Abstract

The determination of bacterial identity at the strain level is still a complex and time-consuming endeavor. In this study, visible wavelength spontaneous Raman spectroscopy has been used for the discrimination of four closely related Escherichia coli strains: pathogenic enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 and non-pathogenic E. coli C, E. coli Hfr K-12, and E. coli HF4714. Raman spectra from 600 to 2000 cm−1 were analyzed with two multivariate chemometric techniques, principal component-discriminant function analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis, to determine optimal parameters for the discrimination of pathogenic E. coli from the non-pathogenic strains. Spectral preprocessing techniques such as smoothing with windows of various sizes and differentiation were investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of both techniques was in excess of 95%, determined by external testing of the chemometric models. This study suggests that spontaneous Raman spectroscopy with visible wavelength excitation is potentially useful for the rapid identification and classification of clinically-relevant bacteria at the strain level.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011 (1)

S. Palchaudhuri, S. J. Rehse, K. Hamasha, T. Syed, E. Kurtovic, E. Kurtovic, and J. Stenger, “Raman spectroscopy of xylitol uptake and metabolism in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.77(1), 131–137 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

K. Hamasha, M. B. Sahana, C. Jani, S. Nyayapathy, C.-M. Kang, and S. J. Rehse, “The effect of Wag31 phosphorylation on the cells and the cell envelope fraction of wild-type and conditional mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis studied by visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.391(1), 664–668 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Y. Liu, L. He, A. Mustapha, H. Li, Z. Q. Hu, and M. Lin, “Antibacterial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Escherichia coli O157:H7,” J. Appl. Microbiol.107(4), 1193–1201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. Mello, E. Sevéri, E. Ricci, A. Marangoni, L. Coelho, D. Ribeiro, and R. J. Poppi, “Fast differentiation of bacteria causing pharyngitis by low resolution Raman spectroscopy and PLS-discriminant analysis,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc.19(1), 29–34 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, R. E. Weber, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, G. W. Auner, R. Rabah, and D. C. Freeman, “A robust method for automated background subtraction of tissue fluorescence,” J. Raman Spectrosc.38(9), 1199–1205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Goeller and M. R. Riley, “Discrimination of bacteria and bacteriophages by Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.61(7), 679–685 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Chan, H. Winhold, M. H. Corzett, J. M. Ulloa, M. Cosman, R. Balhorn, and T. Huser, “Monitoring dynamic protein expression in living E. coli. Bacterial cells by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” Cytometry A71A(7), 468–474 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Notingher, “Raman spectroscopy cell-based biosensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)7(8), 1343–1358 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, U. Holzgrabe, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, W. Kiefer, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Characterization of bacterial growth and the influence of antibiotics by means of UV resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers82(4), 306–311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hutsebaut, J. Vandroemme, J. Heyrman, P. Dawyndt, P. Vandenabeele, L. Moens, and P. de Vos, “Raman microspectroscopy as an identification tool within the phylogenetically homogeneous ‘Bacillus subtilis’ group,” Syst. Appl. Microbiol.29(8), 650–660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Al-Qadiri, M. Lin, A. G. Cavinato, and B. A. Rasco, “Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, detection and identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Alicyclobacillus strains in apple juice,” Int. J. Food Microbiol.111(1), 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

P. Rösch, M. Harz, M. Schmitt, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, H. W. Motzkus, M. Lankers, S. Hofer, H. Thiele, and J. Popp, “Chemotaxonomic identification of single bacteria by micro-Raman spectroscopy: application to clean-room-relevant biological contaminations,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.71(3), 1626–1637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harz, P. Rösch, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, and J. Popp, “Micro-Raman spectroscopic identification of bacterial cells of the genus Staphylococcus and dependence on their cultivation conditions,” Analyst (Lond.)130(11), 1543–1550 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Ibelings, K. Maquelin, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Rapid identification of Candida spp. in peritonitis patients by Raman spectroscopy,” Clin. Microbiol. Infect.11(5), 353–358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Laucks, A. Sengupta, K. Junge, E. J. Davis, and B. D. Swanson, “Comparison of psychro-active arctic marine bacteria and common mesophillic bacteria using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.59(10), 1222–1228 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mello, D. Ribeiro, F. Novaes, and R. J. Poppi, “Rapid differentiation among bacteria that cause gastroenteritis by use of low-resolution Raman spectroscopy and PLS discriminant analysis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.383(4), 701–706 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

W. E. Huang, R. I. Griffiths, I. P. Thompson, M. J. Bailey, and A. S. Whiteley, “Raman microscopic analysis of single microbial cells,” Anal. Chem.76(15), 4452–4458 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Jarvis and R. Goodacre, “Ultra-violet resonance Raman spectroscopy for the rapid discrimination of urinary tract infection bacteria,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett.232(2), 127–132 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. López-Díez and R. Goodacre, “Characterization of microorganisms using UV resonance Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics,” Anal. Chem.76(3), 585–591 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

R. Petry, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Raman spectroscopy—a prospective tool in the life sciences,” ChemPhysChem4(1), 14–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang and J. Irudayaraj, “Rapid detection of foodborne microorganisms on food surface using Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Struct.646(1-3), 35–43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Barker and W. Rayens, “Partial least squares for discrimination,” J. Chemometr.17(3), 166–173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Maquelin, C. Kirschner, L. P. Choo-Smith, N. A. Ngo-Thi, T. van Vreeswijk, M. Stämmler, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, D. Naumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Prospective study of the performance of vibrational spectroscopies for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens recovered from blood cultures,” J. Clin. Microbiol.41(1), 324–329 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Donnenberg and T. S. Whittam, “Pathogenesis and evolution of virulence in enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli,” J. Clin. Invest.107(5), 539–548 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem.73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. Pappas, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Raman spectroscopy in bioanalysis,” Talanta51(1), 131–144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, H. P. Endtz, B. Smith, R. Bennett, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium,” Anal. Chem.72(1), 12–19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

R. Goodacre, E. M. Timmins, R. Burton, N. Kaderbhai, A. M. Woodward, D. B. Kell, and P. J. Rooney, “Rapid identification of urinary tract infection bacteria using hyperspectral whole-organism fingerprinting and artificial neural networks,” Microbiology144(5), 1157–1170 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Mead and P. M. Griffin, “Escherichia coli O157:H7,” Lancet352(9135), 1207–1212 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

G. E. Fox, J. D. Wisotzkey, and P. Jurtshuk., “How close is close: 16S rRNA sequence identity may not be sufficient to guarantee species identity,” Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.42(1), 166–170 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al-Qadiri, H. M.

H. M. Al-Qadiri, M. Lin, A. G. Cavinato, and B. A. Rasco, “Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, detection and identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Alicyclobacillus strains in apple juice,” Int. J. Food Microbiol.111(1), 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auner, G. W.

A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, R. E. Weber, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, G. W. Auner, R. Rabah, and D. C. Freeman, “A robust method for automated background subtraction of tissue fluorescence,” J. Raman Spectrosc.38(9), 1199–1205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, M. J.

W. E. Huang, R. I. Griffiths, I. P. Thompson, M. J. Bailey, and A. S. Whiteley, “Raman microscopic analysis of single microbial cells,” Anal. Chem.76(15), 4452–4458 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balhorn, R.

J. W. Chan, H. Winhold, M. H. Corzett, J. M. Ulloa, M. Cosman, R. Balhorn, and T. Huser, “Monitoring dynamic protein expression in living E. coli. Bacterial cells by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” Cytometry A71A(7), 468–474 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barker, M.

M. Barker and W. Rayens, “Partial least squares for discrimination,” J. Chemometr.17(3), 166–173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, K.

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, U. Holzgrabe, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, W. Kiefer, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Characterization of bacterial growth and the influence of antibiotics by means of UV resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers82(4), 306–311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, R.

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, H. P. Endtz, B. Smith, R. Bennett, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium,” Anal. Chem.72(1), 12–19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruining, H. A.

M. S. Ibelings, K. Maquelin, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Rapid identification of Candida spp. in peritonitis patients by Raman spectroscopy,” Clin. Microbiol. Infect.11(5), 353–358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maquelin, C. Kirschner, L. P. Choo-Smith, N. A. Ngo-Thi, T. van Vreeswijk, M. Stämmler, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, D. Naumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Prospective study of the performance of vibrational spectroscopies for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens recovered from blood cultures,” J. Clin. Microbiol.41(1), 324–329 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, H. P. Endtz, B. Smith, R. Bennett, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium,” Anal. Chem.72(1), 12–19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burkhardt, H.

P. Rösch, M. Harz, M. Schmitt, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, H. W. Motzkus, M. Lankers, S. Hofer, H. Thiele, and J. Popp, “Chemotaxonomic identification of single bacteria by micro-Raman spectroscopy: application to clean-room-relevant biological contaminations,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.71(3), 1626–1637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harz, P. Rösch, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, and J. Popp, “Micro-Raman spectroscopic identification of bacterial cells of the genus Staphylococcus and dependence on their cultivation conditions,” Analyst (Lond.)130(11), 1543–1550 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burton, R.

R. Goodacre, E. M. Timmins, R. Burton, N. Kaderbhai, A. M. Woodward, D. B. Kell, and P. J. Rooney, “Rapid identification of urinary tract infection bacteria using hyperspectral whole-organism fingerprinting and artificial neural networks,” Microbiology144(5), 1157–1170 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, A.

A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, R. E. Weber, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, G. W. Auner, R. Rabah, and D. C. Freeman, “A robust method for automated background subtraction of tissue fluorescence,” J. Raman Spectrosc.38(9), 1199–1205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cavinato, A. G.

H. M. Al-Qadiri, M. Lin, A. G. Cavinato, and B. A. Rasco, “Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, detection and identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Alicyclobacillus strains in apple juice,” Int. J. Food Microbiol.111(1), 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, H. Winhold, M. H. Corzett, J. M. Ulloa, M. Cosman, R. Balhorn, and T. Huser, “Monitoring dynamic protein expression in living E. coli. Bacterial cells by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” Cytometry A71A(7), 468–474 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choo-Smith, L. P.

K. Maquelin, C. Kirschner, L. P. Choo-Smith, N. A. Ngo-Thi, T. van Vreeswijk, M. Stämmler, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, D. Naumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Prospective study of the performance of vibrational spectroscopies for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens recovered from blood cultures,” J. Clin. Microbiol.41(1), 324–329 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, H. P. Endtz, B. Smith, R. Bennett, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium,” Anal. Chem.72(1), 12–19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coelho, L.

C. Mello, E. Sevéri, E. Ricci, A. Marangoni, L. Coelho, D. Ribeiro, and R. J. Poppi, “Fast differentiation of bacteria causing pharyngitis by low resolution Raman spectroscopy and PLS-discriminant analysis,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc.19(1), 29–34 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corzett, M. H.

J. W. Chan, H. Winhold, M. H. Corzett, J. M. Ulloa, M. Cosman, R. Balhorn, and T. Huser, “Monitoring dynamic protein expression in living E. coli. Bacterial cells by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” Cytometry A71A(7), 468–474 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cosman, M.

J. W. Chan, H. Winhold, M. H. Corzett, J. M. Ulloa, M. Cosman, R. Balhorn, and T. Huser, “Monitoring dynamic protein expression in living E. coli. Bacterial cells by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” Cytometry A71A(7), 468–474 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, H.

A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, R. E. Weber, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, G. W. Auner, R. Rabah, and D. C. Freeman, “A robust method for automated background subtraction of tissue fluorescence,” J. Raman Spectrosc.38(9), 1199–1205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, E. J.

Dawyndt, P.

D. Hutsebaut, J. Vandroemme, J. Heyrman, P. Dawyndt, P. Vandenabeele, L. Moens, and P. de Vos, “Raman microspectroscopy as an identification tool within the phylogenetically homogeneous ‘Bacillus subtilis’ group,” Syst. Appl. Microbiol.29(8), 650–660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vos, P.

D. Hutsebaut, J. Vandroemme, J. Heyrman, P. Dawyndt, P. Vandenabeele, L. Moens, and P. de Vos, “Raman microspectroscopy as an identification tool within the phylogenetically homogeneous ‘Bacillus subtilis’ group,” Syst. Appl. Microbiol.29(8), 650–660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnenberg, M. S.

M. S. Donnenberg and T. S. Whittam, “Pathogenesis and evolution of virulence in enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli,” J. Clin. Invest.107(5), 539–548 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elliott, S.

Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem.73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endtz, H. P.

M. S. Ibelings, K. Maquelin, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Rapid identification of Candida spp. in peritonitis patients by Raman spectroscopy,” Clin. Microbiol. Infect.11(5), 353–358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maquelin, C. Kirschner, L. P. Choo-Smith, N. A. Ngo-Thi, T. van Vreeswijk, M. Stämmler, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, D. Naumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Prospective study of the performance of vibrational spectroscopies for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens recovered from blood cultures,” J. Clin. Microbiol.41(1), 324–329 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, H. P. Endtz, B. Smith, R. Bennett, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium,” Anal. Chem.72(1), 12–19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fox, G. E.

G. E. Fox, J. D. Wisotzkey, and P. Jurtshuk., “How close is close: 16S rRNA sequence identity may not be sufficient to guarantee species identity,” Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.42(1), 166–170 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, D. C.

A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, R. E. Weber, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, G. W. Auner, R. Rabah, and D. C. Freeman, “A robust method for automated background subtraction of tissue fluorescence,” J. Raman Spectrosc.38(9), 1199–1205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goeller, L. J.

Goodacre, R.

E. C. López-Díez and R. Goodacre, “Characterization of microorganisms using UV resonance Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics,” Anal. Chem.76(3), 585–591 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Jarvis and R. Goodacre, “Ultra-violet resonance Raman spectroscopy for the rapid discrimination of urinary tract infection bacteria,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett.232(2), 127–132 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Goodacre, E. M. Timmins, R. Burton, N. Kaderbhai, A. M. Woodward, D. B. Kell, and P. J. Rooney, “Rapid identification of urinary tract infection bacteria using hyperspectral whole-organism fingerprinting and artificial neural networks,” Microbiology144(5), 1157–1170 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffin, P. M.

P. S. Mead and P. M. Griffin, “Escherichia coli O157:H7,” Lancet352(9135), 1207–1212 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffiths, R. I.

W. E. Huang, R. I. Griffiths, I. P. Thompson, M. J. Bailey, and A. S. Whiteley, “Raman microscopic analysis of single microbial cells,” Anal. Chem.76(15), 4452–4458 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamasha, K.

S. Palchaudhuri, S. J. Rehse, K. Hamasha, T. Syed, E. Kurtovic, E. Kurtovic, and J. Stenger, “Raman spectroscopy of xylitol uptake and metabolism in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.77(1), 131–137 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hamasha, M. B. Sahana, C. Jani, S. Nyayapathy, C.-M. Kang, and S. J. Rehse, “The effect of Wag31 phosphorylation on the cells and the cell envelope fraction of wild-type and conditional mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis studied by visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.391(1), 664–668 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamilton, T.

Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem.73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, C.-G.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harz, M.

M. Harz, P. Rösch, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, and J. Popp, “Micro-Raman spectroscopic identification of bacterial cells of the genus Staphylococcus and dependence on their cultivation conditions,” Analyst (Lond.)130(11), 1543–1550 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rösch, M. Harz, M. Schmitt, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, H. W. Motzkus, M. Lankers, S. Hofer, H. Thiele, and J. Popp, “Chemotaxonomic identification of single bacteria by micro-Raman spectroscopy: application to clean-room-relevant biological contaminations,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.71(3), 1626–1637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hattori, M.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, T.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, L.

Y. Liu, L. He, A. Mustapha, H. Li, Z. Q. Hu, and M. Lin, “Antibacterial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Escherichia coli O157:H7,” J. Appl. Microbiol.107(4), 1193–1201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heyrman, J.

D. Hutsebaut, J. Vandroemme, J. Heyrman, P. Dawyndt, P. Vandenabeele, L. Moens, and P. de Vos, “Raman microspectroscopy as an identification tool within the phylogenetically homogeneous ‘Bacillus subtilis’ group,” Syst. Appl. Microbiol.29(8), 650–660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, S.

P. Rösch, M. Harz, M. Schmitt, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, H. W. Motzkus, M. Lankers, S. Hofer, H. Thiele, and J. Popp, “Chemotaxonomic identification of single bacteria by micro-Raman spectroscopy: application to clean-room-relevant biological contaminations,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.71(3), 1626–1637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzgrabe, U.

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, U. Holzgrabe, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, W. Kiefer, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Characterization of bacterial growth and the influence of antibiotics by means of UV resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers82(4), 306–311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honda, T.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Z. Q.

Y. Liu, L. He, A. Mustapha, H. Li, Z. Q. Hu, and M. Lin, “Antibacterial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Escherichia coli O157:H7,” J. Appl. Microbiol.107(4), 1193–1201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, W. E.

W. E. Huang, R. I. Griffiths, I. P. Thompson, M. J. Bailey, and A. S. Whiteley, “Raman microscopic analysis of single microbial cells,” Anal. Chem.76(15), 4452–4458 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huser, T.

J. W. Chan, H. Winhold, M. H. Corzett, J. M. Ulloa, M. Cosman, R. Balhorn, and T. Huser, “Monitoring dynamic protein expression in living E. coli. Bacterial cells by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” Cytometry A71A(7), 468–474 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutsebaut, D.

D. Hutsebaut, J. Vandroemme, J. Heyrman, P. Dawyndt, P. Vandenabeele, L. Moens, and P. de Vos, “Raman microspectroscopy as an identification tool within the phylogenetically homogeneous ‘Bacillus subtilis’ group,” Syst. Appl. Microbiol.29(8), 650–660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibelings, M. S.

M. S. Ibelings, K. Maquelin, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Rapid identification of Candida spp. in peritonitis patients by Raman spectroscopy,” Clin. Microbiol. Infect.11(5), 353–358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iida, T.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irudayaraj, J.

H. Yang and J. Irudayaraj, “Rapid detection of foodborne microorganisms on food surface using Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Struct.646(1-3), 35–43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, K.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jani, C.

K. Hamasha, M. B. Sahana, C. Jani, S. Nyayapathy, C.-M. Kang, and S. J. Rehse, “The effect of Wag31 phosphorylation on the cells and the cell envelope fraction of wild-type and conditional mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis studied by visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.391(1), 664–668 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarvis, R. M.

R. M. Jarvis and R. Goodacre, “Ultra-violet resonance Raman spectroscopy for the rapid discrimination of urinary tract infection bacteria,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett.232(2), 127–132 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Junge, K.

Jurtshuk, P.

G. E. Fox, J. D. Wisotzkey, and P. Jurtshuk., “How close is close: 16S rRNA sequence identity may not be sufficient to guarantee species identity,” Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.42(1), 166–170 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaderbhai, N.

R. Goodacre, E. M. Timmins, R. Burton, N. Kaderbhai, A. M. Woodward, D. B. Kell, and P. J. Rooney, “Rapid identification of urinary tract infection bacteria using hyperspectral whole-organism fingerprinting and artificial neural networks,” Microbiology144(5), 1157–1170 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, C.-M.

K. Hamasha, M. B. Sahana, C. Jani, S. Nyayapathy, C.-M. Kang, and S. J. Rehse, “The effect of Wag31 phosphorylation on the cells and the cell envelope fraction of wild-type and conditional mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis studied by visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.391(1), 664–668 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kell, D. B.

R. Goodacre, E. M. Timmins, R. Burton, N. Kaderbhai, A. M. Woodward, D. B. Kell, and P. J. Rooney, “Rapid identification of urinary tract infection bacteria using hyperspectral whole-organism fingerprinting and artificial neural networks,” Microbiology144(5), 1157–1170 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiefer, W.

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, U. Holzgrabe, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, W. Kiefer, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Characterization of bacterial growth and the influence of antibiotics by means of UV resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers82(4), 306–311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirschner, C.

K. Maquelin, C. Kirschner, L. P. Choo-Smith, N. A. Ngo-Thi, T. van Vreeswijk, M. Stämmler, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, D. Naumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Prospective study of the performance of vibrational spectroscopies for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens recovered from blood cultures,” J. Clin. Microbiol.41(1), 324–329 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozitskaya, S.

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, U. Holzgrabe, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, W. Kiefer, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Characterization of bacterial growth and the influence of antibiotics by means of UV resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers82(4), 306–311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhara, S.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurokawa, K.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtovic, E.

S. Palchaudhuri, S. J. Rehse, K. Hamasha, T. Syed, E. Kurtovic, E. Kurtovic, and J. Stenger, “Raman spectroscopy of xylitol uptake and metabolism in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.77(1), 131–137 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Palchaudhuri, S. J. Rehse, K. Hamasha, T. Syed, E. Kurtovic, E. Kurtovic, and J. Stenger, “Raman spectroscopy of xylitol uptake and metabolism in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.77(1), 131–137 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lankers, M.

P. Rösch, M. Harz, M. Schmitt, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, H. W. Motzkus, M. Lankers, S. Hofer, H. Thiele, and J. Popp, “Chemotaxonomic identification of single bacteria by micro-Raman spectroscopy: application to clean-room-relevant biological contaminations,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.71(3), 1626–1637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laucks, M. L.

Li, H.

Y. Liu, L. He, A. Mustapha, H. Li, Z. Q. Hu, and M. Lin, “Antibacterial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Escherichia coli O157:H7,” J. Appl. Microbiol.107(4), 1193–1201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, M.

Y. Liu, L. He, A. Mustapha, H. Li, Z. Q. Hu, and M. Lin, “Antibacterial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Escherichia coli O157:H7,” J. Appl. Microbiol.107(4), 1193–1201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Al-Qadiri, M. Lin, A. G. Cavinato, and B. A. Rasco, “Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, detection and identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Alicyclobacillus strains in apple juice,” Int. J. Food Microbiol.111(1), 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, L. He, A. Mustapha, H. Li, Z. Q. Hu, and M. Lin, “Antibacterial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Escherichia coli O157:H7,” J. Appl. Microbiol.107(4), 1193–1201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

López-Díez, E. C.

E. C. López-Díez and R. Goodacre, “Characterization of microorganisms using UV resonance Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics,” Anal. Chem.76(3), 585–591 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makino, K.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maquelin, K.

M. S. Ibelings, K. Maquelin, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Rapid identification of Candida spp. in peritonitis patients by Raman spectroscopy,” Clin. Microbiol. Infect.11(5), 353–358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maquelin, C. Kirschner, L. P. Choo-Smith, N. A. Ngo-Thi, T. van Vreeswijk, M. Stämmler, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, D. Naumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Prospective study of the performance of vibrational spectroscopies for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens recovered from blood cultures,” J. Clin. Microbiol.41(1), 324–329 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, H. P. Endtz, B. Smith, R. Bennett, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium,” Anal. Chem.72(1), 12–19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marangoni, A.

C. Mello, E. Sevéri, E. Ricci, A. Marangoni, L. Coelho, D. Ribeiro, and R. J. Poppi, “Fast differentiation of bacteria causing pharyngitis by low resolution Raman spectroscopy and PLS-discriminant analysis,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc.19(1), 29–34 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mead, P. S.

P. S. Mead and P. M. Griffin, “Escherichia coli O157:H7,” Lancet352(9135), 1207–1212 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mello, C.

C. Mello, E. Sevéri, E. Ricci, A. Marangoni, L. Coelho, D. Ribeiro, and R. J. Poppi, “Fast differentiation of bacteria causing pharyngitis by low resolution Raman spectroscopy and PLS-discriminant analysis,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc.19(1), 29–34 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Mello, D. Ribeiro, F. Novaes, and R. J. Poppi, “Rapid differentiation among bacteria that cause gastroenteritis by use of low-resolution Raman spectroscopy and PLS discriminant analysis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.383(4), 701–706 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moens, L.

D. Hutsebaut, J. Vandroemme, J. Heyrman, P. Dawyndt, P. Vandenabeele, L. Moens, and P. de Vos, “Raman microspectroscopy as an identification tool within the phylogenetically homogeneous ‘Bacillus subtilis’ group,” Syst. Appl. Microbiol.29(8), 650–660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motzkus, H. W.

P. Rösch, M. Harz, M. Schmitt, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, H. W. Motzkus, M. Lankers, S. Hofer, H. Thiele, and J. Popp, “Chemotaxonomic identification of single bacteria by micro-Raman spectroscopy: application to clean-room-relevant biological contaminations,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.71(3), 1626–1637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murata, T.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mustapha, A.

Y. Liu, L. He, A. Mustapha, H. Li, Z. Q. Hu, and M. Lin, “Antibacterial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Escherichia coli O157:H7,” J. Appl. Microbiol.107(4), 1193–1201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naik, R.

A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, R. E. Weber, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, G. W. Auner, R. Rabah, and D. C. Freeman, “A robust method for automated background subtraction of tissue fluorescence,” J. Raman Spectrosc.38(9), 1199–1205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Naik, V. M.

A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, R. E. Weber, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, G. W. Auner, R. Rabah, and D. C. Freeman, “A robust method for automated background subtraction of tissue fluorescence,” J. Raman Spectrosc.38(9), 1199–1205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, K.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naumann, D.

K. Maquelin, C. Kirschner, L. P. Choo-Smith, N. A. Ngo-Thi, T. van Vreeswijk, M. Stämmler, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, D. Naumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Prospective study of the performance of vibrational spectroscopies for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens recovered from blood cultures,” J. Clin. Microbiol.41(1), 324–329 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, W. H.

Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem.73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neugebauer, U.

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, U. Holzgrabe, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, W. Kiefer, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Characterization of bacterial growth and the influence of antibiotics by means of UV resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers82(4), 306–311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ngo-Thi, N. A.

K. Maquelin, C. Kirschner, L. P. Choo-Smith, N. A. Ngo-Thi, T. van Vreeswijk, M. Stämmler, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, D. Naumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Prospective study of the performance of vibrational spectroscopies for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens recovered from blood cultures,” J. Clin. Microbiol.41(1), 324–329 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notingher, I.

I. Notingher, “Raman spectroscopy cell-based biosensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)7(8), 1343–1358 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Novaes, F.

C. Mello, D. Ribeiro, F. Novaes, and R. J. Poppi, “Rapid differentiation among bacteria that cause gastroenteritis by use of low-resolution Raman spectroscopy and PLS discriminant analysis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.383(4), 701–706 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nyayapathy, S.

K. Hamasha, M. B. Sahana, C. Jani, S. Nyayapathy, C.-M. Kang, and S. J. Rehse, “The effect of Wag31 phosphorylation on the cells and the cell envelope fraction of wild-type and conditional mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis studied by visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.391(1), 664–668 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogasawara, N.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
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Ohnishi, M.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
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Ohtsubo, E.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palchaudhuri, S.

S. Palchaudhuri, S. J. Rehse, K. Hamasha, T. Syed, E. Kurtovic, E. Kurtovic, and J. Stenger, “Raman spectroscopy of xylitol uptake and metabolism in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.77(1), 131–137 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pandya, A. K.

A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, R. E. Weber, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, G. W. Auner, R. Rabah, and D. C. Freeman, “A robust method for automated background subtraction of tissue fluorescence,” J. Raman Spectrosc.38(9), 1199–1205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pappas, D.

D. Pappas, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Raman spectroscopy in bioanalysis,” Talanta51(1), 131–144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peschke, K.-D.

P. Rösch, M. Harz, M. Schmitt, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, H. W. Motzkus, M. Lankers, S. Hofer, H. Thiele, and J. Popp, “Chemotaxonomic identification of single bacteria by micro-Raman spectroscopy: application to clean-room-relevant biological contaminations,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.71(3), 1626–1637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harz, P. Rösch, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, and J. Popp, “Micro-Raman spectroscopic identification of bacterial cells of the genus Staphylococcus and dependence on their cultivation conditions,” Analyst (Lond.)130(11), 1543–1550 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petry, R.

R. Petry, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Raman spectroscopy—a prospective tool in the life sciences,” ChemPhysChem4(1), 14–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popp, J.

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, U. Holzgrabe, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, W. Kiefer, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Characterization of bacterial growth and the influence of antibiotics by means of UV resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers82(4), 306–311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harz, P. Rösch, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, and J. Popp, “Micro-Raman spectroscopic identification of bacterial cells of the genus Staphylococcus and dependence on their cultivation conditions,” Analyst (Lond.)130(11), 1543–1550 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rösch, M. Harz, M. Schmitt, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, H. W. Motzkus, M. Lankers, S. Hofer, H. Thiele, and J. Popp, “Chemotaxonomic identification of single bacteria by micro-Raman spectroscopy: application to clean-room-relevant biological contaminations,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.71(3), 1626–1637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Petry, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Raman spectroscopy—a prospective tool in the life sciences,” ChemPhysChem4(1), 14–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poppi, R. J.

C. Mello, E. Sevéri, E. Ricci, A. Marangoni, L. Coelho, D. Ribeiro, and R. J. Poppi, “Fast differentiation of bacteria causing pharyngitis by low resolution Raman spectroscopy and PLS-discriminant analysis,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc.19(1), 29–34 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Mello, D. Ribeiro, F. Novaes, and R. J. Poppi, “Rapid differentiation among bacteria that cause gastroenteritis by use of low-resolution Raman spectroscopy and PLS discriminant analysis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.383(4), 701–706 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puppels, G. J.

M. S. Ibelings, K. Maquelin, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Rapid identification of Candida spp. in peritonitis patients by Raman spectroscopy,” Clin. Microbiol. Infect.11(5), 353–358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maquelin, C. Kirschner, L. P. Choo-Smith, N. A. Ngo-Thi, T. van Vreeswijk, M. Stämmler, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, D. Naumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Prospective study of the performance of vibrational spectroscopies for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens recovered from blood cultures,” J. Clin. Microbiol.41(1), 324–329 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, H. P. Endtz, B. Smith, R. Bennett, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium,” Anal. Chem.72(1), 12–19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabah, R.

A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, R. E. Weber, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, G. W. Auner, R. Rabah, and D. C. Freeman, “A robust method for automated background subtraction of tissue fluorescence,” J. Raman Spectrosc.38(9), 1199–1205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rasco, B. A.

H. M. Al-Qadiri, M. Lin, A. G. Cavinato, and B. A. Rasco, “Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, detection and identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Alicyclobacillus strains in apple juice,” Int. J. Food Microbiol.111(1), 73–80 (2006).
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Rayens, W.

M. Barker and W. Rayens, “Partial least squares for discrimination,” J. Chemometr.17(3), 166–173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rehse, S. J.

S. Palchaudhuri, S. J. Rehse, K. Hamasha, T. Syed, E. Kurtovic, E. Kurtovic, and J. Stenger, “Raman spectroscopy of xylitol uptake and metabolism in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.77(1), 131–137 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hamasha, M. B. Sahana, C. Jani, S. Nyayapathy, C.-M. Kang, and S. J. Rehse, “The effect of Wag31 phosphorylation on the cells and the cell envelope fraction of wild-type and conditional mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis studied by visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.391(1), 664–668 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ribeiro, D.

C. Mello, E. Sevéri, E. Ricci, A. Marangoni, L. Coelho, D. Ribeiro, and R. J. Poppi, “Fast differentiation of bacteria causing pharyngitis by low resolution Raman spectroscopy and PLS-discriminant analysis,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc.19(1), 29–34 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Mello, D. Ribeiro, F. Novaes, and R. J. Poppi, “Rapid differentiation among bacteria that cause gastroenteritis by use of low-resolution Raman spectroscopy and PLS discriminant analysis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.383(4), 701–706 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ricci, E.

C. Mello, E. Sevéri, E. Ricci, A. Marangoni, L. Coelho, D. Ribeiro, and R. J. Poppi, “Fast differentiation of bacteria causing pharyngitis by low resolution Raman spectroscopy and PLS-discriminant analysis,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc.19(1), 29–34 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riley, M. R.

Ronneberger, O.

P. Rösch, M. Harz, M. Schmitt, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, H. W. Motzkus, M. Lankers, S. Hofer, H. Thiele, and J. Popp, “Chemotaxonomic identification of single bacteria by micro-Raman spectroscopy: application to clean-room-relevant biological contaminations,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.71(3), 1626–1637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harz, P. Rösch, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, and J. Popp, “Micro-Raman spectroscopic identification of bacterial cells of the genus Staphylococcus and dependence on their cultivation conditions,” Analyst (Lond.)130(11), 1543–1550 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rooney, P. J.

R. Goodacre, E. M. Timmins, R. Burton, N. Kaderbhai, A. M. Woodward, D. B. Kell, and P. J. Rooney, “Rapid identification of urinary tract infection bacteria using hyperspectral whole-organism fingerprinting and artificial neural networks,” Microbiology144(5), 1157–1170 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rösch, P.

P. Rösch, M. Harz, M. Schmitt, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, H. W. Motzkus, M. Lankers, S. Hofer, H. Thiele, and J. Popp, “Chemotaxonomic identification of single bacteria by micro-Raman spectroscopy: application to clean-room-relevant biological contaminations,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.71(3), 1626–1637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harz, P. Rösch, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, and J. Popp, “Micro-Raman spectroscopic identification of bacterial cells of the genus Staphylococcus and dependence on their cultivation conditions,” Analyst (Lond.)130(11), 1543–1550 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahana, M. B.

K. Hamasha, M. B. Sahana, C. Jani, S. Nyayapathy, C.-M. Kang, and S. J. Rehse, “The effect of Wag31 phosphorylation on the cells and the cell envelope fraction of wild-type and conditional mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis studied by visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.391(1), 664–668 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasakawa, C.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, U.

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, U. Holzgrabe, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, W. Kiefer, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Characterization of bacterial growth and the influence of antibiotics by means of UV resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers82(4), 306–311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, M.

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, U. Holzgrabe, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, W. Kiefer, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Characterization of bacterial growth and the influence of antibiotics by means of UV resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers82(4), 306–311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rösch, M. Harz, M. Schmitt, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, H. W. Motzkus, M. Lankers, S. Hofer, H. Thiele, and J. Popp, “Chemotaxonomic identification of single bacteria by micro-Raman spectroscopy: application to clean-room-relevant biological contaminations,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.71(3), 1626–1637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Petry, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Raman spectroscopy—a prospective tool in the life sciences,” ChemPhysChem4(1), 14–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sengupta, A.

Serhatkulu, G. K.

A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, R. E. Weber, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, G. W. Auner, R. Rabah, and D. C. Freeman, “A robust method for automated background subtraction of tissue fluorescence,” J. Raman Spectrosc.38(9), 1199–1205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sevéri, E.

C. Mello, E. Sevéri, E. Ricci, A. Marangoni, L. Coelho, D. Ribeiro, and R. J. Poppi, “Fast differentiation of bacteria causing pharyngitis by low resolution Raman spectroscopy and PLS-discriminant analysis,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc.19(1), 29–34 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinagawa, H.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, B.

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, H. P. Endtz, B. Smith, R. Bennett, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium,” Anal. Chem.72(1), 12–19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, B. W.

D. Pappas, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Raman spectroscopy in bioanalysis,” Talanta51(1), 131–144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sperry, J. F.

Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem.73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stämmler, M.

K. Maquelin, C. Kirschner, L. P. Choo-Smith, N. A. Ngo-Thi, T. van Vreeswijk, M. Stämmler, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, D. Naumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Prospective study of the performance of vibrational spectroscopies for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens recovered from blood cultures,” J. Clin. Microbiol.41(1), 324–329 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenger, J.

S. Palchaudhuri, S. J. Rehse, K. Hamasha, T. Syed, E. Kurtovic, E. Kurtovic, and J. Stenger, “Raman spectroscopy of xylitol uptake and metabolism in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.77(1), 131–137 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, B. D.

Syed, T.

S. Palchaudhuri, S. J. Rehse, K. Hamasha, T. Syed, E. Kurtovic, E. Kurtovic, and J. Stenger, “Raman spectroscopy of xylitol uptake and metabolism in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.77(1), 131–137 (2011).
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Takami, H.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
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Tanaka, M.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
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A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, R. E. Weber, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, G. W. Auner, R. Rabah, and D. C. Freeman, “A robust method for automated background subtraction of tissue fluorescence,” J. Raman Spectrosc.38(9), 1199–1205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thiele, H.

P. Rösch, M. Harz, M. Schmitt, K.-D. Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, H. W. Motzkus, M. Lankers, S. Hofer, H. Thiele, and J. Popp, “Chemotaxonomic identification of single bacteria by micro-Raman spectroscopy: application to clean-room-relevant biological contaminations,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.71(3), 1626–1637 (2005).
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W. E. Huang, R. I. Griffiths, I. P. Thompson, M. J. Bailey, and A. S. Whiteley, “Raman microscopic analysis of single microbial cells,” Anal. Chem.76(15), 4452–4458 (2004).
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Timmins, E. M.

R. Goodacre, E. M. Timmins, R. Burton, N. Kaderbhai, A. M. Woodward, D. B. Kell, and P. J. Rooney, “Rapid identification of urinary tract infection bacteria using hyperspectral whole-organism fingerprinting and artificial neural networks,” Microbiology144(5), 1157–1170 (1998).
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Tobe, T.

T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
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J. W. Chan, H. Winhold, M. H. Corzett, J. M. Ulloa, M. Cosman, R. Balhorn, and T. Huser, “Monitoring dynamic protein expression in living E. coli. Bacterial cells by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” Cytometry A71A(7), 468–474 (2007).
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K. Maquelin, C. Kirschner, L. P. Choo-Smith, N. A. Ngo-Thi, T. van Vreeswijk, M. Stämmler, H. P. Endtz, H. A. Bruining, D. Naumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Prospective study of the performance of vibrational spectroscopies for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens recovered from blood cultures,” J. Clin. Microbiol.41(1), 324–329 (2003).
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K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, H. P. Endtz, B. Smith, R. Bennett, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium,” Anal. Chem.72(1), 12–19 (2000).
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D. Hutsebaut, J. Vandroemme, J. Heyrman, P. Dawyndt, P. Vandenabeele, L. Moens, and P. de Vos, “Raman microspectroscopy as an identification tool within the phylogenetically homogeneous ‘Bacillus subtilis’ group,” Syst. Appl. Microbiol.29(8), 650–660 (2006).
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Vandroemme, J.

D. Hutsebaut, J. Vandroemme, J. Heyrman, P. Dawyndt, P. Vandenabeele, L. Moens, and P. de Vos, “Raman microspectroscopy as an identification tool within the phylogenetically homogeneous ‘Bacillus subtilis’ group,” Syst. Appl. Microbiol.29(8), 650–660 (2006).
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Weber, R. E.

A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, R. E. Weber, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, G. W. Auner, R. Rabah, and D. C. Freeman, “A robust method for automated background subtraction of tissue fluorescence,” J. Raman Spectrosc.38(9), 1199–1205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Whiteley, A. S.

W. E. Huang, R. I. Griffiths, I. P. Thompson, M. J. Bailey, and A. S. Whiteley, “Raman microscopic analysis of single microbial cells,” Anal. Chem.76(15), 4452–4458 (2004).
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M. S. Donnenberg and T. S. Whittam, “Pathogenesis and evolution of virulence in enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli,” J. Clin. Invest.107(5), 539–548 (2001).
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D. Pappas, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Raman spectroscopy in bioanalysis,” Talanta51(1), 131–144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winhold, H.

J. W. Chan, H. Winhold, M. H. Corzett, J. M. Ulloa, M. Cosman, R. Balhorn, and T. Huser, “Monitoring dynamic protein expression in living E. coli. Bacterial cells by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” Cytometry A71A(7), 468–474 (2007).
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G. E. Fox, J. D. Wisotzkey, and P. Jurtshuk., “How close is close: 16S rRNA sequence identity may not be sufficient to guarantee species identity,” Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.42(1), 166–170 (1992).
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R. Goodacre, E. M. Timmins, R. Burton, N. Kaderbhai, A. M. Woodward, D. B. Kell, and P. J. Rooney, “Rapid identification of urinary tract infection bacteria using hyperspectral whole-organism fingerprinting and artificial neural networks,” Microbiology144(5), 1157–1170 (1998).
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Wu, M.

Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem.73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
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Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem.73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
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H. Yang and J. Irudayaraj, “Rapid detection of foodborne microorganisms on food surface using Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Struct.646(1-3), 35–43 (2003).
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T. Hayashi, K. Makino, M. Ohnishi, K. Kurokawa, K. Ishii, K. Yokoyama, C.-G. Han, E. Ohtsubo, K. Nakayama, T. Murata, M. Tanaka, T. Tobe, T. Iida, H. Takami, T. Honda, C. Sasakawa, N. Ogasawara, T. Yasunaga, S. Kuhara, T. Shiba, M. Hattori, and H. Shinagawa, “Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12,” DNA Res.8(1), 11–22 (2001).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Normalized averaged Raman spectra of four strains of E. coli (top to bottom): C, O157:H7, Hfr K-12, and HF4714. Spectra have been offset vertically for clarity and the wavenumbers of important spectral features are indicated by a vertical line. The standard deviation of all the averaged spectra is indicated by dashed lines above and below the averaged spectrum. (b) A PC-DFA plot showing the first two discriminant function scores of the 478 Raman spectra. No smoothing was performed in this analysis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The first principal component loading of the PCA (red) plotted with the difference of the average Raman spectrum of E. coli O157:H7 and E coli C (black). A strong correlation between these two shows that the difference between pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 and E coli C particularly in the important Raman bands at 1658, 1454, and 1338 cm−1 accounts for a significant amount of the overall variance in the data. No smoothing was performed in this analysis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PLS-DA results of an EHEC test on (a) non-pathogenic E. coli strain C and (b) pathogenic O157:H7. In (a) 100% of the non-pathogenic strain C spectra in the test group were correctly identified as being nonpathogenic E. coli, possessing Y predictor values above the determined discrimination line. In (b) 100% of the pathogenic strain O157:H7 spectra in the test group were correctly identified as being pathogenic, possessing Y predictor values below the determined discrimination line. No smoothing was performed in this analysis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The unprocessed (raw), smoothed (with a window size of 27), and smoothed 2nd derivative spectrum of E. coli O157:H7. (b) The same spectra zoomed in on the region from 800 – 1050 cm−1.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Bacterial data sets tested in this study

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Table 2 Classification accuracy of PLS-DA and PC-DFA E. coli O157:H7 tests with no spectral preprocessing

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Table 3 Classification accuracy of PLS-DA and PC-DFA E. coli O157:H7 tests using optimal preprocessing

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