Abstract

Gold nanorods can be internalized by macrophages (an important early cellular marker in atherosclerosis and cancer) and used as an imaging contrast agent for macrophage targeting. Objective of this study is to compare two-photon luminescence (TPL) properties of four aspect ratios of gold nanorods with surface plasmon resonance at 700, 756, 844 and 1060 nm respectively. TPL from single nanorods and Rhodamine 6G particles was measured using a laser-scanning TPL microscope. Nanorod TPL emission spectrum was recorded by a spectrometer. Quadratic dependence of luminescence intensity on excitation power (confirming a TPL process) was observed below a threshold (e.g., <1.6 mW), followed by photobleaching at higher power levels. Dependence of nanorod TPL intensity on excitation wavelength indicated that the two-photon action cross section (TPACS) is plasmon-enhanced. Largest TPACS of a single nanorod (12271 GM) was substantially larger than a single Rhodamine 6G particle (25 GM) at 760 nm excitation. Characteristics of nanorod TPL emission spectrum can be explained by plasmon-enhanced interband transition of gold. Comparison results of TPL brightness, TPACS and emission spectrum of nanorods can guide selection of optimal contrast agent for selected imaging applications.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (5)

N. B. Hao, M. H. Lü, Y. H. Fan, Y. L. Cao, Z. R. Zhang, and S. M. Yang, “Macrophages in tumor microenvironments and the progression of tumors,” Clin. Dev. Immunol. 2012, 948098 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ruffell, N. I. Affara, and L. M. Coussens, “Differential macrophage programming in the tumor microenvironment,” Trends Immunol. 33(3), 119–126 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, J. J. Mancuso, S. M. Kazmi, J. Dwelle, V. Sapozhnikova, B. Willsey, L. L. Ma, J. Qiu, X. Li, A. K. Dunn, K. P. Johnston, M. D. Feldman, and T. E. Milner, “Combined two-photon luminescence microscopy and OCT for macrophage detection in the hypercholesterolemic rabbit aorta using plasmonic gold nanorose,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(1), 49–59 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fang, W. S. Chang, B. Willingham, P. Swanglap, S. Dominguez-Medina, and S. Link, “Plasmon emission quantum yield of single gold nanorods as a function of aspect ratio,” ACS Nano 6(8), 7177–7184 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Verma and J. S. Sekhon, “Influence of aspect ratio and surrounding medium on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of gold nanorod,” J. Opt. 41(2), 89–93 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, V. L. Roger, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Arnida, A. Janát-Amsbury, C. M. Ray, C. M. Peterson, and H. Ghandehari, “Geometry and surface characteristics of gold nanoparticles influence their biodistribution and uptake by macrophages,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 77(3), 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

E. T. Castellana, R. C. Gamez, M. E. Gómez, and D. H. Russell, “Longitudinal surface plasmon resonance based gold nanorod biosensors for mass spectrometry,” Langmuir 26(8), 6066–6070 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, I. Roy, K. T. Yong, H. E. Pudavar, and P. N. Prasad, “High-resolution light microscopy using luminescent nanoparticles,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2(2), 162–175 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Yu, D. J. S. Birch, and Y. Chen, “Gold nanorods for fluorescence lifetime imaging in biology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Chen, L. R. Kuo, C. L. Chang, Y. K. Hwu, C. K. Huang, S. Y. Lee, K. Chen, S. J. Lin, J. D. Huang, and Y. Y. Chen, “In situ real-time investigation of cancer cell photothermolysis mediated by excited gold nanorod surface plasmons,” Biomaterials 31(14), 4104–4112 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Wissert, K. S. Ilin, M. Siegel, U. Lemmer, and H. J. Eisler, “Highly localized non-linear optical white-light response at nanorod ends from non-resonant excitation,” Nanoscale 2(6), 1018–1020 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

L. Tong, Q. Wei, A. Wei, and J. X. Cheng, “Gold nanorods as contrast agents for biological imaging: optical properties, surface conjugation and photothermal effects,” Photochem. Photobiol. 85(1), 21–32 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, S. Neretina, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold nanorods: from synthesis and properties to biological and biomedical applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(48), 4880–4910 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Imura and H. Okamoto, “Properties of photoluminescence from single gold nanorods induced by near-field two-photon excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11756–11759 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. L. Ma, M. D. Feldman, J. M. Tam, A. S. Paranjape, K. K. Cheruku, T. A. Larson, J. O. Tam, D. R. Ingram, V. Paramita, J. W. Villard, J. T. Jenkins, T. Wang, G. D. Clarke, R. Asmis, K. Sokolov, B. Chandrasekar, T. E. Milner, and K. P. Johnston, “Small multifunctional nanoclusters (nanoroses) for targeted cellular imaging and therapy,” ACS Nano 3(9), 2686–2696 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

M. Longmire, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Clearance properties of nano-sized particles and molecules as imaging agents: considerations and caveats,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 3(5), 703–717 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hauck, A. A. Ghazani, and W. C. W. Chan, “Assessing the effect of surface chemistry on gold nanorod uptake, toxicity, and gene expression in mammalian cells,” Small 4(1), 153–159 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lal, S. E. Clare, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoshell-enabled photothermal cancer therapy: impending clinical impact,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1842–1851 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1578–1586 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Ni, X. S. Kou, Z. Yang, and J. F. Wang, “Tailoring longitudinal surface plasmon wavelengths, scattering and absorption cross sections of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano 2(4), 677–686 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Review of some interesting surface plasmon resonance-enhanced properties of noble metal nanoparticles and their applications to biosystems,” Plasmonics 2(3), 107–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Nagesha, G. S. Laevsky, P. Lampton, R. Banyal, C. Warner, C. DiMarzio, and S. Sridhar, “In vitro imaging of embryonic stem cells using multiphoton luminescence of gold nanoparticles,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 2(4), 813–819 (2007).
[PubMed]

X. Ji, R. Shao, A. M. Elliott, R. J. Stafford, E. Esparza-Coss, J. A. Bankson, G. Liang, Z.-P. Luo, K. Park, J. T. Markert, and C. Li, “Bifunctional Gold Nanoshells with a Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide-Silica Core Suitable for Both MR Imaging and Photothermal Therapy,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 111(17), 6245–6251 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Skrabalak, L. Au, X. Lu, X. Li, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages for cancer detection and treatment,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 2(5), 657–668 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

T. Niidome, M. Yamagata, Y. Okamoto, Y. Akiyama, H. Takahashi, T. Kawano, Y. Katayama, and Y. Niidome, “PEG-modified gold nanorods with a stealth character for in vivo applications,” J. Control. Release 114(3), 343–347 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Okamoto and K. Imura, “Near-field imaging of optical field and plasmon wavefunctions in metal nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(40), 3920–3928 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (8)

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Near-field two-photon-induced photoluminescence from single gold nanorods and imaging of plasmon modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(27), 13214–13220 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J. X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wang, T. Huang, R. W. Murray, L. Menard, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Near-IR luminescence of monolayer-protected metal clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(3), 812–813 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shukla, V. Bansal, M. Chaudhary, A. Basu, R. R. Bhonde, and M. Sastry, “Biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles and their endocytotic fate inside the cellular compartment: a microscopic overview,” Langmuir 21(23), 10644–10654 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Lee and M. A. El-Sayed, “Dependence of the enhanced optical scattering efficiency relative to that of absorption for gold metal nanorods on aspect ratio, size, end-cap shape, and medium refractive index,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(43), 20331–20338 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sönnichsen and A. P. Alivisatos, “Gold nanorods as novel nonbleaching plasmon-based orientation sensors for polarized single-particle microscopy,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 301–304 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Eustis and M. A. El-Sayed, “Aspect ratio dependence of the enhanced fluorescence intensity of gold nanorods: experimental and simulation study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(34), 16350–16356 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. Von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70(20), 205424 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. D. Kolodgie, R. Virmani, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, D. K. Weber, R. Kutys, A. V. Finn, and H. K. Gold, “Pathologic assessment of the vulnerable human coronary plaque,” Heart 90(12), 1385–1391 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, size-tunable gold quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 077402–077405 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115433 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402–077405 (2002).
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2001 (1)

M. A. El-Sayed, “Some interesting properties of metals confined in time and nanometer space of different shapes,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(4), 257–264 (2001).
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2000 (2)

M. B. Mohamed, V. Volkov, S. Link, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The 'lightning' gold nanorods: fluorescence enhancement of over a million compared to the gold metal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317(6), 517–523 (2000).
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S. Link, C. Burda, B. Nikoobakht, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Laser-induced shape changes of colloidal gold nanorods using femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(26), 6152–6163 (2000).
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1999 (1)

S. Link, M. B. Mohamed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Simulation of the optical absorption spectra of gold nanorods as a function of their aspect ratio and the effect of the medium dielectric constant,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(16), 3073–3077 (1999).
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1998 (2)

J. P. Wilcoxon, J. E. Martin, F. Parsapour, B. Wiedenman, and D. F. Kelley, “Photoluminescence from nanosize gold clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 108(21), 9137–9143 (1998).
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M. A. Albota, C. Xu, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon fluorescence excitation cross sections of biomolecular probes from 690 to 960 nm,” Appl. Opt. 37(31), 7352–7356 (1998).
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1996 (1)

1995 (1)

E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, “Coronary plaque disruption,” Circulation 92(3), 657–671 (1995).
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1986 (1)

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
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1975 (2)

M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, and P. Winsemius, “Splitting of the interband absorption edge in Au,” Phys. Rev. B 12(2), 557–563 (1975).
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M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, and P. Winsemius, “Splitting of the interband absorption edge in Au,” Phys. Rev. B 12(2), 557–563 (1975).
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1969 (1)

A. Mooradian, “Photoluminescence of metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(5), 185–187 (1969).
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1915 (1)

R. Gans, “Form of ultramicroscopic particles of silver,” Ann. Phys. 47(10), 270–284 (1915).
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Adams, R. J.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, V. L. Roger, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
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Affara, N. I.

B. Ruffell, N. I. Affara, and L. M. Coussens, “Differential macrophage programming in the tumor microenvironment,” Trends Immunol. 33(3), 119–126 (2012).
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Akiyama, Y.

T. Niidome, M. Yamagata, Y. Okamoto, Y. Akiyama, H. Takahashi, T. Kawano, Y. Katayama, and Y. Niidome, “PEG-modified gold nanorods with a stealth character for in vivo applications,” J. Control. Release 114(3), 343–347 (2006).
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Albota, M. A.

Alivisatos, A. P.

C. Sönnichsen and A. P. Alivisatos, “Gold nanorods as novel nonbleaching plasmon-based orientation sensors for polarized single-particle microscopy,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 301–304 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnida, M. M.

M. M. Arnida, A. Janát-Amsbury, C. M. Ray, C. M. Peterson, and H. Ghandehari, “Geometry and surface characteristics of gold nanoparticles influence their biodistribution and uptake by macrophages,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 77(3), 417–423 (2011).
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Asmis, R.

L. L. Ma, M. D. Feldman, J. M. Tam, A. S. Paranjape, K. K. Cheruku, T. A. Larson, J. O. Tam, D. R. Ingram, V. Paramita, J. W. Villard, J. T. Jenkins, T. Wang, G. D. Clarke, R. Asmis, K. Sokolov, B. Chandrasekar, T. E. Milner, and K. P. Johnston, “Small multifunctional nanoclusters (nanoroses) for targeted cellular imaging and therapy,” ACS Nano 3(9), 2686–2696 (2009).
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Au, L.

S. E. Skrabalak, L. Au, X. Lu, X. Li, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages for cancer detection and treatment,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 2(5), 657–668 (2007).
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Bachelot, R.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bankson, J. A.

X. Ji, R. Shao, A. M. Elliott, R. J. Stafford, E. Esparza-Coss, J. A. Bankson, G. Liang, Z.-P. Luo, K. Park, J. T. Markert, and C. Li, “Bifunctional Gold Nanoshells with a Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide-Silica Core Suitable for Both MR Imaging and Photothermal Therapy,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 111(17), 6245–6251 (2007).
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Bansal, V.

R. Shukla, V. Bansal, M. Chaudhary, A. Basu, R. R. Bhonde, and M. Sastry, “Biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles and their endocytotic fate inside the cellular compartment: a microscopic overview,” Langmuir 21(23), 10644–10654 (2005).
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Banyal, R.

D. Nagesha, G. S. Laevsky, P. Lampton, R. Banyal, C. Warner, C. DiMarzio, and S. Sridhar, “In vitro imaging of embryonic stem cells using multiphoton luminescence of gold nanoparticles,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 2(4), 813–819 (2007).
[PubMed]

Basu, A.

R. Shukla, V. Bansal, M. Chaudhary, A. Basu, R. R. Bhonde, and M. Sastry, “Biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles and their endocytotic fate inside the cellular compartment: a microscopic overview,” Langmuir 21(23), 10644–10654 (2005).
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Berry, J. D.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, V. L. Roger, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beversluis, M. R.

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115433 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bhonde, R. R.

R. Shukla, V. Bansal, M. Chaudhary, A. Basu, R. R. Bhonde, and M. Sastry, “Biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles and their endocytotic fate inside the cellular compartment: a microscopic overview,” Langmuir 21(23), 10644–10654 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birch, D. J. S.

Y. Zhang, J. Yu, D. J. S. Birch, and Y. Chen, “Gold nanorods for fluorescence lifetime imaging in biology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115433 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boyd, G. T.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, T. M.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, V. L. Roger, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burda, C.

S. Link, C. Burda, B. Nikoobakht, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Laser-induced shape changes of colloidal gold nanorods using femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(26), 6152–6163 (2000).
[Crossref]

Burke, A. P.

F. D. Kolodgie, R. Virmani, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, D. K. Weber, R. Kutys, A. V. Finn, and H. K. Gold, “Pathologic assessment of the vulnerable human coronary plaque,” Heart 90(12), 1385–1391 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y. L.

N. B. Hao, M. H. Lü, Y. H. Fan, Y. L. Cao, Z. R. Zhang, and S. M. Yang, “Macrophages in tumor microenvironments and the progression of tumors,” Clin. Dev. Immunol. 2012, 948098 (2012).
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Carnethon, M. R.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, V. L. Roger, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caruso, F.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. Von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70(20), 205424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Castellana, E. T.

E. T. Castellana, R. C. Gamez, M. E. Gómez, and D. H. Russell, “Longitudinal surface plasmon resonance based gold nanorod biosensors for mass spectrometry,” Langmuir 26(8), 6066–6070 (2010).
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Chan, W. C. W.

T. S. Hauck, A. A. Ghazani, and W. C. W. Chan, “Assessing the effect of surface chemistry on gold nanorod uptake, toxicity, and gene expression in mammalian cells,” Small 4(1), 153–159 (2008).
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Chandrasekar, B.

L. L. Ma, M. D. Feldman, J. M. Tam, A. S. Paranjape, K. K. Cheruku, T. A. Larson, J. O. Tam, D. R. Ingram, V. Paramita, J. W. Villard, J. T. Jenkins, T. Wang, G. D. Clarke, R. Asmis, K. Sokolov, B. Chandrasekar, T. E. Milner, and K. P. Johnston, “Small multifunctional nanoclusters (nanoroses) for targeted cellular imaging and therapy,” ACS Nano 3(9), 2686–2696 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. L.

C. L. Chen, L. R. Kuo, C. L. Chang, Y. K. Hwu, C. K. Huang, S. Y. Lee, K. Chen, S. J. Lin, J. D. Huang, and Y. Y. Chen, “In situ real-time investigation of cancer cell photothermolysis mediated by excited gold nanorod surface plasmons,” Biomaterials 31(14), 4104–4112 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W. S.

Y. Fang, W. S. Chang, B. Willingham, P. Swanglap, S. Dominguez-Medina, and S. Link, “Plasmon emission quantum yield of single gold nanorods as a function of aspect ratio,” ACS Nano 6(8), 7177–7184 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaudhary, M.

R. Shukla, V. Bansal, M. Chaudhary, A. Basu, R. R. Bhonde, and M. Sastry, “Biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles and their endocytotic fate inside the cellular compartment: a microscopic overview,” Langmuir 21(23), 10644–10654 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. L.

C. L. Chen, L. R. Kuo, C. L. Chang, Y. K. Hwu, C. K. Huang, S. Y. Lee, K. Chen, S. J. Lin, J. D. Huang, and Y. Y. Chen, “In situ real-time investigation of cancer cell photothermolysis mediated by excited gold nanorod surface plasmons,” Biomaterials 31(14), 4104–4112 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

C. L. Chen, L. R. Kuo, C. L. Chang, Y. K. Hwu, C. K. Huang, S. Y. Lee, K. Chen, S. J. Lin, J. D. Huang, and Y. Y. Chen, “In situ real-time investigation of cancer cell photothermolysis mediated by excited gold nanorod surface plasmons,” Biomaterials 31(14), 4104–4112 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Zhang, J. Yu, D. J. S. Birch, and Y. Chen, “Gold nanorods for fluorescence lifetime imaging in biology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. Y.

C. L. Chen, L. R. Kuo, C. L. Chang, Y. K. Hwu, C. K. Huang, S. Y. Lee, K. Chen, S. J. Lin, J. D. Huang, and Y. Y. Chen, “In situ real-time investigation of cancer cell photothermolysis mediated by excited gold nanorod surface plasmons,” Biomaterials 31(14), 4104–4112 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

L. Tong, Q. Wei, A. Wei, and J. X. Cheng, “Gold nanorods as contrast agents for biological imaging: optical properties, surface conjugation and photothermal effects,” Photochem. Photobiol. 85(1), 21–32 (2009).
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H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J. X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
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Cheruku, K. K.

L. L. Ma, M. D. Feldman, J. M. Tam, A. S. Paranjape, K. K. Cheruku, T. A. Larson, J. O. Tam, D. R. Ingram, V. Paramita, J. W. Villard, J. T. Jenkins, T. Wang, G. D. Clarke, R. Asmis, K. Sokolov, B. Chandrasekar, T. E. Milner, and K. P. Johnston, “Small multifunctional nanoclusters (nanoroses) for targeted cellular imaging and therapy,” ACS Nano 3(9), 2686–2696 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choyke, P. L.

M. Longmire, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Clearance properties of nano-sized particles and molecules as imaging agents: considerations and caveats,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 3(5), 703–717 (2008).
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Clare, S. E.

S. Lal, S. E. Clare, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoshell-enabled photothermal cancer therapy: impending clinical impact,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1842–1851 (2008).
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Clarke, G. D.

L. L. Ma, M. D. Feldman, J. M. Tam, A. S. Paranjape, K. K. Cheruku, T. A. Larson, J. O. Tam, D. R. Ingram, V. Paramita, J. W. Villard, J. T. Jenkins, T. Wang, G. D. Clarke, R. Asmis, K. Sokolov, B. Chandrasekar, T. E. Milner, and K. P. Johnston, “Small multifunctional nanoclusters (nanoroses) for targeted cellular imaging and therapy,” ACS Nano 3(9), 2686–2696 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coussens, L. M.

B. Ruffell, N. I. Affara, and L. M. Coussens, “Differential macrophage programming in the tumor microenvironment,” Trends Immunol. 33(3), 119–126 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, S.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, V. L. Roger, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Simone, G.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, V. L. Roger, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dickson, R. M.

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, size-tunable gold quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 077402–077405 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiMarzio, C.

D. Nagesha, G. S. Laevsky, P. Lampton, R. Banyal, C. Warner, C. DiMarzio, and S. Sridhar, “In vitro imaging of embryonic stem cells using multiphoton luminescence of gold nanoparticles,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 2(4), 813–819 (2007).
[PubMed]

Dominguez-Medina, S.

Y. Fang, W. S. Chang, B. Willingham, P. Swanglap, S. Dominguez-Medina, and S. Link, “Plasmon emission quantum yield of single gold nanorods as a function of aspect ratio,” ACS Nano 6(8), 7177–7184 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dulkeith, E.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. Von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70(20), 205424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dunn, A. K.

T. Wang, J. J. Mancuso, S. M. Kazmi, J. Dwelle, V. Sapozhnikova, B. Willsey, L. L. Ma, J. Qiu, X. Li, A. K. Dunn, K. P. Johnston, M. D. Feldman, and T. E. Milner, “Combined two-photon luminescence microscopy and OCT for macrophage detection in the hypercholesterolemic rabbit aorta using plasmonic gold nanorose,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(1), 49–59 (2012).
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Dwelle, J.

T. Wang, J. J. Mancuso, S. M. Kazmi, J. Dwelle, V. Sapozhnikova, B. Willsey, L. L. Ma, J. Qiu, X. Li, A. K. Dunn, K. P. Johnston, M. D. Feldman, and T. E. Milner, “Combined two-photon luminescence microscopy and OCT for macrophage detection in the hypercholesterolemic rabbit aorta using plasmonic gold nanorose,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(1), 49–59 (2012).
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Eisler, H. J.

M. D. Wissert, K. S. Ilin, M. Siegel, U. Lemmer, and H. J. Eisler, “Highly localized non-linear optical white-light response at nanorod ends from non-resonant excitation,” Nanoscale 2(6), 1018–1020 (2010).
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H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J. X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
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ACS Nano (3)

Y. Fang, W. S. Chang, B. Willingham, P. Swanglap, S. Dominguez-Medina, and S. Link, “Plasmon emission quantum yield of single gold nanorods as a function of aspect ratio,” ACS Nano 6(8), 7177–7184 (2012).
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Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TEM images of gold nanorods used in this study: a, Au700; b, Au756; c, Au844; d, Au1060. Insets in a–d are TPL images of a single nanorod at 840 nm excitation within the spectral range of 400-720 nm. Scale bars in TEM and TPL images represent 20 nm and 1 µm, respectively. e, Schematic diagram of the laser scanning TPL microscope. EOM, electro-optic modulator; PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a, Single-photon absorbance spectra of nanorods with four aspect ratios measured at a concentration of 4 × 1011 nanoparticles/ml. b, MPL intensity dependence on the excitation laser power (132 µW-4.8 mW) of nanorods at excitation wavelengths of 760, 840 and 1040 nm. c, Quadratic dependence of luminescence intensity of nanorods on excitation laser power at lower power levels (i.e., <1.6 mW) in b. Slopes of 1.7-2.2 (for each aspect ratio of nanorod at different excitation wavelength) confirm the TPL process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a, A typical TPL image (80 × 80 µm2) of Au1060 at 840 nm excitation acquired after 30 s laser irradiation at 2 mW in the red box (20 × 20 µm2), where a MPL signal drop of nanorods is observed. b, Averaged MPL signal of nanorods in the red box (second bar of the same color) was normalized to that of the nanorods outside the red box in the larger field of view (first bar of the same color) for nanorods with four aspect ratios at three excitation wavelengths. Error bar represents the standard deviation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized TPACS of Rhodamine 6G single particle, Rhodamine 6G solution and reported values from Albota et al. [40] over a wavelength range of 760-1040 nm. Single Rhodamine 6G particles were formed from dried water solution; Rhodamine 6G solution has a concentration of 110 µM dissolved in DI water; Reported data used a Rhodamine 6G concentration of 110 µM dissolved in MeOH.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TPL emission spectra of a, Au700; b, Au756; c, Au844; and d, Au1060 at the excitation wavelengths of 760, 800, 840 and 1040 nm. Inset in a represents total quantum efficiency of the detection system including the electron-multiplying CCD and spectrometer gratings. Spectra was corrected for the quantum efficiency and normalized on the number of incident photons and nanorod concentration.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 TPACS (in GM units) of single nanorod at excitation wavelengths of 760, 840 and 1040 nm

Equations (2)

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F 1 2 φC η 2 σ 2 g p fτ 8n P 2 πλ ,
( η 2 σ 2 ) n = n r n n P ¯ r 2 P ¯ n 2 F n F r ( η 2 σ 2 ) r .

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