Abstract

Optical imaging and spectroscopy have emerged as effective tools for detecting malignant changes associated with oral cancer. While clinical studies have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for detection, current devices either interrogate a small region or can have reduced performance for some benign lesions. We describe a snapshot imaging spectrometer that combines the large field-of-view of widefield imaging with the diagnostic strength of spectroscopy. The portable device can stream RGB images at 7.2 frames per second and record both autofluorescence and reflectance spectral datacubes in < 1 second. We report initial data from normal volunteers and oral cancer patients.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  5. I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. N. Bedard, N. Hagen, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Image mapping spectrometry: calibration and characterization,” Opt. Eng.51(11), 111711 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. L. Edelstein, F. M. Giardiello, A. Basiri, L. M. Hylind, K. Romans, J. E. Axilbund, M. Cruz-Correa, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new phenotypic manifestation of familial adenomatous polyposis,” Fam. Cancer10(2), 309–313 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. E. Dickinson, G. Bearman, S. Tille, R. Lansford, and S. E. Fraser, “Multi-spectral imaging and linear unmixing add a whole new dimension to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Biotechniques31(6), 1272–1278 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  26. G. Vane, R. Green, T. Chrien, H. Enmark, E. Hansen, and W. Porter, “The airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ.44(2–3), 127–143 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett.30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, W. R. Johnson, G. H. Bearman, A. J. Durkin, M. Hsu, A. Lin, D. K. Binder, D. Wilson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011015 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. B. Epstein, P. Güneri, H. Boyacioglu, and E. Abt, “The limitations of the clinical oral examination in detecting dysplastic oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc.143(12), 1332–1342 (2012).
[PubMed]

N. Bedard, N. Hagen, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Image mapping spectrometry: calibration and characterization,” Opt. Eng.51(11), 111711 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gao, R. T. Smith, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS),” Biomed. Opt. Express3(1), 48–54 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

R. T. Kester, N. Bedard, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 056005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Edelstein, F. M. Giardiello, A. Basiri, L. M. Hylind, K. Romans, J. E. Axilbund, M. Cruz-Correa, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new phenotypic manifestation of familial adenomatous polyposis,” Fam. Cancer10(2), 309–313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hagen, N. Bedard, A. Mazhar, S. Konecky, B. Tromberg, and T. Tkaczyk, “Spectrally-resolved imaging of dynamic turbid media,” Proc. SPIE7892, 789206, 789206-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, W. R. Johnson, G. H. Bearman, A. J. Durkin, M. Hsu, A. Lin, D. K. Binder, D. Wilson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Matsumoto, “Detection of potentially malignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity using autofluorescence visualization device,” Kokubyo Gakkai Zasshi78(2), 73–80 (2011).
[PubMed]

C. F. Poh, C. E. MacAulay, D. M. Laronde, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, and M. P. Rosin, “Squamous cell carcinoma and precursor lesions: diagnosis and screening in a technical era,” Periodontol. 200057(1), 73–88 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Comparison of multispectral wide-field optical imaging modalities to maximize image contrast for objective discrimination of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin.60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gao, R. T. Kester, N. Hagen, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density for hyperspectral microscopy,” Opt. Express18(14), 14330–14344 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo fluorescence hyperspectral imaging of oral neoplasia,” Proc. SPIE7169, 71690J, 71690J-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Objective detection and delineation of oral neoplasia using autofluorescence imaging,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)2(5), 423–431 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt.47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. F. Poh, S. P. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, D. M. Laronde, P. Lane, C. Macaulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Direct fluorescence visualization of clinically occult high-risk oral premalignant disease using a simple hand-held device,” Head Neck29(1), 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(22), 6716–6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

K. J. Zuzak, M. D. Schaeberle, E. N. Lewis, and I. W. Levin, “Visible reflectance hyperspectral imaging: characterization of a noninvasive, in vivo system for determining tissue perfusion,” Anal. Chem.74(9), 2021–2028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. E. Dickinson, G. Bearman, S. Tille, R. Lansford, and S. E. Fraser, “Multi-spectral imaging and linear unmixing add a whole new dimension to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Biotechniques31(6), 1272–1278 (2001).
[PubMed]

1993 (1)

G. Vane, R. Green, T. Chrien, H. Enmark, E. Hansen, and W. Porter, “The airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ.44(2–3), 127–143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

D. P. Slaughter, H. W. Southwick, and W. Smejkal, “Field cancerization in oral stratified squamous epithelium; clinical implications of multicentric origin,” Cancer6(5), 963–968 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abt, E.

J. B. Epstein, P. Güneri, H. Boyacioglu, and E. Abt, “The limitations of the clinical oral examination in detecting dysplastic oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc.143(12), 1332–1342 (2012).
[PubMed]

Altekruse, S.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. W.

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(22), 6716–6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, W. F.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Axilbund, J. E.

D. L. Edelstein, F. M. Giardiello, A. Basiri, L. M. Hylind, K. Romans, J. E. Axilbund, M. Cruz-Correa, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new phenotypic manifestation of familial adenomatous polyposis,” Fam. Cancer10(2), 309–313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basiri, A.

D. L. Edelstein, F. M. Giardiello, A. Basiri, L. M. Hylind, K. Romans, J. E. Axilbund, M. Cruz-Correa, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new phenotypic manifestation of familial adenomatous polyposis,” Fam. Cancer10(2), 309–313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bearman, G.

M. E. Dickinson, G. Bearman, S. Tille, R. Lansford, and S. E. Fraser, “Multi-spectral imaging and linear unmixing add a whole new dimension to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Biotechniques31(6), 1272–1278 (2001).
[PubMed]

Bearman, G. H.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, W. R. Johnson, G. H. Bearman, A. J. Durkin, M. Hsu, A. Lin, D. K. Binder, D. Wilson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedard, N.

N. Bedard, N. Hagen, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Image mapping spectrometry: calibration and characterization,” Opt. Eng.51(11), 111711 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Kester, N. Bedard, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 056005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hagen, N. Bedard, A. Mazhar, S. Konecky, B. Tromberg, and T. Tkaczyk, “Spectrally-resolved imaging of dynamic turbid media,” Proc. SPIE7892, 789206, 789206-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Berean, K. W.

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(22), 6716–6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett.30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binder, D. K.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, W. R. Johnson, G. H. Bearman, A. J. Durkin, M. Hsu, A. Lin, D. K. Binder, D. Wilson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyacioglu, H.

J. B. Epstein, P. Güneri, H. Boyacioglu, and E. Abt, “The limitations of the clinical oral examination in detecting dysplastic oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc.143(12), 1332–1342 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chaturvedi, A. K.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chrien, T.

G. Vane, R. Green, T. Chrien, H. Enmark, E. Hansen, and W. Porter, “The airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ.44(2–3), 127–143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cozen, W.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cruz-Correa, M.

D. L. Edelstein, F. M. Giardiello, A. Basiri, L. M. Hylind, K. Romans, J. E. Axilbund, M. Cruz-Correa, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new phenotypic manifestation of familial adenomatous polyposis,” Fam. Cancer10(2), 309–313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuccia, D. J.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, W. R. Johnson, G. H. Bearman, A. J. Durkin, M. Hsu, A. Lin, D. K. Binder, D. Wilson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett.30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daye, D.

Dickinson, M. E.

M. E. Dickinson, G. Bearman, S. Tille, R. Lansford, and S. E. Fraser, “Multi-spectral imaging and linear unmixing add a whole new dimension to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Biotechniques31(6), 1272–1278 (2001).
[PubMed]

Durham, J. S.

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(22), 6716–6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durkin, A. J.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, W. R. Johnson, G. H. Bearman, A. J. Durkin, M. Hsu, A. Lin, D. K. Binder, D. Wilson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett.30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edelstein, D. L.

D. L. Edelstein, F. M. Giardiello, A. Basiri, L. M. Hylind, K. Romans, J. E. Axilbund, M. Cruz-Correa, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new phenotypic manifestation of familial adenomatous polyposis,” Fam. Cancer10(2), 309–313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Naggar, A.

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Naggar, A. K.

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Comparison of multispectral wide-field optical imaging modalities to maximize image contrast for objective discrimination of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Objective detection and delineation of oral neoplasia using autofluorescence imaging,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)2(5), 423–431 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engels, E. A.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enmark, H.

G. Vane, R. Green, T. Chrien, H. Enmark, E. Hansen, and W. Porter, “The airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ.44(2–3), 127–143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, J. B.

J. B. Epstein, P. Güneri, H. Boyacioglu, and E. Abt, “The limitations of the clinical oral examination in detecting dysplastic oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc.143(12), 1332–1342 (2012).
[PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

M. E. Dickinson, G. Bearman, S. Tille, R. Lansford, and S. E. Fraser, “Multi-spectral imaging and linear unmixing add a whole new dimension to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Biotechniques31(6), 1272–1278 (2001).
[PubMed]

Fuentes, C.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, L.

L. Gao, R. T. Smith, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS),” Biomed. Opt. Express3(1), 48–54 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bedard, N. Hagen, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Image mapping spectrometry: calibration and characterization,” Opt. Eng.51(11), 111711 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Kester, N. Bedard, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 056005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gao, R. T. Kester, N. Hagen, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density for hyperspectral microscopy,” Opt. Express18(14), 14330–14344 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt.47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giardiello, F. M.

D. L. Edelstein, F. M. Giardiello, A. Basiri, L. M. Hylind, K. Romans, J. E. Axilbund, M. Cruz-Correa, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new phenotypic manifestation of familial adenomatous polyposis,” Fam. Cancer10(2), 309–313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo fluorescence hyperspectral imaging of oral neoplasia,” Proc. SPIE7169, 71690J, 71690J-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A. M.

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Comparison of multispectral wide-field optical imaging modalities to maximize image contrast for objective discrimination of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Objective detection and delineation of oral neoplasia using autofluorescence imaging,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)2(5), 423–431 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt.47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillison, M. L.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, M. T.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, R.

G. Vane, R. Green, T. Chrien, H. Enmark, E. Hansen, and W. Porter, “The airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ.44(2–3), 127–143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Güneri, P.

J. B. Epstein, P. Güneri, H. Boyacioglu, and E. Abt, “The limitations of the clinical oral examination in detecting dysplastic oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc.143(12), 1332–1342 (2012).
[PubMed]

Hagen, N.

N. Bedard, N. Hagen, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Image mapping spectrometry: calibration and characterization,” Opt. Eng.51(11), 111711 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hagen, N. Bedard, A. Mazhar, S. Konecky, B. Tromberg, and T. Tkaczyk, “Spectrally-resolved imaging of dynamic turbid media,” Proc. SPIE7892, 789206, 789206-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, R. T. Kester, N. Hagen, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density for hyperspectral microscopy,” Opt. Express18(14), 14330–14344 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, E.

G. Vane, R. Green, T. Chrien, H. Enmark, E. Hansen, and W. Porter, “The airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ.44(2–3), 127–143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, B. Y.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, M.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, W. R. Johnson, G. H. Bearman, A. J. Durkin, M. Hsu, A. Lin, D. K. Binder, D. Wilson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hylind, L. M.

D. L. Edelstein, F. M. Giardiello, A. Basiri, L. M. Hylind, K. Romans, J. E. Axilbund, M. Cruz-Correa, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new phenotypic manifestation of familial adenomatous polyposis,” Fam. Cancer10(2), 309–313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin.60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, B.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, W. R.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, W. R. Johnson, G. H. Bearman, A. J. Durkin, M. Hsu, A. Lin, D. K. Binder, D. Wilson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordan, R. C.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabani, S.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kester, R. T.

Kim, E.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konecky, S.

N. Hagen, N. Bedard, A. Mazhar, S. Konecky, B. Tromberg, and T. Tkaczyk, “Spectrally-resolved imaging of dynamic turbid media,” Proc. SPIE7892, 789206, 789206-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kurachi, C.

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Comparison of multispectral wide-field optical imaging modalities to maximize image contrast for objective discrimination of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo fluorescence hyperspectral imaging of oral neoplasia,” Proc. SPIE7169, 71690J, 71690J-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Objective detection and delineation of oral neoplasia using autofluorescence imaging,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)2(5), 423–431 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lane, P.

C. F. Poh, S. P. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, D. M. Laronde, P. Lane, C. Macaulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Direct fluorescence visualization of clinically occult high-risk oral premalignant disease using a simple hand-held device,” Head Neck29(1), 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lansford, R.

M. E. Dickinson, G. Bearman, S. Tille, R. Lansford, and S. E. Fraser, “Multi-spectral imaging and linear unmixing add a whole new dimension to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Biotechniques31(6), 1272–1278 (2001).
[PubMed]

Laronde, D. M.

C. F. Poh, C. E. MacAulay, D. M. Laronde, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, and M. P. Rosin, “Squamous cell carcinoma and precursor lesions: diagnosis and screening in a technical era,” Periodontol. 200057(1), 73–88 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Poh, S. P. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, D. M. Laronde, P. Lane, C. Macaulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Direct fluorescence visualization of clinically occult high-risk oral premalignant disease using a simple hand-held device,” Head Neck29(1), 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laver, N.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. J.

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Comparison of multispectral wide-field optical imaging modalities to maximize image contrast for objective discrimination of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Objective detection and delineation of oral neoplasia using autofluorescence imaging,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)2(5), 423–431 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levin, I. W.

K. J. Zuzak, M. D. Schaeberle, E. N. Lewis, and I. W. Levin, “Visible reflectance hyperspectral imaging: characterization of a noninvasive, in vivo system for determining tissue perfusion,” Anal. Chem.74(9), 2021–2028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, E. N.

K. J. Zuzak, M. D. Schaeberle, E. N. Lewis, and I. W. Levin, “Visible reflectance hyperspectral imaging: characterization of a noninvasive, in vivo system for determining tissue perfusion,” Anal. Chem.74(9), 2021–2028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, A.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, W. R. Johnson, G. H. Bearman, A. J. Durkin, M. Hsu, A. Lin, D. K. Binder, D. Wilson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lynch, C. F.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macaulay, C.

C. F. Poh, S. P. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, D. M. Laronde, P. Lane, C. Macaulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Direct fluorescence visualization of clinically occult high-risk oral premalignant disease using a simple hand-held device,” Head Neck29(1), 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(22), 6716–6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacAulay, C. E.

C. F. Poh, C. E. MacAulay, D. M. Laronde, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, and M. P. Rosin, “Squamous cell carcinoma and precursor lesions: diagnosis and screening in a technical era,” Periodontol. 200057(1), 73–88 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, K.

K. Matsumoto, “Detection of potentially malignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity using autofluorescence visualization device,” Kokubyo Gakkai Zasshi78(2), 73–80 (2011).
[PubMed]

Mazhar, A.

N. Hagen, N. Bedard, A. Mazhar, S. Konecky, B. Tromberg, and T. Tkaczyk, “Spectrally-resolved imaging of dynamic turbid media,” Proc. SPIE7892, 789206, 789206-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M. G.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, S.

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(22), 6716–6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, S. P.

C. F. Poh, S. P. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, D. M. Laronde, P. Lane, C. Macaulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Direct fluorescence visualization of clinically occult high-risk oral premalignant disease using a simple hand-held device,” Head Neck29(1), 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavlova, I.

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, R. M.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poh, C. F.

C. F. Poh, C. E. MacAulay, D. M. Laronde, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, and M. P. Rosin, “Squamous cell carcinoma and precursor lesions: diagnosis and screening in a technical era,” Periodontol. 200057(1), 73–88 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Poh, S. P. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, D. M. Laronde, P. Lane, C. Macaulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Direct fluorescence visualization of clinically occult high-risk oral premalignant disease using a simple hand-held device,” Head Neck29(1), 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(22), 6716–6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porter, W.

G. Vane, R. Green, T. Chrien, H. Enmark, E. Hansen, and W. Porter, “The airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ.44(2–3), 127–143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Priddy, R. W.

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(22), 6716–6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

D. L. Edelstein, F. M. Giardiello, A. Basiri, L. M. Hylind, K. Romans, J. E. Axilbund, M. Cruz-Correa, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new phenotypic manifestation of familial adenomatous polyposis,” Fam. Cancer10(2), 309–313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Redden Weber, C.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Comparison of multispectral wide-field optical imaging modalities to maximize image contrast for objective discrimination of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo fluorescence hyperspectral imaging of oral neoplasia,” Proc. SPIE7169, 71690J, 71690J-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Objective detection and delineation of oral neoplasia using autofluorescence imaging,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)2(5), 423–431 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt.47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roblyer, D.

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Comparison of multispectral wide-field optical imaging modalities to maximize image contrast for objective discrimination of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo fluorescence hyperspectral imaging of oral neoplasia,” Proc. SPIE7169, 71690J, 71690J-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Objective detection and delineation of oral neoplasia using autofluorescence imaging,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)2(5), 423–431 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romans, K.

D. L. Edelstein, F. M. Giardiello, A. Basiri, L. M. Hylind, K. Romans, J. E. Axilbund, M. Cruz-Correa, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new phenotypic manifestation of familial adenomatous polyposis,” Fam. Cancer10(2), 309–313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, P. S.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosin, M. P.

C. F. Poh, C. E. MacAulay, D. M. Laronde, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, and M. P. Rosin, “Squamous cell carcinoma and precursor lesions: diagnosis and screening in a technical era,” Periodontol. 200057(1), 73–88 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Poh, S. P. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, D. M. Laronde, P. Lane, C. Macaulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Direct fluorescence visualization of clinically occult high-risk oral premalignant disease using a simple hand-held device,” Head Neck29(1), 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(22), 6716–6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaeberle, M. D.

K. J. Zuzak, M. D. Schaeberle, E. N. Lewis, and I. W. Levin, “Visible reflectance hyperspectral imaging: characterization of a noninvasive, in vivo system for determining tissue perfusion,” Anal. Chem.74(9), 2021–2028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, R. A.

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Comparison of multispectral wide-field optical imaging modalities to maximize image contrast for objective discrimination of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt.47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapshay, S. M.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibug-Saber, M.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, R.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin.60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slaughter, D. P.

D. P. Slaughter, H. W. Southwick, and W. Smejkal, “Field cancerization in oral stratified squamous epithelium; clinical implications of multicentric origin,” Cancer6(5), 963–968 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smejkal, W.

D. P. Slaughter, H. W. Southwick, and W. Smejkal, “Field cancerization in oral stratified squamous epithelium; clinical implications of multicentric origin,” Cancer6(5), 963–968 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R. T.

Sokolov, K.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southwick, H. W.

D. P. Slaughter, H. W. Southwick, and W. Smejkal, “Field cancerization in oral stratified squamous epithelium; clinical implications of multicentric origin,” Cancer6(5), 963–968 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanek, V.

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Comparison of multispectral wide-field optical imaging modalities to maximize image contrast for objective discrimination of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Objective detection and delineation of oral neoplasia using autofluorescence imaging,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)2(5), 423–431 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tille, S.

M. E. Dickinson, G. Bearman, S. Tille, R. Lansford, and S. E. Fraser, “Multi-spectral imaging and linear unmixing add a whole new dimension to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Biotechniques31(6), 1272–1278 (2001).
[PubMed]

Tkaczyk, T.

N. Hagen, N. Bedard, A. Mazhar, S. Konecky, B. Tromberg, and T. Tkaczyk, “Spectrally-resolved imaging of dynamic turbid media,” Proc. SPIE7892, 789206, 789206-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tkaczyk, T. S.

L. Gao, R. T. Smith, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS),” Biomed. Opt. Express3(1), 48–54 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bedard, N. Hagen, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Image mapping spectrometry: calibration and characterization,” Opt. Eng.51(11), 111711 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Kester, N. Bedard, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 056005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gao, R. T. Kester, N. Hagen, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density for hyperspectral microscopy,” Opt. Express18(14), 14330–14344 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B.

N. Hagen, N. Bedard, A. Mazhar, S. Konecky, B. Tromberg, and T. Tkaczyk, “Spectrally-resolved imaging of dynamic turbid media,” Proc. SPIE7892, 789206, 789206-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, W. R. Johnson, G. H. Bearman, A. J. Durkin, M. Hsu, A. Lin, D. K. Binder, D. Wilson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett.30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, O. L.

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(22), 6716–6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valdez, T. A.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vane, G.

G. Vane, R. Green, T. Chrien, H. Enmark, E. Hansen, and W. Porter, “The airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ.44(2–3), 127–143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, E.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin.60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, J. R.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, W. R. Johnson, G. H. Bearman, A. J. Durkin, M. Hsu, A. Lin, D. K. Binder, D. Wilson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wentzensen, N.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, M.

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, M. D.

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Comparison of multispectral wide-field optical imaging modalities to maximize image contrast for objective discrimination of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Objective detection and delineation of oral neoplasia using autofluorescence imaging,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)2(5), 423–431 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt.47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, P. M.

C. F. Poh, C. E. MacAulay, D. M. Laronde, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, and M. P. Rosin, “Squamous cell carcinoma and precursor lesions: diagnosis and screening in a technical era,” Periodontol. 200057(1), 73–88 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Poh, S. P. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, D. M. Laronde, P. Lane, C. Macaulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Direct fluorescence visualization of clinically occult high-risk oral premalignant disease using a simple hand-held device,” Head Neck29(1), 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(22), 6716–6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, D.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, W. R. Johnson, G. H. Bearman, A. J. Durkin, M. Hsu, A. Lin, D. K. Binder, D. Wilson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, W.

A. K. Chaturvedi, E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, B. Y. Hernandez, W. Xiao, E. Kim, B. Jiang, M. T. Goodman, M. Sibug-Saber, W. Cozen, L. Liu, C. F. Lynch, N. Wentzensen, R. C. Jordan, S. Altekruse, W. F. Anderson, P. S. Rosenberg, and M. L. Gillison, “Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol.29(32), 4294–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin.60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

C. F. Poh, C. E. MacAulay, D. M. Laronde, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, and M. P. Rosin, “Squamous cell carcinoma and precursor lesions: diagnosis and screening in a technical era,” Periodontol. 200057(1), 73–88 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Poh, S. P. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, D. M. Laronde, P. Lane, C. Macaulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Direct fluorescence visualization of clinically occult high-risk oral premalignant disease using a simple hand-held device,” Head Neck29(1), 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(22), 6716–6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuzak, K. J.

K. J. Zuzak, M. D. Schaeberle, E. N. Lewis, and I. W. Levin, “Visible reflectance hyperspectral imaging: characterization of a noninvasive, in vivo system for determining tissue perfusion,” Anal. Chem.74(9), 2021–2028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

K. J. Zuzak, M. D. Schaeberle, E. N. Lewis, and I. W. Levin, “Visible reflectance hyperspectral imaging: characterization of a noninvasive, in vivo system for determining tissue perfusion,” Anal. Chem.74(9), 2021–2028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biotechniques (1)

M. E. Dickinson, G. Bearman, S. Tille, R. Lansford, and S. E. Fraser, “Multi-spectral imaging and linear unmixing add a whole new dimension to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Biotechniques31(6), 1272–1278 (2001).
[PubMed]

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin.60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer (3)

D. P. Slaughter, H. W. Southwick, and W. Smejkal, “Field cancerization in oral stratified squamous epithelium; clinical implications of multicentric origin,” Cancer6(5), 963–968 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) (1)

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Objective detection and delineation of oral neoplasia using autofluorescence imaging,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)2(5), 423–431 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res. (2)

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(22), 6716–6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fam. Cancer (1)

D. L. Edelstein, F. M. Giardiello, A. Basiri, L. M. Hylind, K. Romans, J. E. Axilbund, M. Cruz-Correa, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new phenotypic manifestation of familial adenomatous polyposis,” Fam. Cancer10(2), 309–313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Head Neck (1)

C. F. Poh, S. P. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, D. M. Laronde, P. Lane, C. Macaulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Direct fluorescence visualization of clinically occult high-risk oral premalignant disease using a simple hand-held device,” Head Neck29(1), 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Dent. Assoc. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The snapshot spectral imager has LEDs for autofluorescence (AF) and reflectance (WL) imaging. It collects 350 x 350 spatial x 41 spectral points simultaneously and is controlled with LabVIEW on a laptop computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral imaging from the tongue of one patient with erythroplakia. (a, d) show the right ventral tongue in reflectance and autofluorescence modes, respectively, which had a clinical impression of “normal.” A biopsy (solid circle) indicated normal epithelium. (b, e) show an erythroplakia on the right dorsal tongue, which had a clinical impression of “abnormal high risk.” A biopsy (dotted circle) indicated squamous cell carcinoma. Reflectance spectra (c) contain characteristic oxy-hemoglobin peaks. Autofluorescence images and spectra from the biopsy region (f) show loss of blue fluorescence in the abnormal site.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral imaging from one patient with multiple lesions. (a, d) show an erythroplakia on the right anterior floor of mouth, which had a clinical impression of “abnormal high risk.” A biopsy (solid circle) indicated severe dysplasia. (b, e) show a leukoplakia on the right lateral tongue, which had a clinical impression of “abnormal low risk.” A biopsy (dotted circle) indicated moderate dysplasia. (c, f) show the IMS reflectance and autofluorescence spectra, respectively, from the circled ROIs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of average spectra for different histopathological diagnoses. Data is shown for snapshot spectral imaging (left) and point spectroscopy from a previous clinical trial of 408 sites (right). All sites were nonkeratinized.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectral imaging from the lower lip of a normal volunteer. The snapshot reflectance datacube can be used to visualize vasculature of different sizes and depths. (b) Spectral unmixing can be used to increase contrast of vasculature in the image.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral imaging from two patients with invasive carcinoma. Although the lesion in (a, d) is clearly visible, loss of autofluorescence in (b, e) shows boundaries not as apparent with traditional white light imaging. Spectral analysis (c, f) was used to determine the tissue region (white line) with areas of reduced autofluorescence highlighted (red line).

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Specifications for the Snapshot Imaging Spectrometer

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Table 2 Anatomic Sites of ROIs in the Dataset

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Table 3 Clinical Impression versus Histopathological Diagnosis for 24 Biopsy Sites

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