Abstract

5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an attractive treatment option for nonmelanoma skin tumors, especially for multiple lesions and large areas. The efficacy of ALA-PDT is highly dependent on the photosensitizer (PS) concentration present in the tumor. Thus it is desirable to quantify PS concentration and distribution, preferably noninvasively to determine potential outcome. Here we quantified protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) distribution induced by topical and intra-tumoral (it) administration of the prodrug ALA in basal and squamous cell carcinoma murine models by using spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI). The in vivo measurements were validated by analysis of the ex vivo extraction of PpIX. The study demonstrates the feasibility of non-invasive quantification of PpIX distributions in skin tumors.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. B. Saager, A. Truong, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Method for depth-resolved quantitation of optical properties in layered media using spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077002 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, S. Saggese, K. M. Kelly, and A. J. Durkin, “Quantitative fluorescence imaging of protoporphyrin IX through determination of tissue optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Saager, A. Truong, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Method for depth-resolved quantitation of optical properties in layered media using spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

E. H. Moriyama, A. Kim, A. Bogaards, L. Lilge, and B. Wilson, “A ratiometric fluorescence imaging system for surgical guidance,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 532368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Bogaards, H. J. Sterenborg, J. Trachtenberg, B. C. Wilson, and L. Lilge, “In vivo quantification of fluorescent molecular markers in real-time by ratio imaging for diagnostic screening and image-guided surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med.39(7), 605–613 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

C. W. Chin, A. J. Foss, A. Stevens, and J. Lowe, “Differences in the vascular patterns of basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas explain their differences in clinical behaviour,” J. Pathol.200(3), 308–313 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

M. Grachtchouk, R. Mo, S. Yu, X. Zhang, H. Sasaki, C. C. Hui, and A. A. Dlugosz, “Basal cell carcinomas in mice overexpressing Gli2 in skin,” Nat. Genet.24(3), 216–217 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

A. E. Oro, K. M. Higgins, Z. Hu, J. M. Bonifas, E. H. Epstein, and M. P. Scott, “Basal cell carcinomas in mice overexpressing sonic hedgehog,” Science276(5313), 817–821 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaards, A.

E. H. Moriyama, A. Kim, A. Bogaards, L. Lilge, and B. Wilson, “A ratiometric fluorescence imaging system for surgical guidance,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 532368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bogaards, H. J. Sterenborg, J. Trachtenberg, B. C. Wilson, and L. Lilge, “In vivo quantification of fluorescent molecular markers in real-time by ratio imaging for diagnostic screening and image-guided surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med.39(7), 605–613 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonifas, J. M.

A. E. Oro, K. M. Higgins, Z. Hu, J. M. Bonifas, E. H. Epstein, and M. P. Scott, “Basal cell carcinomas in mice overexpressing sonic hedgehog,” Science276(5313), 817–821 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, T. M.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, C. W.

C. W. Chin, A. J. Foss, A. Stevens, and J. Lowe, “Differences in the vascular patterns of basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas explain their differences in clinical behaviour,” J. Pathol.200(3), 308–313 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuccia, D. J.

R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, S. Saggese, K. M. Kelly, and A. J. Durkin, “Quantitative fluorescence imaging of protoporphyrin IX through determination of tissue optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Saager, A. Truong, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Method for depth-resolved quantitation of optical properties in layered media using spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demidenko, E.

X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dlugosz, A. A.

M. Grachtchouk, R. Mo, S. Yu, X. Zhang, H. Sasaki, C. C. Hui, and A. A. Dlugosz, “Basal cell carcinomas in mice overexpressing Gli2 in skin,” Nat. Genet.24(3), 216–217 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durkin, A. J.

R. B. Saager, A. Truong, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Method for depth-resolved quantitation of optical properties in layered media using spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, S. Saggese, K. M. Kelly, and A. J. Durkin, “Quantitative fluorescence imaging of protoporphyrin IX through determination of tissue optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emanuele, M. J.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Epstein, E. H.

A. E. Oro, K. M. Higgins, Z. Hu, J. M. Bonifas, E. H. Epstein, and M. P. Scott, “Basal cell carcinomas in mice overexpressing sonic hedgehog,” Science276(5313), 817–821 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, S. M.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foss, A. J.

C. W. Chin, A. J. Foss, A. Stevens, and J. Lowe, “Differences in the vascular patterns of basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas explain their differences in clinical behaviour,” J. Pathol.200(3), 308–313 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraker, D. L.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardner, C. M.

Glatstein, E.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gleason, K.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grachtchouk, M.

M. Grachtchouk, R. Mo, S. Yu, X. Zhang, H. Sasaki, C. C. Hui, and A. A. Dlugosz, “Basal cell carcinomas in mice overexpressing Gli2 in skin,” Nat. Genet.24(3), 216–217 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, S. M.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higgins, K. M.

A. E. Oro, K. M. Higgins, Z. Hu, J. M. Bonifas, E. H. Epstein, and M. P. Scott, “Basal cell carcinomas in mice overexpressing sonic hedgehog,” Science276(5313), 817–821 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoopes, J.

X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Z.

A. E. Oro, K. M. Higgins, Z. Hu, J. M. Bonifas, E. H. Epstein, and M. P. Scott, “Basal cell carcinomas in mice overexpressing sonic hedgehog,” Science276(5313), 817–821 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hui, C. C.

M. Grachtchouk, R. Mo, S. Yu, X. Zhang, H. Sasaki, C. C. Hui, and A. A. Dlugosz, “Basal cell carcinomas in mice overexpressing Gli2 in skin,” Nat. Genet.24(3), 216–217 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Jenkins, K.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, R.

X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, K. M.

R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, S. Saggese, K. M. Kelly, and A. J. Durkin, “Quantitative fluorescence imaging of protoporphyrin IX through determination of tissue optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, A.

E. H. Moriyama, A. Kim, A. Bogaards, L. Lilge, and B. Wilson, “A ratiometric fluorescence imaging system for surgical guidance,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 532368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koch, C. J.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lilge, L.

E. H. Moriyama, A. Kim, A. Bogaards, L. Lilge, and B. Wilson, “A ratiometric fluorescence imaging system for surgical guidance,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 532368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bogaards, H. J. Sterenborg, J. Trachtenberg, B. C. Wilson, and L. Lilge, “In vivo quantification of fluorescent molecular markers in real-time by ratio imaging for diagnostic screening and image-guided surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med.39(7), 605–613 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowe, J.

C. W. Chin, A. J. Foss, A. Stevens, and J. Lowe, “Differences in the vascular patterns of basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas explain their differences in clinical behaviour,” J. Pathol.200(3), 308–313 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mo, R.

M. Grachtchouk, R. Mo, S. Yu, X. Zhang, H. Sasaki, C. C. Hui, and A. A. Dlugosz, “Basal cell carcinomas in mice overexpressing Gli2 in skin,” Nat. Genet.24(3), 216–217 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moriyama, E. H.

E. H. Moriyama, A. Kim, A. Bogaards, L. Lilge, and B. Wilson, “A ratiometric fluorescence imaging system for surgical guidance,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 532368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oro, A. E.

A. E. Oro, K. M. Higgins, Z. Hu, J. M. Bonifas, E. H. Epstein, and M. P. Scott, “Basal cell carcinomas in mice overexpressing sonic hedgehog,” Science276(5313), 817–821 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putt, M.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saager, R. B.

R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, S. Saggese, K. M. Kelly, and A. J. Durkin, “Quantitative fluorescence imaging of protoporphyrin IX through determination of tissue optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Saager, A. Truong, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Method for depth-resolved quantitation of optical properties in layered media using spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saggese, S.

R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, S. Saggese, K. M. Kelly, and A. J. Durkin, “Quantitative fluorescence imaging of protoporphyrin IX through determination of tissue optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, H.

M. Grachtchouk, R. Mo, S. Yu, X. Zhang, H. Sasaki, C. C. Hui, and A. A. Dlugosz, “Basal cell carcinomas in mice overexpressing Gli2 in skin,” Nat. Genet.24(3), 216–217 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, M. P.

A. E. Oro, K. M. Higgins, Z. Hu, J. M. Bonifas, E. H. Epstein, and M. P. Scott, “Basal cell carcinomas in mice overexpressing sonic hedgehog,” Science276(5313), 817–821 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, D. B.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

A. Bogaards, H. J. Sterenborg, J. Trachtenberg, B. C. Wilson, and L. Lilge, “In vivo quantification of fluorescent molecular markers in real-time by ratio imaging for diagnostic screening and image-guided surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med.39(7), 605–613 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevens, A.

C. W. Chin, A. J. Foss, A. Stevens, and J. Lowe, “Differences in the vascular patterns of basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas explain their differences in clinical behaviour,” J. Pathol.200(3), 308–313 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trachtenberg, J.

A. Bogaards, H. J. Sterenborg, J. Trachtenberg, B. C. Wilson, and L. Lilge, “In vivo quantification of fluorescent molecular markers in real-time by ratio imaging for diagnostic screening and image-guided surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med.39(7), 605–613 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Truong, A.

R. B. Saager, A. Truong, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Method for depth-resolved quantitation of optical properties in layered media using spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

Wileyto, E. P.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B.

E. H. Moriyama, A. Kim, A. Bogaards, L. Lilge, and B. Wilson, “A ratiometric fluorescence imaging system for surgical guidance,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 532368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

A. Bogaards, H. J. Sterenborg, J. Trachtenberg, B. C. Wilson, and L. Lilge, “In vivo quantification of fluorescent molecular markers in real-time by ratio imaging for diagnostic screening and image-guided surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med.39(7), 605–613 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

M. Grachtchouk, R. Mo, S. Yu, X. Zhang, H. Sasaki, C. C. Hui, and A. A. Dlugosz, “Basal cell carcinomas in mice overexpressing Gli2 in skin,” Nat. Genet.24(3), 216–217 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, P.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. Grachtchouk, R. Mo, S. Yu, X. Zhang, H. Sasaki, C. C. Hui, and A. A. Dlugosz, “Basal cell carcinomas in mice overexpressing Gli2 in skin,” Nat. Genet.24(3), 216–217 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Technol.

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J. Biomed. Opt.

R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, S. Saggese, K. M. Kelly, and A. J. Durkin, “Quantitative fluorescence imaging of protoporphyrin IX through determination of tissue optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126013 (2011).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram and picture of the instrument. The system uses a projector with a built-in red LED, 20 nm band-pass filtered at 635 nm light to project images of varying spatial frequencies onto tissue simulating phantoms or tissue (Target). The reflected light field is captured by an EMCCD camera with adjustable filters to selectively capture emission and excitation light. Crossed linear polarizers reduced specular reflection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Uncorrected (raw) PpIX fluorescence (b) Attenuation corrected PpIX fluorescence with respect to concentration using all phantoms at different absorption and scattering parameters. Inset in b) zoom in to the lowest detected PpIX concentration (~4 ng/mL). Error bars represent standard deviation of the fluorescence signal due to differences in optical properties.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative images of a BCC on the tail of a Gli mouse 4h after topical-ALA administration. (a) Whitelight structural image showing the tumor area and topical ALA application site. (b) Uncorrected PpIX fluorescence image showing the tumor and surrounding application area. (c) PpIX fluorescence concentration indicating higher contrast between the tumor and surrounding area compared to the uncorrected image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Representative images of a FaDu tumor 1h after it-administration of ALA. (a) Whitelight structural image showing the tumor area and ALA injection site. (b) The uncorrected fluorescence image does not show localized contrast. (c) PpIX fluorescence concentration indicating higher contrast between the tumor and surrounding area compared to the uncorrected image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Uncorrected fluorescence signal vs ex vivo PpIX concentration. (b) In vivo PpIX concentration vs ex vivo PpIX concentration. Linearity increased from 0.658 to 0.863.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Parameters (µa, µs) Quantified with SFDI at the Emission (~660 nm) and Excitation (~630 nm) Wavelengths for Tumor and Normal Sites in SCID and Gli Micea

Equations (1)

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X 1D ( λ ex , λ em )= C 1 ( λ ex ) C 3 ( λ em ) k 1 ( λ ex )/δ( λ ex )+ k 3 ( λ em )/δ( λ em ) C 2 ( λ ex ) C 3 ( λ em ) k 2 ( λ ex )/δ( λ ex )+ k 3 ( λ em )/δ( λ em )

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