Abstract

Guiding the growth of a neurite by directing ~800 nm laser light to the leading edge of the neurite's growing region can be accomplished by controlling the position and direction in three dimensional space of a tapered optical fiber through which the light is projected. We control the position, angle and power of the laser beam to direct the growth of actin accumulations in neurites which affects their mobility.

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  1. D. Koch, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, M. Gogler, B. Stuhrmann, and J. Kas, “Optical control of neuronal growth,” Proc. SPIE5514, 428–436 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. E. Graves, R. G. McAllister, W. J. Rosoff, and J. S. Urbach, “Optical neuronal guidance in three-dimensional matrices,” J. Neurosci. Methods179(2), 278–283 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Higuchi, H. Kitamura, K. Shishimine, S. Konishi, B. O. Yoon, and M. Hara, “Visible light is able to regulate neurite outgrowth,” J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed.14(12), 1377–1388 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Matsubara, Y. Matsuoka, and S. Hayashi, “Regulation of neurite outgrowth by intermittent irradiation of visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(21), 11033–11036 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Noguchi, Y. Chang, W. Y. Chen, and Y. Matsuoka, “Visible light regulates neurite outgrowth of nerve cells,” Cytotechnology54(3), 181–188 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009

C. E. Graves, R. G. McAllister, W. J. Rosoff, and J. S. Urbach, “Optical neuronal guidance in three-dimensional matrices,” J. Neurosci. Methods179(2), 278–283 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Betz, D. Koch, D. Lim, and J. A. Käs, “Stochastic actin polymerization and steady retrograde flow determine growth cone advancement,” Biophys. J.96(12), 5130–5138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, D. Koch, K. Franze, Y. Lu, and J. Käs, “Optical neuronal guidance,” Methods Cell Biol.83, 495–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Noguchi, Y. Chang, W. Y. Chen, and Y. Matsuoka, “Visible light regulates neurite outgrowth of nerve cells,” Cytotechnology54(3), 181–188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kitamura, L. Pilon, and M. Jonasz, “Optical constants of silica glass from extreme ultraviolet to far infrared at near room temperature,” Appl. Opt.46(33), 8118–8133 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Matsubara, Y. Matsuoka, and S. Hayashi, “Regulation of neurite outgrowth by intermittent irradiation of visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(21), 11033–11036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. Koch, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, M. Gogler, B. Stuhrmann, and J. Kas, “Optical control of neuronal growth,” Proc. SPIE5514, 428–436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Higuchi, H. Kitamura, K. Shishimine, S. Konishi, B. O. Yoon, and M. Hara, “Visible light is able to regulate neurite outgrowth,” J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed.14(12), 1377–1388 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, “Guiding neuronal growth with light,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99(25), 16024–16028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

V. Vasioukhin, C. Bauer, M. Yin, and E. Fuchs, “Directed actin polymerization is the driving force for epithelial cell-cell adhesion,” Cell100(2), 209–219 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

P. E. Ciddor, “Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Opt.35(9), 1566–1573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wollman, S. Rochkind, and R. Simantov, “Low power laser irradiation enhances migration and neurite sprouting of cultured rat embryonal brain cells,” Neurol. Res.18(5), 467–470 (1996).
[PubMed]

1993

J. J. Anders, R. C. Borke, S. K. Woolery, and W. P. Van de Merwe, “Low power laser irradiation alters the rate of regeneration of the rat facial nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.13(1), 72–82 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, “Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data19(3), 677–715 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anders, J. J.

J. J. Anders, R. C. Borke, S. K. Woolery, and W. P. Van de Merwe, “Low power laser irradiation alters the rate of regeneration of the rat facial nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.13(1), 72–82 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, C.

V. Vasioukhin, C. Bauer, M. Yin, and E. Fuchs, “Directed actin polymerization is the driving force for epithelial cell-cell adhesion,” Cell100(2), 209–219 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betz, T.

T. Betz, D. Koch, D. Lim, and J. A. Käs, “Stochastic actin polymerization and steady retrograde flow determine growth cone advancement,” Biophys. J.96(12), 5130–5138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, D. Koch, K. Franze, Y. Lu, and J. Käs, “Optical neuronal guidance,” Methods Cell Biol.83, 495–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Koch, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, M. Gogler, B. Stuhrmann, and J. Kas, “Optical control of neuronal growth,” Proc. SPIE5514, 428–436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, “Guiding neuronal growth with light,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99(25), 16024–16028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borke, R. C.

J. J. Anders, R. C. Borke, S. K. Woolery, and W. P. Van de Merwe, “Low power laser irradiation alters the rate of regeneration of the rat facial nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.13(1), 72–82 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.

A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Noguchi, Y. Chang, W. Y. Chen, and Y. Matsuoka, “Visible light regulates neurite outgrowth of nerve cells,” Cytotechnology54(3), 181–188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. Y.

A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Noguchi, Y. Chang, W. Y. Chen, and Y. Matsuoka, “Visible light regulates neurite outgrowth of nerve cells,” Cytotechnology54(3), 181–188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciddor, P. E.

Ehrlicher, A.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, D. Koch, K. Franze, Y. Lu, and J. Käs, “Optical neuronal guidance,” Methods Cell Biol.83, 495–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Koch, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, M. Gogler, B. Stuhrmann, and J. Kas, “Optical control of neuronal growth,” Proc. SPIE5514, 428–436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, “Guiding neuronal growth with light,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99(25), 16024–16028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franze, K.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, D. Koch, K. Franze, Y. Lu, and J. Käs, “Optical neuronal guidance,” Methods Cell Biol.83, 495–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuchs, E.

V. Vasioukhin, C. Bauer, M. Yin, and E. Fuchs, “Directed actin polymerization is the driving force for epithelial cell-cell adhesion,” Cell100(2), 209–219 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, J. S.

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, “Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data19(3), 677–715 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gogler, M.

D. Koch, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, M. Gogler, B. Stuhrmann, and J. Kas, “Optical control of neuronal growth,” Proc. SPIE5514, 428–436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gögler, M.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, D. Koch, K. Franze, Y. Lu, and J. Käs, “Optical neuronal guidance,” Methods Cell Biol.83, 495–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graves, C. E.

C. E. Graves, R. G. McAllister, W. J. Rosoff, and J. S. Urbach, “Optical neuronal guidance in three-dimensional matrices,” J. Neurosci. Methods179(2), 278–283 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hara, M.

A. Higuchi, H. Kitamura, K. Shishimine, S. Konishi, B. O. Yoon, and M. Hara, “Visible light is able to regulate neurite outgrowth,” J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed.14(12), 1377–1388 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, S.

A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Matsubara, Y. Matsuoka, and S. Hayashi, “Regulation of neurite outgrowth by intermittent irradiation of visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(21), 11033–11036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higuchi, A.

A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Noguchi, Y. Chang, W. Y. Chen, and Y. Matsuoka, “Visible light regulates neurite outgrowth of nerve cells,” Cytotechnology54(3), 181–188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Matsubara, Y. Matsuoka, and S. Hayashi, “Regulation of neurite outgrowth by intermittent irradiation of visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(21), 11033–11036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Higuchi, H. Kitamura, K. Shishimine, S. Konishi, B. O. Yoon, and M. Hara, “Visible light is able to regulate neurite outgrowth,” J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed.14(12), 1377–1388 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonasz, M.

Kas, J.

D. Koch, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, M. Gogler, B. Stuhrmann, and J. Kas, “Optical control of neuronal growth,” Proc. SPIE5514, 428–436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, “Guiding neuronal growth with light,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99(25), 16024–16028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Käs, J.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, D. Koch, K. Franze, Y. Lu, and J. Käs, “Optical neuronal guidance,” Methods Cell Biol.83, 495–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Käs, J. A.

T. Betz, D. Koch, D. Lim, and J. A. Käs, “Stochastic actin polymerization and steady retrograde flow determine growth cone advancement,” Biophys. J.96(12), 5130–5138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitamura, H.

A. Higuchi, H. Kitamura, K. Shishimine, S. Konishi, B. O. Yoon, and M. Hara, “Visible light is able to regulate neurite outgrowth,” J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed.14(12), 1377–1388 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitamura, R.

Koch, D.

T. Betz, D. Koch, D. Lim, and J. A. Käs, “Stochastic actin polymerization and steady retrograde flow determine growth cone advancement,” Biophys. J.96(12), 5130–5138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, D. Koch, K. Franze, Y. Lu, and J. Käs, “Optical neuronal guidance,” Methods Cell Biol.83, 495–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Koch, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, M. Gogler, B. Stuhrmann, and J. Kas, “Optical control of neuronal growth,” Proc. SPIE5514, 428–436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, “Guiding neuronal growth with light,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99(25), 16024–16028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konishi, S.

A. Higuchi, H. Kitamura, K. Shishimine, S. Konishi, B. O. Yoon, and M. Hara, “Visible light is able to regulate neurite outgrowth,” J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed.14(12), 1377–1388 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levelt Sengers, J. M. H.

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, “Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data19(3), 677–715 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D.

T. Betz, D. Koch, D. Lim, and J. A. Käs, “Stochastic actin polymerization and steady retrograde flow determine growth cone advancement,” Biophys. J.96(12), 5130–5138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, D. Koch, K. Franze, Y. Lu, and J. Käs, “Optical neuronal guidance,” Methods Cell Biol.83, 495–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsubara, Y.

A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Matsubara, Y. Matsuoka, and S. Hayashi, “Regulation of neurite outgrowth by intermittent irradiation of visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(21), 11033–11036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuoka, Y.

A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Noguchi, Y. Chang, W. Y. Chen, and Y. Matsuoka, “Visible light regulates neurite outgrowth of nerve cells,” Cytotechnology54(3), 181–188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Matsubara, Y. Matsuoka, and S. Hayashi, “Regulation of neurite outgrowth by intermittent irradiation of visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(21), 11033–11036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McAllister, R. G.

C. E. Graves, R. G. McAllister, W. J. Rosoff, and J. S. Urbach, “Optical neuronal guidance in three-dimensional matrices,” J. Neurosci. Methods179(2), 278–283 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, V.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, “Guiding neuronal growth with light,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99(25), 16024–16028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noguchi, Y.

A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Noguchi, Y. Chang, W. Y. Chen, and Y. Matsuoka, “Visible light regulates neurite outgrowth of nerve cells,” Cytotechnology54(3), 181–188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilon, L.

Raizen, M. G.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, “Guiding neuronal growth with light,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99(25), 16024–16028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rochkind, S.

Y. Wollman, S. Rochkind, and R. Simantov, “Low power laser irradiation enhances migration and neurite sprouting of cultured rat embryonal brain cells,” Neurol. Res.18(5), 467–470 (1996).
[PubMed]

Rosoff, W. J.

C. E. Graves, R. G. McAllister, W. J. Rosoff, and J. S. Urbach, “Optical neuronal guidance in three-dimensional matrices,” J. Neurosci. Methods179(2), 278–283 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schiebener, P.

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, “Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data19(3), 677–715 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shishimine, K.

A. Higuchi, H. Kitamura, K. Shishimine, S. Konishi, B. O. Yoon, and M. Hara, “Visible light is able to regulate neurite outgrowth,” J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed.14(12), 1377–1388 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simantov, R.

Y. Wollman, S. Rochkind, and R. Simantov, “Low power laser irradiation enhances migration and neurite sprouting of cultured rat embryonal brain cells,” Neurol. Res.18(5), 467–470 (1996).
[PubMed]

Straub, J.

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, “Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data19(3), 677–715 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stuhrmann, B.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, D. Koch, K. Franze, Y. Lu, and J. Käs, “Optical neuronal guidance,” Methods Cell Biol.83, 495–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Koch, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, M. Gogler, B. Stuhrmann, and J. Kas, “Optical control of neuronal growth,” Proc. SPIE5514, 428–436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, “Guiding neuronal growth with light,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99(25), 16024–16028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbach, J. S.

C. E. Graves, R. G. McAllister, W. J. Rosoff, and J. S. Urbach, “Optical neuronal guidance in three-dimensional matrices,” J. Neurosci. Methods179(2), 278–283 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van de Merwe, W. P.

J. J. Anders, R. C. Borke, S. K. Woolery, and W. P. Van de Merwe, “Low power laser irradiation alters the rate of regeneration of the rat facial nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.13(1), 72–82 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasioukhin, V.

V. Vasioukhin, C. Bauer, M. Yin, and E. Fuchs, “Directed actin polymerization is the driving force for epithelial cell-cell adhesion,” Cell100(2), 209–219 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

Peking Union Medical Institute Cell-Bank F. Wang atPeking Union Medical Institute.

Watanabe, T.

A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Noguchi, Y. Chang, W. Y. Chen, and Y. Matsuoka, “Visible light regulates neurite outgrowth of nerve cells,” Cytotechnology54(3), 181–188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Matsubara, Y. Matsuoka, and S. Hayashi, “Regulation of neurite outgrowth by intermittent irradiation of visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(21), 11033–11036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wollman, Y.

Y. Wollman, S. Rochkind, and R. Simantov, “Low power laser irradiation enhances migration and neurite sprouting of cultured rat embryonal brain cells,” Neurol. Res.18(5), 467–470 (1996).
[PubMed]

Woolery, S. K.

J. J. Anders, R. C. Borke, S. K. Woolery, and W. P. Van de Merwe, “Low power laser irradiation alters the rate of regeneration of the rat facial nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.13(1), 72–82 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, M.

V. Vasioukhin, C. Bauer, M. Yin, and E. Fuchs, “Directed actin polymerization is the driving force for epithelial cell-cell adhesion,” Cell100(2), 209–219 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, B. O.

A. Higuchi, H. Kitamura, K. Shishimine, S. Konishi, B. O. Yoon, and M. Hara, “Visible light is able to regulate neurite outgrowth,” J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed.14(12), 1377–1388 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biophys. J.

T. Betz, D. Koch, D. Lim, and J. A. Käs, “Stochastic actin polymerization and steady retrograde flow determine growth cone advancement,” Biophys. J.96(12), 5130–5138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cell

V. Vasioukhin, C. Bauer, M. Yin, and E. Fuchs, “Directed actin polymerization is the driving force for epithelial cell-cell adhesion,” Cell100(2), 209–219 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytotechnology

A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Noguchi, Y. Chang, W. Y. Chen, and Y. Matsuoka, “Visible light regulates neurite outgrowth of nerve cells,” Cytotechnology54(3), 181–188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed.

A. Higuchi, H. Kitamura, K. Shishimine, S. Konishi, B. O. Yoon, and M. Hara, “Visible light is able to regulate neurite outgrowth,” J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed.14(12), 1377–1388 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods

C. E. Graves, R. G. McAllister, W. J. Rosoff, and J. S. Urbach, “Optical neuronal guidance in three-dimensional matrices,” J. Neurosci. Methods179(2), 278–283 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B

A. Higuchi, T. Watanabe, Y. Matsubara, Y. Matsuoka, and S. Hayashi, “Regulation of neurite outgrowth by intermittent irradiation of visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(21), 11033–11036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, “Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data19(3), 677–715 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med.

J. J. Anders, R. C. Borke, S. K. Woolery, and W. P. Van de Merwe, “Low power laser irradiation alters the rate of regeneration of the rat facial nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.13(1), 72–82 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Methods Cell Biol.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, D. Koch, K. Franze, Y. Lu, and J. Käs, “Optical neuronal guidance,” Methods Cell Biol.83, 495–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurol. Res.

Y. Wollman, S. Rochkind, and R. Simantov, “Low power laser irradiation enhances migration and neurite sprouting of cultured rat embryonal brain cells,” Neurol. Res.18(5), 467–470 (1996).
[PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, “Guiding neuronal growth with light,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99(25), 16024–16028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

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Other

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Corning Incorporated, “Corning® ClearCurve® Multimode Optical Fiber Product information,” http://www.corning.com/assets/0/433/573/583/9F39014A-1475-4F63-A9A5-946B2DD39D69.pdf

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PC12 neurite making an almost 90 degree turn, image cropped.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Rat neurite making a 180 degree turn, image contrast increased, cropped.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Tracking the surface area size of dark agglomerations of polymerized actin (tracked as pixel blobs) in the growth cone: their size is correlated with illumination from the fiber taper, compared with areas of polymerized actin in control neurites, median values.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Through-the-microscope view (looking down), the diagram shows the energy of the illumination at points v1, v2, and v3. v1: r = 1 μm, 45 mW /μm2; v3: r = 3 μm, 4.8 mW/μm2; v5: r = 5 μm, 1.72 mW /μm2.

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