Abstract

Some of the different currently applied approaches that correct presbyopia may reduce stereovision. In this work, stereo-acuity was measured for two methods: (1) monovision and (2) small aperture inlay in one eye. When performing the experiment, a prototype of a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer was employed. The system allowed simultaneous measurement and manipulation of the optics in both eyes of a subject. The apparatus incorporated two programmable spatial light modulators: one phase-only device using liquid crystal on silicon technology for wavefront manipulation and one intensity modulator for controlling the exit pupils. The prototype was also equipped with a stimulus generator for creating retinal disparity based on two micro-displays. The three-needle test was programmed for characterizing stereo-acuity. Subjects underwent a two-alternative forced-choice test. The following cases were tested for the stimulus placed at distance: (a) natural vision; (b) 1.5 D monovision; (c) 0.75 D monovision; (d) natural vision and small pupil; (e) 0.75 D monovision and small pupil. In all cases the standard pupil diameter was 4 mm and the small pupil diameter was 1.6 mm. The use of a small aperture significantly reduced the negative impact of monovision on stereopsis. The results of the experiment suggest that combining micro-monovision with a small aperture, which is currently being implemented as a corneal inlay, can yield values of stereoacuity close to those attained under normal binocular vision.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Wave-aberration control with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial phase modulator,” Opt. Express17(13), 11013–11025 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, P. M. Prieto, B. Hermann, W. Drexler, and P. Artal, “Ocular aberrations as a function of wavelength in the near infrared measured with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express13(2), 400–409 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. E. J. Fernández and P. Artal, “Ocular aberrations up to the infrared range: from 632.8 to 1070 nm,” Opt. Express16(26), 21199–21208 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, T. Rückl, W. Hitzl, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance after implantation of a modified corneal inlay design for the surgical correction of presbyopia: 1-year follow-up,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.153(5), 994–1001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero and P. Artal, “Optical modeling of a corneal inlay in real eyes to increase depth of focus: optimum centration and residual defocus,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.38(2), 270–277 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

O. F. Yılmaz, N. Alagöz, G. Pekel, E. Azman, E. F. Aksoy, H. Cakır, E. Bozkurt, and A. Demirok, “Intracorneal inlay to correct presbyopia: Long-term results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.37(7), 1275–1281 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. O. Waring, “Correction of presbyopia with a small aperture corneal inlay,” J. Refract. Surg.27(11), 842–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, E. J. Fernández, and P. Artal, “Binocular visual simulation of a corneal inlay to increase depth of focus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5273–5277 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schwarz, P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, and P. Artal, “Binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer with full control over the complex pupil functions,” Opt. Lett.36(24), 4779–4781 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics binocular visual simulator to study stereopsis in the presence of aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(11), A48–A55 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. O’Connor, E. E. Birch, S. Anderson, H. Draper, and FSOS Research Group, “The functional significance of stereopsis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2019–2023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, G. Nix, A. K. Dexl, and G. Grabner, “Refractive surgical correction of presbyopia with the AcuFocus small aperture corneal inlay: two-year follow-up,” J. Refract. Surg.26(10), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

B. J. W. Evans, “Monovision: a review,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.27(5), 417–439 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

L. A. Mrotek, C. C. Gielen, and M. Flanders, “Manual tracking in three dimensions,” Exp. Brain Res.171(1), 99–115 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics with a programmable phase modulator: applications in the human eye,” Opt. Express12(17), 4059–4071 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. I. N. Mazyn, M. Lenoir, G. Montagne, and G. J. P. Savelsbergh, “The contribution of stereo vision to one-handed catching,” Exp. Brain Res.157(3), 383–390 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martín, J. S. McLellan, and S. A. Burns, “Effect of the polarization on ocular wave aberration measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19(4), 809–814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P. Wong, R. L. Woods, and E. Peli, “Stereoacuity at distance and near,” Optom. Vis. Sci.79(12), 771–778 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg.18(5), S634–S638 (2002).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

L. K. Cormack, S. B. Stevenson, and D. D. Landers, “Interactions of spatial frequency and unequal monocular contrasts in stereopsis,” Perception26(9), 1121–1136 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. R. Fielder and M. J. Moseley, “Does stereopsis matter in humans?” Eye (Lond.)10(2), 233–238 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

T. Geib and C. Baumann, “Effect of luminance and contrast on stereoscopic acuity,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.228(4), 310–315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

G. E. Legge and G. Yuanchao, “Stereopsis and contrast,” Vision Res.29(8), 989–1004 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schor and T. Heckmann, “Interocular differences in contrast and spatial frequency: effects on stereopsis and fusion,” Vision Res.29(7), 837–847 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

D. L. Halpern and R. R. Blake, “How contrast affects stereoacuity,” Perception17(4), 483–495 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rose, R. Blake, and D. L. Halpern, “Disparity range for binocular summation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.29(2), 283–290 (1988).
[PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. V. Lovasik and M. Szymkiw, “Effects of aniseikonia, anisometropia, accommodation, retinal illuminance, and pupil size on stereopsis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.26(5), 741–750 (1985).
[PubMed]

1983 (1)

I. C. Wood, “Stereopsis with spatially-degraded images,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.3(3), 337–340 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

G. Westheimer and S. P. McKee, “Stereogram design for testing local stereopsis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.19(7), 802–809 (1980).
[PubMed]

G. Westheimer and S. P. McKee, “Stereoscopic acuity with defocused and spatially filtered retinal images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A70(7), 772–778 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

G. Westheimer and S. P. McKee, “What prior uniocular processing is necessary for stereopsis?” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.18(6), 614–621 (1979).
[PubMed]

1974 (1)

C. W. McMonnies, “Monocular fogging in contact lens practice,” Aust. J. Optom.57, 28–32 (1974).

Agca, A.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aksoy, E. F.

O. F. Yılmaz, N. Alagöz, G. Pekel, E. Azman, E. F. Aksoy, H. Cakır, E. Bozkurt, and A. Demirok, “Intracorneal inlay to correct presbyopia: Long-term results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.37(7), 1275–1281 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alagöz, N.

O. F. Yılmaz, N. Alagöz, G. Pekel, E. Azman, E. F. Aksoy, H. Cakır, E. Bozkurt, and A. Demirok, “Intracorneal inlay to correct presbyopia: Long-term results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.37(7), 1275–1281 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, S.

A. R. O’Connor, E. E. Birch, S. Anderson, H. Draper, and FSOS Research Group, “The functional significance of stereopsis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2019–2023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anera, R. G.

Artal, P.

J. Tabernero and P. Artal, “Optical modeling of a corneal inlay in real eyes to increase depth of focus: optimum centration and residual defocus,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.38(2), 270–277 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, E. J. Fernández, and P. Artal, “Binocular visual simulation of a corneal inlay to increase depth of focus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5273–5277 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schwarz, P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, and P. Artal, “Binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer with full control over the complex pupil functions,” Opt. Lett.36(24), 4779–4781 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics binocular visual simulator to study stereopsis in the presence of aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(11), A48–A55 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Wave-aberration control with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial phase modulator,” Opt. Express17(13), 11013–11025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Binocular adaptive optics visual simulator,” Opt. Lett.34(17), 2628–2630 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández and P. Artal, “Ocular aberrations up to the infrared range: from 632.8 to 1070 nm,” Opt. Express16(26), 21199–21208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, P. M. Prieto, B. Hermann, W. Drexler, and P. Artal, “Ocular aberrations as a function of wavelength in the near infrared measured with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express13(2), 400–409 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics with a programmable phase modulator: applications in the human eye,” Opt. Express12(17), 4059–4071 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg.18(5), S634–S638 (2002).
[PubMed]

Azman, E.

O. F. Yılmaz, N. Alagöz, G. Pekel, E. Azman, E. F. Aksoy, H. Cakır, E. Bozkurt, and A. Demirok, “Intracorneal inlay to correct presbyopia: Long-term results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.37(7), 1275–1281 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, C.

T. Geib and C. Baumann, “Effect of luminance and contrast on stereoscopic acuity,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.228(4), 310–315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayraktar, S.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birch, E. E.

A. R. O’Connor, E. E. Birch, S. Anderson, H. Draper, and FSOS Research Group, “The functional significance of stereopsis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2019–2023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blake, R.

D. Rose, R. Blake, and D. L. Halpern, “Disparity range for binocular summation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.29(2), 283–290 (1988).
[PubMed]

Blake, R. R.

D. L. Halpern and R. R. Blake, “How contrast affects stereoacuity,” Perception17(4), 483–495 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozkurt, E.

O. F. Yılmaz, N. Alagöz, G. Pekel, E. Azman, E. F. Aksoy, H. Cakır, E. Bozkurt, and A. Demirok, “Intracorneal inlay to correct presbyopia: Long-term results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.37(7), 1275–1281 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

Cakir, H.

O. F. Yılmaz, N. Alagöz, G. Pekel, E. Azman, E. F. Aksoy, H. Cakır, E. Bozkurt, and A. Demirok, “Intracorneal inlay to correct presbyopia: Long-term results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.37(7), 1275–1281 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castro, J. J.

J. J. Castro, J. R. Jiménez, E. Hita, and C. Ortiz, “Influence of interocular differences in the Strehl ratio on binocular summation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.29(3), 370–374 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, E. Hita, and R. G. Anera, “Upper disparity limit after LASIK,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25(6), 1227–1231 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cormack, L. K.

L. K. Cormack, S. B. Stevenson, and D. D. Landers, “Interactions of spatial frequency and unequal monocular contrasts in stereopsis,” Perception26(9), 1121–1136 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demirok, A.

O. F. Yılmaz, N. Alagöz, G. Pekel, E. Azman, E. F. Aksoy, H. Cakır, E. Bozkurt, and A. Demirok, “Intracorneal inlay to correct presbyopia: Long-term results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.37(7), 1275–1281 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dexl, A. K.

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, T. Rückl, W. Hitzl, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance after implantation of a modified corneal inlay design for the surgical correction of presbyopia: 1-year follow-up,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.153(5), 994–1001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, G. Nix, A. K. Dexl, and G. Grabner, “Refractive surgical correction of presbyopia with the AcuFocus small aperture corneal inlay: two-year follow-up,” J. Refract. Surg.26(10), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Draper, H.

A. R. O’Connor, E. E. Birch, S. Anderson, H. Draper, and FSOS Research Group, “The functional significance of stereopsis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2019–2023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Evans, B. J. W.

B. J. W. Evans, “Monovision: a review,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.27(5), 417–439 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernández, E. J.

C. Schwarz, P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, and P. Artal, “Binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer with full control over the complex pupil functions,” Opt. Lett.36(24), 4779–4781 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, E. J. Fernández, and P. Artal, “Binocular visual simulation of a corneal inlay to increase depth of focus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5273–5277 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics binocular visual simulator to study stereopsis in the presence of aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(11), A48–A55 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Binocular adaptive optics visual simulator,” Opt. Lett.34(17), 2628–2630 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Wave-aberration control with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial phase modulator,” Opt. Express17(13), 11013–11025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández and P. Artal, “Ocular aberrations up to the infrared range: from 632.8 to 1070 nm,” Opt. Express16(26), 21199–21208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, P. M. Prieto, B. Hermann, W. Drexler, and P. Artal, “Ocular aberrations as a function of wavelength in the near infrared measured with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express13(2), 400–409 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics with a programmable phase modulator: applications in the human eye,” Opt. Express12(17), 4059–4071 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg.18(5), S634–S638 (2002).
[PubMed]

Fielder, A. R.

A. R. Fielder and M. J. Moseley, “Does stereopsis matter in humans?” Eye (Lond.)10(2), 233–238 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flanders, M.

L. A. Mrotek, C. C. Gielen, and M. Flanders, “Manual tracking in three dimensions,” Exp. Brain Res.171(1), 99–115 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geib, T.

T. Geib and C. Baumann, “Effect of luminance and contrast on stereoscopic acuity,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.228(4), 310–315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gielen, C. C.

L. A. Mrotek, C. C. Gielen, and M. Flanders, “Manual tracking in three dimensions,” Exp. Brain Res.171(1), 99–115 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grabner, G.

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, T. Rückl, W. Hitzl, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance after implantation of a modified corneal inlay design for the surgical correction of presbyopia: 1-year follow-up,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.153(5), 994–1001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, G. Nix, A. K. Dexl, and G. Grabner, “Refractive surgical correction of presbyopia with the AcuFocus small aperture corneal inlay: two-year follow-up,” J. Refract. Surg.26(10), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halpern, D. L.

D. L. Halpern and R. R. Blake, “How contrast affects stereoacuity,” Perception17(4), 483–495 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rose, R. Blake, and D. L. Halpern, “Disparity range for binocular summation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.29(2), 283–290 (1988).
[PubMed]

Heckmann, T.

C. Schor and T. Heckmann, “Interocular differences in contrast and spatial frequency: effects on stereopsis and fusion,” Vision Res.29(7), 837–847 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hita, E.

J. J. Castro, J. R. Jiménez, E. Hita, and C. Ortiz, “Influence of interocular differences in the Strehl ratio on binocular summation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.29(3), 370–374 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, E. Hita, and R. G. Anera, “Upper disparity limit after LASIK,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25(6), 1227–1231 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzl, W.

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, T. Rückl, W. Hitzl, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance after implantation of a modified corneal inlay design for the surgical correction of presbyopia: 1-year follow-up,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.153(5), 994–1001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohensinn, M.

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, T. Rückl, W. Hitzl, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance after implantation of a modified corneal inlay design for the surgical correction of presbyopia: 1-year follow-up,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.153(5), 994–1001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, G. Nix, A. K. Dexl, and G. Grabner, “Refractive surgical correction of presbyopia with the AcuFocus small aperture corneal inlay: two-year follow-up,” J. Refract. Surg.26(10), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiménez, J. R.

J. J. Castro, J. R. Jiménez, E. Hita, and C. Ortiz, “Influence of interocular differences in the Strehl ratio on binocular summation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.29(3), 370–374 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, E. Hita, and R. G. Anera, “Upper disparity limit after LASIK,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25(6), 1227–1231 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landers, D. D.

L. K. Cormack, S. B. Stevenson, and D. D. Landers, “Interactions of spatial frequency and unequal monocular contrasts in stereopsis,” Perception26(9), 1121–1136 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legge, G. E.

G. E. Legge and G. Yuanchao, “Stereopsis and contrast,” Vision Res.29(8), 989–1004 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenoir, M.

L. I. N. Mazyn, M. Lenoir, G. Montagne, and G. J. P. Savelsbergh, “The contribution of stereo vision to one-handed catching,” Exp. Brain Res.157(3), 383–390 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lovasik, J. V.

J. V. Lovasik and M. Szymkiw, “Effects of aniseikonia, anisometropia, accommodation, retinal illuminance, and pupil size on stereopsis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.26(5), 741–750 (1985).
[PubMed]

Manzanera, S.

Mazyn, L. I. N.

L. I. N. Mazyn, M. Lenoir, G. Montagne, and G. J. P. Savelsbergh, “The contribution of stereo vision to one-handed catching,” Exp. Brain Res.157(3), 383–390 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonald, M. B.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKee, S. P.

G. Westheimer and S. P. McKee, “Stereogram design for testing local stereopsis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.19(7), 802–809 (1980).
[PubMed]

G. Westheimer and S. P. McKee, “Stereoscopic acuity with defocused and spatially filtered retinal images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A70(7), 772–778 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. Westheimer and S. P. McKee, “What prior uniocular processing is necessary for stereopsis?” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.18(6), 614–621 (1979).
[PubMed]

McLellan, J. S.

McMonnies, C. W.

C. W. McMonnies, “Monocular fogging in contact lens practice,” Aust. J. Optom.57, 28–32 (1974).

Montagne, G.

L. I. N. Mazyn, M. Lenoir, G. Montagne, and G. J. P. Savelsbergh, “The contribution of stereo vision to one-handed catching,” Exp. Brain Res.157(3), 383–390 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moseley, M. J.

A. R. Fielder and M. J. Moseley, “Does stereopsis matter in humans?” Eye (Lond.)10(2), 233–238 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mrotek, L. A.

L. A. Mrotek, C. C. Gielen, and M. Flanders, “Manual tracking in three dimensions,” Exp. Brain Res.171(1), 99–115 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nix, G.

O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, G. Nix, A. K. Dexl, and G. Grabner, “Refractive surgical correction of presbyopia with the AcuFocus small aperture corneal inlay: two-year follow-up,” J. Refract. Surg.26(10), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Connor, A. R.

A. R. O’Connor, E. E. Birch, S. Anderson, H. Draper, and FSOS Research Group, “The functional significance of stereopsis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2019–2023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortiz, C.

J. J. Castro, J. R. Jiménez, E. Hita, and C. Ortiz, “Influence of interocular differences in the Strehl ratio on binocular summation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.29(3), 370–374 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pekel, G.

O. F. Yılmaz, N. Alagöz, G. Pekel, E. Azman, E. F. Aksoy, H. Cakır, E. Bozkurt, and A. Demirok, “Intracorneal inlay to correct presbyopia: Long-term results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.37(7), 1275–1281 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peli, E.

B. P. Wong, R. L. Woods, and E. Peli, “Stereoacuity at distance and near,” Optom. Vis. Sci.79(12), 771–778 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piers, P.

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg.18(5), S634–S638 (2002).
[PubMed]

Prieto, P. M.

Riha, W.

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, T. Rückl, W. Hitzl, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance after implantation of a modified corneal inlay design for the surgical correction of presbyopia: 1-year follow-up,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.153(5), 994–1001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, G. Nix, A. K. Dexl, and G. Grabner, “Refractive surgical correction of presbyopia with the AcuFocus small aperture corneal inlay: two-year follow-up,” J. Refract. Surg.26(10), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, D.

D. Rose, R. Blake, and D. L. Halpern, “Disparity range for binocular summation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.29(2), 283–290 (1988).
[PubMed]

Rückl, T.

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, T. Rückl, W. Hitzl, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance after implantation of a modified corneal inlay design for the surgical correction of presbyopia: 1-year follow-up,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.153(5), 994–1001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savelsbergh, G. J. P.

L. I. N. Mazyn, M. Lenoir, G. Montagne, and G. J. P. Savelsbergh, “The contribution of stereo vision to one-handed catching,” Exp. Brain Res.157(3), 383–390 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schor, C.

C. Schor and T. Heckmann, “Interocular differences in contrast and spatial frequency: effects on stereopsis and fusion,” Vision Res.29(7), 837–847 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, C.

C. Schwarz, P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, and P. Artal, “Binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer with full control over the complex pupil functions,” Opt. Lett.36(24), 4779–4781 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, E. J. Fernández, and P. Artal, “Binocular visual simulation of a corneal inlay to increase depth of focus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5273–5277 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seyeddain, O.

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, T. Rückl, W. Hitzl, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance after implantation of a modified corneal inlay design for the surgical correction of presbyopia: 1-year follow-up,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.153(5), 994–1001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, G. Nix, A. K. Dexl, and G. Grabner, “Refractive surgical correction of presbyopia with the AcuFocus small aperture corneal inlay: two-year follow-up,” J. Refract. Surg.26(10), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, S. B.

L. K. Cormack, S. B. Stevenson, and D. D. Landers, “Interactions of spatial frequency and unequal monocular contrasts in stereopsis,” Perception26(9), 1121–1136 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szymkiw, M.

J. V. Lovasik and M. Szymkiw, “Effects of aniseikonia, anisometropia, accommodation, retinal illuminance, and pupil size on stereopsis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.26(5), 741–750 (1985).
[PubMed]

Tabernero, J.

J. Tabernero and P. Artal, “Optical modeling of a corneal inlay in real eyes to increase depth of focus: optimum centration and residual defocus,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.38(2), 270–277 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, E. J. Fernández, and P. Artal, “Binocular visual simulation of a corneal inlay to increase depth of focus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5273–5277 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

van de Pol, C.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vargas-Martín, F.

Waring, G. O.

G. O. Waring, “Correction of presbyopia with a small aperture corneal inlay,” J. Refract. Surg.27(11), 842–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer and S. P. McKee, “Stereogram design for testing local stereopsis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.19(7), 802–809 (1980).
[PubMed]

G. Westheimer and S. P. McKee, “Stereoscopic acuity with defocused and spatially filtered retinal images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A70(7), 772–778 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. Westheimer and S. P. McKee, “What prior uniocular processing is necessary for stereopsis?” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.18(6), 614–621 (1979).
[PubMed]

Wong, B. P.

B. P. Wong, R. L. Woods, and E. Peli, “Stereoacuity at distance and near,” Optom. Vis. Sci.79(12), 771–778 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, I. C.

I. C. Wood, “Stereopsis with spatially-degraded images,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.3(3), 337–340 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woods, R. L.

B. P. Wong, R. L. Woods, and E. Peli, “Stereoacuity at distance and near,” Optom. Vis. Sci.79(12), 771–778 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yilmaz, B.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yilmaz, O. F.

O. F. Yılmaz, N. Alagöz, G. Pekel, E. Azman, E. F. Aksoy, H. Cakır, E. Bozkurt, and A. Demirok, “Intracorneal inlay to correct presbyopia: Long-term results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.37(7), 1275–1281 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuanchao, G.

G. E. Legge and G. Yuanchao, “Stereopsis and contrast,” Vision Res.29(8), 989–1004 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, T. Rückl, W. Hitzl, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance after implantation of a modified corneal inlay design for the surgical correction of presbyopia: 1-year follow-up,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.153(5), 994–1001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aust. J. Optom. (1)

C. W. McMonnies, “Monocular fogging in contact lens practice,” Aust. J. Optom.57, 28–32 (1974).

Exp. Brain Res. (2)

L. I. N. Mazyn, M. Lenoir, G. Montagne, and G. J. P. Savelsbergh, “The contribution of stereo vision to one-handed catching,” Exp. Brain Res.157(3), 383–390 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Mrotek, C. C. Gielen, and M. Flanders, “Manual tracking in three dimensions,” Exp. Brain Res.171(1), 99–115 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eye (Lond.) (1)

A. R. Fielder and M. J. Moseley, “Does stereopsis matter in humans?” Eye (Lond.)10(2), 233–238 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

T. Geib and C. Baumann, “Effect of luminance and contrast on stereoscopic acuity,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.228(4), 310–315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (6)

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, E. J. Fernández, and P. Artal, “Binocular visual simulation of a corneal inlay to increase depth of focus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5273–5277 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rose, R. Blake, and D. L. Halpern, “Disparity range for binocular summation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.29(2), 283–290 (1988).
[PubMed]

G. Westheimer and S. P. McKee, “Stereogram design for testing local stereopsis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.19(7), 802–809 (1980).
[PubMed]

A. R. O’Connor, E. E. Birch, S. Anderson, H. Draper, and FSOS Research Group, “The functional significance of stereopsis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2019–2023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Lovasik and M. Szymkiw, “Effects of aniseikonia, anisometropia, accommodation, retinal illuminance, and pupil size on stereopsis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.26(5), 741–750 (1985).
[PubMed]

G. Westheimer and S. P. McKee, “What prior uniocular processing is necessary for stereopsis?” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.18(6), 614–621 (1979).
[PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (3)

J. Tabernero and P. Artal, “Optical modeling of a corneal inlay in real eyes to increase depth of focus: optimum centration and residual defocus,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.38(2), 270–277 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. F. Yılmaz, N. Alagöz, G. Pekel, E. Azman, E. F. Aksoy, H. Cakır, E. Bozkurt, and A. Demirok, “Intracorneal inlay to correct presbyopia: Long-term results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.37(7), 1275–1281 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Refract. Surg. (3)

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg.18(5), S634–S638 (2002).
[PubMed]

G. O. Waring, “Correction of presbyopia with a small aperture corneal inlay,” J. Refract. Surg.27(11), 842–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, G. Nix, A. K. Dexl, and G. Grabner, “Refractive surgical correction of presbyopia with the AcuFocus small aperture corneal inlay: two-year follow-up,” J. Refract. Surg.26(10), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (3)

J. J. Castro, J. R. Jiménez, E. Hita, and C. Ortiz, “Influence of interocular differences in the Strehl ratio on binocular summation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.29(3), 370–374 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. W. Evans, “Monovision: a review,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.27(5), 417–439 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Wood, “Stereopsis with spatially-degraded images,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.3(3), 337–340 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

B. P. Wong, R. L. Woods, and E. Peli, “Stereoacuity at distance and near,” Optom. Vis. Sci.79(12), 771–778 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perception (2)

L. K. Cormack, S. B. Stevenson, and D. D. Landers, “Interactions of spatial frequency and unequal monocular contrasts in stereopsis,” Perception26(9), 1121–1136 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Halpern and R. R. Blake, “How contrast affects stereoacuity,” Perception17(4), 483–495 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (2)

G. E. Legge and G. Yuanchao, “Stereopsis and contrast,” Vision Res.29(8), 989–1004 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schor and T. Heckmann, “Interocular differences in contrast and spatial frequency: effects on stereopsis and fusion,” Vision Res.29(7), 837–847 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. W. Reading, Binocular Vision: Foundations and Applications (Butterworths, 1983).

I. P. Howard and B. J. Rogers, Binocular Vision and Stereopsis, Oxford Psychology Series No. 29 (Oxford University Press, 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the binocular adaptive optics visual simulator showing the main components. The setup includes a single Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and a single correcting device for measurement and manipulation of aberrations from the two eyes. The system incorporates two microdisplays for producing retinal disparity, therefore creating stereopsis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The solid points represent the mean value of far responses from 4 subjects for the three-needle test using a two-alternative forced-choice test. Error bars are the standard deviation. The solid lines are the least squares fitted psychometric curves. The right panels correspond to natural viewing, while the left ones present the results obtained under monovision with 0.75 D. At the bottom, the right panel corresponds to the case of vision with a small aperture in one of the eyes. The left panel presents the results obtained with a small aperture in combination with a monovision of 0.75 D in the same eye.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stereoacuity obtained as the average across subjects of the retinal disparity producing 75% of far responses, calculated from the psychometric fitted curve for each subject and condition.

Equations (1)

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f(x)=  1 1+ e ax .

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