Maruo, K.

Michel, A.

S. Liakat, A. Michel, K. Bors, and C. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared (λ=8.4-9.9 μm) light scattering from porcine tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(9), 093705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Michel, A. P.

Mirov, S.

Ozaki, Y.

Pohl, S. L.

W. L. Clarke, D. Cox, L. A. Gonder-Frederick, W. Carter, and S. L. Pohl, “Evaluating clinical accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose,” Diabetes Care10(5), 622–628 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, G. P.

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, G. P. Singh, J. W. Kang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Investigation of the specificity of Raman spectroscopy in non-invasive blood glucose measurements,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2871–2880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamura, M.

Terazzi, R.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsurugi, M.

Ullah, H.

H. Ullah, B. Davoudi, A. Mariampillai, G. Hussain, M. Ikram, and I. A. Vitkin, “Quantification of glucose levels in flowing blood using M-mode swept source optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys.22(4), 797–804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Venugopalan, R.

Vitkin, I. A.

H. Ullah, B. Davoudi, A. Mariampillai, G. Hussain, M. Ikram, and I. A. Vitkin, “Quantification of glucose levels in flowing blood using M-mode swept source optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys.22(4), 797–804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Volgger, L.

M. Brandstetter, L. Volgger, A. Genner, C. Jungbauer, and B. Lendl, “Direct determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum by a tunable quantum cascade laser-based mid-IR sensor,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 233–239 (2013).
[CrossRef]

von Lilienfeld-Toal, H.

H. von Lilienfeld-Toal, M. Weidenmüller, A. Xhelaj, and W. Mäntele, “A novel approach to noninvasive glucose measurement by mid-infrared spectroscopy: The combination of quantum cascade lasers (QCL) and photoacoustic detection,” Vib. Spectrosc.38(1-2), 209–215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weidenmüller, M.

H. von Lilienfeld-Toal, M. Weidenmüller, A. Xhelaj, and W. Mäntele, “A novel approach to noninvasive glucose measurement by mid-infrared spectroscopy: The combination of quantum cascade lasers (QCL) and photoacoustic detection,” Vib. Spectrosc.38(1-2), 209–215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, A.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xhelaj, A.

H. von Lilienfeld-Toal, M. Weidenmüller, A. Xhelaj, and W. Mäntele, “A novel approach to noninvasive glucose measurement by mid-infrared spectroscopy: The combination of quantum cascade lasers (QCL) and photoacoustic detection,” Vib. Spectrosc.38(1-2), 209–215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zinman, B.

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, G. P. Singh, J. W. Kang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Investigation of the specificity of Raman spectroscopy in non-invasive blood glucose measurements,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2871–2880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

M. Brandstetter, L. Volgger, A. Genner, C. Jungbauer, and B. Lendl, “Direct determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum by a tunable quantum cascade laser-based mid-IR sensor,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 233–239 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Liakat, A. Michel, K. Bors, and C. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared (λ=8.4-9.9 μm) light scattering from porcine tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(9), 093705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Biomed. Opt. Express

Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst.

S. de Jong, “SIMPLS: an alternative approach to partial least squares regression,” Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst.18(3), 251–263 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Chem.

O. S. Khalil, “Spectroscopic and clinical aspects of noninvasive glucose measurements,” Clin. Chem.45(2), 165–177 (1999).
[PubMed]

Diabetes Care

W. L. Clarke, D. Cox, L. A. Gonder-Frederick, W. Carter, and S. L. Pohl, “Evaluating clinical accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose,” Diabetes Care10(5), 622–628 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.

R. Marbach, “A new method for multivariate calibration,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.13(1), 241–254 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

H. Ullah, B. Davoudi, A. Mariampillai, G. Hussain, M. Ikram, and I. A. Vitkin, “Quantification of glucose levels in flowing blood using M-mode swept source optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys.22(4), 797–804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.

G. B. Christison and H. A. MacKenzie, “Laser photoacoustic determination of physiological glucose concentrations in human whole blood,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.31(3), 284–290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vib. Spectrosc.

H. von Lilienfeld-Toal, M. Weidenmüller, A. Xhelaj, and W. Mäntele, “A novel approach to noninvasive glucose measurement by mid-infrared spectroscopy: The combination of quantum cascade lasers (QCL) and photoacoustic detection,” Vib. Spectrosc.38(1-2), 209–215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Guyton and J. Hall, “Insulin, glucagon, and diabetes mellitus,” in Textbook of Medical Physiology (W.B. Saunders Co., 1996), Chap. 78, pp. 971–983.

American Diabetes Association, “Living with diabetes: blood glucose control,” http://www.diabetes.org .

World Health Organization facts, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/index.html .

V. Tuchin, Handbook of Optical Sensing of Glucose in Biological Fluids and Tissues (CRC, 2009).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Representative transmission spectra of aqueous glucose at concentrations from 10 – 10,000 mg/dL measured by FTIR spectroscopy. b-d) Prediction of glucose concentrations using calibrations ranging from 1 through 10,000 mg/dL in water (b), serum (c), and Intralipid (d). The red lines and corresponding fitting equations show changes to the linear fit when only concentrations between 1 and 100 mg/dL are used for calibration and prediction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Predicted glucose concentrations versus expected (actual) concentrations plotted on Clarke error grids [11]. Top row: aqueous solution (left) and serum solution (right) measured with FTIR. Bottom row: aqueous solution (left) and serum solution (right) measured with QC laser spectroscopy. The individual regions labeled A-E are described as follows: A - clinically accurate reading, B - result that would lead to benign action or inaction, C - results that would lead to unnecessary corrections, D - results that would lead to inaction when action is necessary, and E - results that would lead to treatment opposite to what should be given.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

First loading vectors for calibration sets in serum (left) and water (right), for FTIR (top row) and QC laser (bottom row) spectra, with arrows denoting wavenumber regions of the most prominent absorption features.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average Prediction Values and Standard Errors of Prediction (SEP) for FTIR Transmission Spectra on Aqueous Glucose Solutions of Respective Concentrations*

Tables Icon

Table 2 Predicted Concentration Versus Expected Concentration for an Independent Batch of Solutions Calibrated Using the Data set Shown in Table 1*

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SEP= [ 1 N 1 N ( C a C p ) 2 ]

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