Abstract

The use of tissue transfer flaps has become a common and effective technique for reconstructing or replacing damaged tissue. While the overall failure rate associated with these procedures is relatively low (5-10%), the failure rate of tissue flaps that require additional surgery is significantly higher (40-60%). The reason for this is largely due to the absence of a technique for objectively assessing tissue health after surgery. Here we have investigated spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) as a potential tool to do this. By projecting wide-field patterned illumination at multiple wavelengths onto a tissue surface, SFDI is able to quantify absolute concentrations of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin over a large field of view. We have assessed the sensitivity of SFDI in a swine pedicle flap model by using a controlled vascular occlusion system that reduced blood flow by 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the baseline values in either the vein or artery. SFDI was able to detect significant changes for oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, or tissue oxygen saturation in partial arterial occlusions of at least 50% and partial venous occlusions of at least 25%. This shows SFDI is sensitive enough to quantify changes in the tissue hemoglobin state during partial occlusions and thus has the potential to be a powerful tool for the early prediction of tissue flap failure.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. J. M. Smit, P. M. N. Werker, A. G. Liss, M. Enajat, G. H. de Bock, T. Audolfsson, and R. Acosta, “Introduction of the implantable Doppler system did not lead to an increased salvage rate of compromised flaps: a multivariate analysis,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(6), 1710–1717 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.120(1), 187–195 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. S. Kroll, M. A. Schusterman, G. P. Reece, M. J. Miller, G. R. Evans, G. L. Robb, and B. J. Baldwin, “Timing of pedicle thrombosis and flap loss after free-tissue transfer,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.98(7), 1230–1233 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, R. Acosta, D. Grinsell, and M. W. Ashton, “The efficacy of clinical assessment in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: a review of 1140 consecutive cases,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(4), 1157–1166 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Pohlenz, M. Blessmann, F. Blake, L. Li, R. Schmelzle, and M. Heiland, “Outcome and complications of 540 microvascular free flaps: the Hamburg experience,” Clin. Oral Investig.11(1), 89–92 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. T. Bui, P. G. Cordeiro, Q.-Y. Hu, J. J. Disa, A. Pusic, and B. J. Mehrara, “Free flap reexploration: indications, treatment, and outcomes in 1193 free flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.119(7), 2092–2100 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. H. Steele, “Three-year experience using near infrared spectroscopy tissue oximetry monitoring of free tissue transfers,” Ann. Plast. Surg.66(5), 540–545 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. R. Pharaon, T. Scholz, S. Bogdanoff, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, D. B. Hoyt, and G. R. D. Evans, “Early detection of complete vascular occlusion in a pedicle flap model using quantitative [corrected] spectral imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.126(6), 1924–1935 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. E. Hjortdal, E. S. Hansen, and E. Hauge, “Myocutaneous flap ischemia: flow dynamics following venous and arterial obstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.89(6), 1083–1091 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. A. Russell, M. L. Conforti, N. P. Connor, and G. K. Hartig, “Cutaneous tissue flap viability following partial venous obstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.117(7), 2259–2266, discussion 2267–2268 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Chubb, I. S. Whitaker, W. M. Rozen, and M. W. Ashton, “Continued observations in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: preliminary experiences with Masimo Radical-7 transcutaneous plethysmography and pulse oximetry,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.129(1), 222e–223e (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. S. Thorniley, J. S. Sinclair, N. J. Barnett, C. B. Shurey, and C. J. Green, “The use of near-infrared spectroscopy for assessing flap viability during reconstructive surgery,” Br. J. Plast. Surg.51(3), 218–226 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Yafi, T. S. Vetter, T. Scholz, S. Patel, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, G. R. Evans, and A. J. Durkin, “Postoperative quantitative assessment of reconstructive tissue status in a cutaneous flap model using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.127(1), 117–130 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. I. S. Whitaker, G. F. Pratt, W. M. Rozen, S. A. Cairns, M. D. Barrett, L. Y. Hiew, M. A. Cooper, and D. J. Leaper, “Near infrared spectroscopy for monitoring flap viability following breast reconstruction,” J. Reconstr. Microsurg.28(03), 149–154 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. L. Gimbel, M. D. Rollins, E. Fukaya, and H. W. Hopf, “Monitoring partial and full venous outflow compromise in a rabbit skin flap model,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.124(3), 796–803 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Lorenzetti, J. Ahovuo, S. Suominen, A. Salmi, and S. Asko-Seljavaara, “Colour Doppler ultrasound evaluation of haemodynamic changes in free tram flaps and their donor sites,” Scand. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. Hand Surg.36(4), 202–206 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. T. Vakharia, D. Henstrom, R. Lindsay, M. B. Cunnane, M. Cheney, and T. Hadlock, “Color Doppler ultrasound: effective monitoring of the buried free flap in facial reanimation,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.146(3), 372–376 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Matsui, B. T. Lee, J. H. Winer, R. G. Laurence, and J. V. Frangioni, “Quantitative assessment of perfusion and vascular compromise in perforator flaps using a near-infrared fluorescence-guided imaging system,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.124(2), 451–460 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, and M. W. Ashton, “Images in plastic surgery: digital thermographic photography (“thermal imaging”) for preoperative perforator mapping,” Ann. Plast. Surg.66(4), 324–325 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Mazhar, S. Dell, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Wavelength optimization for rapid chromophore mapping using spatial frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061716 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036013 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. S. Irwin, M. S. Thorniley, C. J. Doré, and C. J. Green, “Near infra-red spectroscopy: a non-invasive monitor of perfusion and oxygenation within the microcirculation of limbs and flaps,” Br. J. Plast. Surg.48(1), 14–22 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

D. Chubb, I. S. Whitaker, W. M. Rozen, and M. W. Ashton, “Continued observations in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: preliminary experiences with Masimo Radical-7 transcutaneous plethysmography and pulse oximetry,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.129(1), 222e–223e (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Whitaker, G. F. Pratt, W. M. Rozen, S. A. Cairns, M. D. Barrett, L. Y. Hiew, M. A. Cooper, and D. J. Leaper, “Near infrared spectroscopy for monitoring flap viability following breast reconstruction,” J. Reconstr. Microsurg.28(03), 149–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Vakharia, D. Henstrom, R. Lindsay, M. B. Cunnane, M. Cheney, and T. Hadlock, “Color Doppler ultrasound: effective monitoring of the buried free flap in facial reanimation,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.146(3), 372–376 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, and M. W. Ashton, “Images in plastic surgery: digital thermographic photography (“thermal imaging”) for preoperative perforator mapping,” Ann. Plast. Surg.66(4), 324–325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yafi, T. S. Vetter, T. Scholz, S. Patel, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, G. R. Evans, and A. J. Durkin, “Postoperative quantitative assessment of reconstructive tissue status in a cutaneous flap model using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.127(1), 117–130 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Steele, “Three-year experience using near infrared spectroscopy tissue oximetry monitoring of free tissue transfers,” Ann. Plast. Surg.66(5), 540–545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

M. R. Pharaon, T. Scholz, S. Bogdanoff, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, D. B. Hoyt, and G. R. D. Evans, “Early detection of complete vascular occlusion in a pedicle flap model using quantitative [corrected] spectral imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.126(6), 1924–1935 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Smit, P. M. N. Werker, A. G. Liss, M. Enajat, G. H. de Bock, T. Audolfsson, and R. Acosta, “Introduction of the implantable Doppler system did not lead to an increased salvage rate of compromised flaps: a multivariate analysis,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(6), 1710–1717 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, R. Acosta, D. Grinsell, and M. W. Ashton, “The efficacy of clinical assessment in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: a review of 1140 consecutive cases,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(4), 1157–1166 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mazhar, S. Dell, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Wavelength optimization for rapid chromophore mapping using spatial frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061716 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Gimbel, M. D. Rollins, E. Fukaya, and H. W. Hopf, “Monitoring partial and full venous outflow compromise in a rabbit skin flap model,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.124(3), 796–803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Matsui, B. T. Lee, J. H. Winer, R. G. Laurence, and J. V. Frangioni, “Quantitative assessment of perfusion and vascular compromise in perforator flaps using a near-infrared fluorescence-guided imaging system,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.124(2), 451–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

P. Pohlenz, M. Blessmann, F. Blake, L. Li, R. Schmelzle, and M. Heiland, “Outcome and complications of 540 microvascular free flaps: the Hamburg experience,” Clin. Oral Investig.11(1), 89–92 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Bui, P. G. Cordeiro, Q.-Y. Hu, J. J. Disa, A. Pusic, and B. J. Mehrara, “Free flap reexploration: indications, treatment, and outcomes in 1193 free flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.119(7), 2092–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. A. Russell, M. L. Conforti, N. P. Connor, and G. K. Hartig, “Cutaneous tissue flap viability following partial venous obstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.117(7), 2259–2266, discussion 2267–2268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

F. Lorenzetti, J. Ahovuo, S. Suominen, A. Salmi, and S. Asko-Seljavaara, “Colour Doppler ultrasound evaluation of haemodynamic changes in free tram flaps and their donor sites,” Scand. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. Hand Surg.36(4), 202–206 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. S. Thorniley, J. S. Sinclair, N. J. Barnett, C. B. Shurey, and C. J. Green, “The use of near-infrared spectroscopy for assessing flap viability during reconstructive surgery,” Br. J. Plast. Surg.51(3), 218–226 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

S. S. Kroll, M. A. Schusterman, G. P. Reece, M. J. Miller, G. R. Evans, G. L. Robb, and B. J. Baldwin, “Timing of pedicle thrombosis and flap loss after free-tissue transfer,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.98(7), 1230–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. S. Irwin, M. S. Thorniley, C. J. Doré, and C. J. Green, “Near infra-red spectroscopy: a non-invasive monitor of perfusion and oxygenation within the microcirculation of limbs and flaps,” Br. J. Plast. Surg.48(1), 14–22 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

V. E. Hjortdal, E. S. Hansen, and E. Hauge, “Myocutaneous flap ischemia: flow dynamics following venous and arterial obstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.89(6), 1083–1091 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acosta, R.

J. M. Smit, P. M. N. Werker, A. G. Liss, M. Enajat, G. H. de Bock, T. Audolfsson, and R. Acosta, “Introduction of the implantable Doppler system did not lead to an increased salvage rate of compromised flaps: a multivariate analysis,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(6), 1710–1717 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, R. Acosta, D. Grinsell, and M. W. Ashton, “The efficacy of clinical assessment in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: a review of 1140 consecutive cases,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(4), 1157–1166 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahovuo, J.

F. Lorenzetti, J. Ahovuo, S. Suominen, A. Salmi, and S. Asko-Seljavaara, “Colour Doppler ultrasound evaluation of haemodynamic changes in free tram flaps and their donor sites,” Scand. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. Hand Surg.36(4), 202–206 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashitate, Y.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashton, M. W.

D. Chubb, I. S. Whitaker, W. M. Rozen, and M. W. Ashton, “Continued observations in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: preliminary experiences with Masimo Radical-7 transcutaneous plethysmography and pulse oximetry,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.129(1), 222e–223e (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, and M. W. Ashton, “Images in plastic surgery: digital thermographic photography (“thermal imaging”) for preoperative perforator mapping,” Ann. Plast. Surg.66(4), 324–325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, R. Acosta, D. Grinsell, and M. W. Ashton, “The efficacy of clinical assessment in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: a review of 1140 consecutive cases,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(4), 1157–1166 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asko-Seljavaara, S.

F. Lorenzetti, J. Ahovuo, S. Suominen, A. Salmi, and S. Asko-Seljavaara, “Colour Doppler ultrasound evaluation of haemodynamic changes in free tram flaps and their donor sites,” Scand. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. Hand Surg.36(4), 202–206 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Audolfsson, T.

J. M. Smit, P. M. N. Werker, A. G. Liss, M. Enajat, G. H. de Bock, T. Audolfsson, and R. Acosta, “Introduction of the implantable Doppler system did not lead to an increased salvage rate of compromised flaps: a multivariate analysis,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(6), 1710–1717 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldwin, B. J.

S. S. Kroll, M. A. Schusterman, G. P. Reece, M. J. Miller, G. R. Evans, G. L. Robb, and B. J. Baldwin, “Timing of pedicle thrombosis and flap loss after free-tissue transfer,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.98(7), 1230–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, N. J.

M. S. Thorniley, J. S. Sinclair, N. J. Barnett, C. B. Shurey, and C. J. Green, “The use of near-infrared spectroscopy for assessing flap viability during reconstructive surgery,” Br. J. Plast. Surg.51(3), 218–226 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrett, M. D.

I. S. Whitaker, G. F. Pratt, W. M. Rozen, S. A. Cairns, M. D. Barrett, L. Y. Hiew, M. A. Cooper, and D. J. Leaper, “Near infrared spectroscopy for monitoring flap viability following breast reconstruction,” J. Reconstr. Microsurg.28(03), 149–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blake, F.

P. Pohlenz, M. Blessmann, F. Blake, L. Li, R. Schmelzle, and M. Heiland, “Outcome and complications of 540 microvascular free flaps: the Hamburg experience,” Clin. Oral Investig.11(1), 89–92 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blessmann, M.

P. Pohlenz, M. Blessmann, F. Blake, L. Li, R. Schmelzle, and M. Heiland, “Outcome and complications of 540 microvascular free flaps: the Hamburg experience,” Clin. Oral Investig.11(1), 89–92 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogdanoff, S.

M. R. Pharaon, T. Scholz, S. Bogdanoff, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, D. B. Hoyt, and G. R. D. Evans, “Early detection of complete vascular occlusion in a pedicle flap model using quantitative [corrected] spectral imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.126(6), 1924–1935 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bui, D. T.

D. T. Bui, P. G. Cordeiro, Q.-Y. Hu, J. J. Disa, A. Pusic, and B. J. Mehrara, “Free flap reexploration: indications, treatment, and outcomes in 1193 free flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.119(7), 2092–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cairns, S. A.

I. S. Whitaker, G. F. Pratt, W. M. Rozen, S. A. Cairns, M. D. Barrett, L. Y. Hiew, M. A. Cooper, and D. J. Leaper, “Near infrared spectroscopy for monitoring flap viability following breast reconstruction,” J. Reconstr. Microsurg.28(03), 149–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.-T.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheney, M.

K. T. Vakharia, D. Henstrom, R. Lindsay, M. B. Cunnane, M. Cheney, and T. Hadlock, “Color Doppler ultrasound: effective monitoring of the buried free flap in facial reanimation,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.146(3), 372–376 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, M.-H.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuang, D. C.-C.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chubb, D.

D. Chubb, I. S. Whitaker, W. M. Rozen, and M. W. Ashton, “Continued observations in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: preliminary experiences with Masimo Radical-7 transcutaneous plethysmography and pulse oximetry,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.129(1), 222e–223e (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, and M. W. Ashton, “Images in plastic surgery: digital thermographic photography (“thermal imaging”) for preoperative perforator mapping,” Ann. Plast. Surg.66(4), 324–325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, R. Acosta, D. Grinsell, and M. W. Ashton, “The efficacy of clinical assessment in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: a review of 1140 consecutive cases,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(4), 1157–1166 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conforti, M. L.

J. A. Russell, M. L. Conforti, N. P. Connor, and G. K. Hartig, “Cutaneous tissue flap viability following partial venous obstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.117(7), 2259–2266, discussion 2267–2268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connor, N. P.

J. A. Russell, M. L. Conforti, N. P. Connor, and G. K. Hartig, “Cutaneous tissue flap viability following partial venous obstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.117(7), 2259–2266, discussion 2267–2268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, M. A.

I. S. Whitaker, G. F. Pratt, W. M. Rozen, S. A. Cairns, M. D. Barrett, L. Y. Hiew, M. A. Cooper, and D. J. Leaper, “Near infrared spectroscopy for monitoring flap viability following breast reconstruction,” J. Reconstr. Microsurg.28(03), 149–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cordeiro, P. G.

D. T. Bui, P. G. Cordeiro, Q.-Y. Hu, J. J. Disa, A. Pusic, and B. J. Mehrara, “Free flap reexploration: indications, treatment, and outcomes in 1193 free flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.119(7), 2092–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuccia, D.

M. R. Pharaon, T. Scholz, S. Bogdanoff, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, D. B. Hoyt, and G. R. D. Evans, “Early detection of complete vascular occlusion in a pedicle flap model using quantitative [corrected] spectral imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.126(6), 1924–1935 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuccia, D. J.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yafi, T. S. Vetter, T. Scholz, S. Patel, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, G. R. Evans, and A. J. Durkin, “Postoperative quantitative assessment of reconstructive tissue status in a cutaneous flap model using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.127(1), 117–130 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mazhar, S. Dell, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Wavelength optimization for rapid chromophore mapping using spatial frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061716 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunnane, M. B.

K. T. Vakharia, D. Henstrom, R. Lindsay, M. B. Cunnane, M. Cheney, and T. Hadlock, “Color Doppler ultrasound: effective monitoring of the buried free flap in facial reanimation,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.146(3), 372–376 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Bock, G. H.

J. M. Smit, P. M. N. Werker, A. G. Liss, M. Enajat, G. H. de Bock, T. Audolfsson, and R. Acosta, “Introduction of the implantable Doppler system did not lead to an increased salvage rate of compromised flaps: a multivariate analysis,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(6), 1710–1717 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dell, S.

A. Mazhar, S. Dell, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Wavelength optimization for rapid chromophore mapping using spatial frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061716 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Disa, J. J.

D. T. Bui, P. G. Cordeiro, Q.-Y. Hu, J. J. Disa, A. Pusic, and B. J. Mehrara, “Free flap reexploration: indications, treatment, and outcomes in 1193 free flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.119(7), 2092–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doré, C. J.

M. S. Irwin, M. S. Thorniley, C. J. Doré, and C. J. Green, “Near infra-red spectroscopy: a non-invasive monitor of perfusion and oxygenation within the microcirculation of limbs and flaps,” Br. J. Plast. Surg.48(1), 14–22 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durkin, A. J.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yafi, T. S. Vetter, T. Scholz, S. Patel, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, G. R. Evans, and A. J. Durkin, “Postoperative quantitative assessment of reconstructive tissue status in a cutaneous flap model using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.127(1), 117–130 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mazhar, S. Dell, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Wavelength optimization for rapid chromophore mapping using spatial frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061716 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Pharaon, T. Scholz, S. Bogdanoff, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, D. B. Hoyt, and G. R. D. Evans, “Early detection of complete vascular occlusion in a pedicle flap model using quantitative [corrected] spectral imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.126(6), 1924–1935 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durr, N. J.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enajat, M.

J. M. Smit, P. M. N. Werker, A. G. Liss, M. Enajat, G. H. de Bock, T. Audolfsson, and R. Acosta, “Introduction of the implantable Doppler system did not lead to an increased salvage rate of compromised flaps: a multivariate analysis,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(6), 1710–1717 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erickson, T. A.

T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, G. R.

A. Yafi, T. S. Vetter, T. Scholz, S. Patel, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, G. R. Evans, and A. J. Durkin, “Postoperative quantitative assessment of reconstructive tissue status in a cutaneous flap model using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.127(1), 117–130 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Kroll, M. A. Schusterman, G. P. Reece, M. J. Miller, G. R. Evans, G. L. Robb, and B. J. Baldwin, “Timing of pedicle thrombosis and flap loss after free-tissue transfer,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.98(7), 1230–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, G. R. D.

M. R. Pharaon, T. Scholz, S. Bogdanoff, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, D. B. Hoyt, and G. R. D. Evans, “Early detection of complete vascular occlusion in a pedicle flap model using quantitative [corrected] spectral imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.126(6), 1924–1935 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frangioni, J. V.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mazhar, S. Dell, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Wavelength optimization for rapid chromophore mapping using spatial frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061716 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Matsui, B. T. Lee, J. H. Winer, R. G. Laurence, and J. V. Frangioni, “Quantitative assessment of perfusion and vascular compromise in perforator flaps using a near-infrared fluorescence-guided imaging system,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.124(2), 451–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukaya, E.

M. L. Gimbel, M. D. Rollins, E. Fukaya, and H. W. Hopf, “Monitoring partial and full venous outflow compromise in a rabbit skin flap model,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.124(3), 796–803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gimbel, M. L.

M. L. Gimbel, M. D. Rollins, E. Fukaya, and H. W. Hopf, “Monitoring partial and full venous outflow compromise in a rabbit skin flap model,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.124(3), 796–803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gioux, S.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mazhar, S. Dell, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Wavelength optimization for rapid chromophore mapping using spatial frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061716 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, C. J.

M. S. Thorniley, J. S. Sinclair, N. J. Barnett, C. B. Shurey, and C. J. Green, “The use of near-infrared spectroscopy for assessing flap viability during reconstructive surgery,” Br. J. Plast. Surg.51(3), 218–226 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Irwin, M. S. Thorniley, C. J. Doré, and C. J. Green, “Near infra-red spectroscopy: a non-invasive monitor of perfusion and oxygenation within the microcirculation of limbs and flaps,” Br. J. Plast. Surg.48(1), 14–22 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grinsell, D.

D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, R. Acosta, D. Grinsell, and M. W. Ashton, “The efficacy of clinical assessment in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: a review of 1140 consecutive cases,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(4), 1157–1166 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hadlock, T.

K. T. Vakharia, D. Henstrom, R. Lindsay, M. B. Cunnane, M. Cheney, and T. Hadlock, “Color Doppler ultrasound: effective monitoring of the buried free flap in facial reanimation,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.146(3), 372–376 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, E. S.

V. E. Hjortdal, E. S. Hansen, and E. Hauge, “Myocutaneous flap ischemia: flow dynamics following venous and arterial obstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.89(6), 1083–1091 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartig, G. K.

J. A. Russell, M. L. Conforti, N. P. Connor, and G. K. Hartig, “Cutaneous tissue flap viability following partial venous obstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.117(7), 2259–2266, discussion 2267–2268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauge, E.

V. E. Hjortdal, E. S. Hansen, and E. Hauge, “Myocutaneous flap ischemia: flow dynamics following venous and arterial obstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.89(6), 1083–1091 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heiland, M.

P. Pohlenz, M. Blessmann, F. Blake, L. Li, R. Schmelzle, and M. Heiland, “Outcome and complications of 540 microvascular free flaps: the Hamburg experience,” Clin. Oral Investig.11(1), 89–92 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henstrom, D.

K. T. Vakharia, D. Henstrom, R. Lindsay, M. B. Cunnane, M. Cheney, and T. Hadlock, “Color Doppler ultrasound: effective monitoring of the buried free flap in facial reanimation,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.146(3), 372–376 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiew, L. Y.

I. S. Whitaker, G. F. Pratt, W. M. Rozen, S. A. Cairns, M. D. Barrett, L. Y. Hiew, M. A. Cooper, and D. J. Leaper, “Near infrared spectroscopy for monitoring flap viability following breast reconstruction,” J. Reconstr. Microsurg.28(03), 149–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hjortdal, V. E.

V. E. Hjortdal, E. S. Hansen, and E. Hauge, “Myocutaneous flap ischemia: flow dynamics following venous and arterial obstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.89(6), 1083–1091 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hopf, H. W.

M. L. Gimbel, M. D. Rollins, E. Fukaya, and H. W. Hopf, “Monitoring partial and full venous outflow compromise in a rabbit skin flap model,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.124(3), 796–803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoyt, D. B.

M. R. Pharaon, T. Scholz, S. Bogdanoff, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, D. B. Hoyt, and G. R. D. Evans, “Early detection of complete vascular occlusion in a pedicle flap model using quantitative [corrected] spectral imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.126(6), 1924–1935 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Q.-Y.

D. T. Bui, P. G. Cordeiro, Q.-Y. Hu, J. J. Disa, A. Pusic, and B. J. Mehrara, “Free flap reexploration: indications, treatment, and outcomes in 1193 free flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.119(7), 2092–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, W.-C.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irwin, M. S.

M. S. Irwin, M. S. Thorniley, C. J. Doré, and C. J. Green, “Near infra-red spectroscopy: a non-invasive monitor of perfusion and oxygenation within the microcirculation of limbs and flaps,” Br. J. Plast. Surg.48(1), 14–22 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, E.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kroll, S. S.

S. S. Kroll, M. A. Schusterman, G. P. Reece, M. J. Miller, G. R. Evans, G. L. Robb, and B. J. Baldwin, “Timing of pedicle thrombosis and flap loss after free-tissue transfer,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.98(7), 1230–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurence, R. G.

A. Matsui, B. T. Lee, J. H. Winer, R. G. Laurence, and J. V. Frangioni, “Quantitative assessment of perfusion and vascular compromise in perforator flaps using a near-infrared fluorescence-guided imaging system,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.124(2), 451–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leaper, D. J.

I. S. Whitaker, G. F. Pratt, W. M. Rozen, S. A. Cairns, M. D. Barrett, L. Y. Hiew, M. A. Cooper, and D. J. Leaper, “Near infrared spectroscopy for monitoring flap viability following breast reconstruction,” J. Reconstr. Microsurg.28(03), 149–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. T.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Matsui, B. T. Lee, J. H. Winer, R. G. Laurence, and J. V. Frangioni, “Quantitative assessment of perfusion and vascular compromise in perforator flaps using a near-infrared fluorescence-guided imaging system,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.124(2), 451–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

P. Pohlenz, M. Blessmann, F. Blake, L. Li, R. Schmelzle, and M. Heiland, “Outcome and complications of 540 microvascular free flaps: the Hamburg experience,” Clin. Oral Investig.11(1), 89–92 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-H.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S. J.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.-T.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindsay, R.

K. T. Vakharia, D. Henstrom, R. Lindsay, M. B. Cunnane, M. Cheney, and T. Hadlock, “Color Doppler ultrasound: effective monitoring of the buried free flap in facial reanimation,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.146(3), 372–376 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liss, A. G.

J. M. Smit, P. M. N. Werker, A. G. Liss, M. Enajat, G. H. de Bock, T. Audolfsson, and R. Acosta, “Introduction of the implantable Doppler system did not lead to an increased salvage rate of compromised flaps: a multivariate analysis,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(6), 1710–1717 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenzetti, F.

F. Lorenzetti, J. Ahovuo, S. Suominen, A. Salmi, and S. Asko-Seljavaara, “Colour Doppler ultrasound evaluation of haemodynamic changes in free tram flaps and their donor sites,” Scand. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. Hand Surg.36(4), 202–206 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mardini, S.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsui, A.

A. Matsui, B. T. Lee, J. H. Winer, R. G. Laurence, and J. V. Frangioni, “Quantitative assessment of perfusion and vascular compromise in perforator flaps using a near-infrared fluorescence-guided imaging system,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.124(2), 451–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazhar, A.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mazhar, S. Dell, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Wavelength optimization for rapid chromophore mapping using spatial frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061716 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehrara, B. J.

D. T. Bui, P. G. Cordeiro, Q.-Y. Hu, J. J. Disa, A. Pusic, and B. J. Mehrara, “Free flap reexploration: indications, treatment, and outcomes in 1193 free flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.119(7), 2092–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, M. J.

S. S. Kroll, M. A. Schusterman, G. P. Reece, M. J. Miller, G. R. Evans, G. L. Robb, and B. J. Baldwin, “Timing of pedicle thrombosis and flap loss after free-tissue transfer,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.98(7), 1230–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moffitt, L. A.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oketokoun, R.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, S.

A. Yafi, T. S. Vetter, T. Scholz, S. Patel, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, G. R. Evans, and A. J. Durkin, “Postoperative quantitative assessment of reconstructive tissue status in a cutaneous flap model using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.127(1), 117–130 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pharaon, M. R.

M. R. Pharaon, T. Scholz, S. Bogdanoff, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, D. B. Hoyt, and G. R. D. Evans, “Early detection of complete vascular occlusion in a pedicle flap model using quantitative [corrected] spectral imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.126(6), 1924–1935 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohlenz, P.

P. Pohlenz, M. Blessmann, F. Blake, L. Li, R. Schmelzle, and M. Heiland, “Outcome and complications of 540 microvascular free flaps: the Hamburg experience,” Clin. Oral Investig.11(1), 89–92 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pratt, G. F.

I. S. Whitaker, G. F. Pratt, W. M. Rozen, S. A. Cairns, M. D. Barrett, L. Y. Hiew, M. A. Cooper, and D. J. Leaper, “Near infrared spectroscopy for monitoring flap viability following breast reconstruction,” J. Reconstr. Microsurg.28(03), 149–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pusic, A.

D. T. Bui, P. G. Cordeiro, Q.-Y. Hu, J. J. Disa, A. Pusic, and B. J. Mehrara, “Free flap reexploration: indications, treatment, and outcomes in 1193 free flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.119(7), 2092–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reece, G. P.

S. S. Kroll, M. A. Schusterman, G. P. Reece, M. J. Miller, G. R. Evans, G. L. Robb, and B. J. Baldwin, “Timing of pedicle thrombosis and flap loss after free-tissue transfer,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.98(7), 1230–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robb, G. L.

S. S. Kroll, M. A. Schusterman, G. P. Reece, M. J. Miller, G. R. Evans, G. L. Robb, and B. J. Baldwin, “Timing of pedicle thrombosis and flap loss after free-tissue transfer,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.98(7), 1230–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, M. D.

M. L. Gimbel, M. D. Rollins, E. Fukaya, and H. W. Hopf, “Monitoring partial and full venous outflow compromise in a rabbit skin flap model,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.124(3), 796–803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rozen, W. M.

D. Chubb, I. S. Whitaker, W. M. Rozen, and M. W. Ashton, “Continued observations in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: preliminary experiences with Masimo Radical-7 transcutaneous plethysmography and pulse oximetry,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.129(1), 222e–223e (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Whitaker, G. F. Pratt, W. M. Rozen, S. A. Cairns, M. D. Barrett, L. Y. Hiew, M. A. Cooper, and D. J. Leaper, “Near infrared spectroscopy for monitoring flap viability following breast reconstruction,” J. Reconstr. Microsurg.28(03), 149–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, and M. W. Ashton, “Images in plastic surgery: digital thermographic photography (“thermal imaging”) for preoperative perforator mapping,” Ann. Plast. Surg.66(4), 324–325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, R. Acosta, D. Grinsell, and M. W. Ashton, “The efficacy of clinical assessment in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: a review of 1140 consecutive cases,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(4), 1157–1166 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, J. A.

J. A. Russell, M. L. Conforti, N. P. Connor, and G. K. Hartig, “Cutaneous tissue flap viability following partial venous obstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.117(7), 2259–2266, discussion 2267–2268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saager, R. B.

A. Yafi, T. S. Vetter, T. Scholz, S. Patel, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, G. R. Evans, and A. J. Durkin, “Postoperative quantitative assessment of reconstructive tissue status in a cutaneous flap model using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.127(1), 117–130 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salmi, A.

F. Lorenzetti, J. Ahovuo, S. Suominen, A. Salmi, and S. Asko-Seljavaara, “Colour Doppler ultrasound evaluation of haemodynamic changes in free tram flaps and their donor sites,” Scand. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. Hand Surg.36(4), 202–206 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmelzle, R.

P. Pohlenz, M. Blessmann, F. Blake, L. Li, R. Schmelzle, and M. Heiland, “Outcome and complications of 540 microvascular free flaps: the Hamburg experience,” Clin. Oral Investig.11(1), 89–92 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholz, T.

A. Yafi, T. S. Vetter, T. Scholz, S. Patel, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, G. R. Evans, and A. J. Durkin, “Postoperative quantitative assessment of reconstructive tissue status in a cutaneous flap model using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.127(1), 117–130 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Pharaon, T. Scholz, S. Bogdanoff, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, D. B. Hoyt, and G. R. D. Evans, “Early detection of complete vascular occlusion in a pedicle flap model using quantitative [corrected] spectral imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.126(6), 1924–1935 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schusterman, M. A.

S. S. Kroll, M. A. Schusterman, G. P. Reece, M. J. Miller, G. R. Evans, G. L. Robb, and B. J. Baldwin, “Timing of pedicle thrombosis and flap loss after free-tissue transfer,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.98(7), 1230–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shurey, C. B.

M. S. Thorniley, J. S. Sinclair, N. J. Barnett, C. B. Shurey, and C. J. Green, “The use of near-infrared spectroscopy for assessing flap viability during reconstructive surgery,” Br. J. Plast. Surg.51(3), 218–226 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinclair, J. S.

M. S. Thorniley, J. S. Sinclair, N. J. Barnett, C. B. Shurey, and C. J. Green, “The use of near-infrared spectroscopy for assessing flap viability during reconstructive surgery,” Br. J. Plast. Surg.51(3), 218–226 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smit, J. M.

J. M. Smit, P. M. N. Werker, A. G. Liss, M. Enajat, G. H. de Bock, T. Audolfsson, and R. Acosta, “Introduction of the implantable Doppler system did not lead to an increased salvage rate of compromised flaps: a multivariate analysis,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(6), 1710–1717 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, M. H.

M. H. Steele, “Three-year experience using near infrared spectroscopy tissue oximetry monitoring of free tissue transfers,” Ann. Plast. Surg.66(5), 540–545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockdale, A.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suominen, S.

F. Lorenzetti, J. Ahovuo, S. Suominen, A. Salmi, and S. Asko-Seljavaara, “Colour Doppler ultrasound evaluation of haemodynamic changes in free tram flaps and their donor sites,” Scand. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. Hand Surg.36(4), 202–206 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorniley, M. S.

M. S. Thorniley, J. S. Sinclair, N. J. Barnett, C. B. Shurey, and C. J. Green, “The use of near-infrared spectroscopy for assessing flap viability during reconstructive surgery,” Br. J. Plast. Surg.51(3), 218–226 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Irwin, M. S. Thorniley, C. J. Doré, and C. J. Green, “Near infra-red spectroscopy: a non-invasive monitor of perfusion and oxygenation within the microcirculation of limbs and flaps,” Br. J. Plast. Surg.48(1), 14–22 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tobias, A. M.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mazhar, S. Dell, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Wavelength optimization for rapid chromophore mapping using spatial frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061716 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsao, C.-K.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tunnell, J. W.

T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakharia, K. T.

K. T. Vakharia, D. Henstrom, R. Lindsay, M. B. Cunnane, M. Cheney, and T. Hadlock, “Color Doppler ultrasound: effective monitoring of the buried free flap in facial reanimation,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.146(3), 372–376 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetter, T. S.

A. Yafi, T. S. Vetter, T. Scholz, S. Patel, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, G. R. Evans, and A. J. Durkin, “Postoperative quantitative assessment of reconstructive tissue status in a cutaneous flap model using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.127(1), 117–130 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, F.-C.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinmann, M.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werker, P. M. N.

J. M. Smit, P. M. N. Werker, A. G. Liss, M. Enajat, G. H. de Bock, T. Audolfsson, and R. Acosta, “Introduction of the implantable Doppler system did not lead to an increased salvage rate of compromised flaps: a multivariate analysis,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(6), 1710–1717 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitaker, I. S.

D. Chubb, I. S. Whitaker, W. M. Rozen, and M. W. Ashton, “Continued observations in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: preliminary experiences with Masimo Radical-7 transcutaneous plethysmography and pulse oximetry,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.129(1), 222e–223e (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Whitaker, G. F. Pratt, W. M. Rozen, S. A. Cairns, M. D. Barrett, L. Y. Hiew, M. A. Cooper, and D. J. Leaper, “Near infrared spectroscopy for monitoring flap viability following breast reconstruction,” J. Reconstr. Microsurg.28(03), 149–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, and M. W. Ashton, “Images in plastic surgery: digital thermographic photography (“thermal imaging”) for preoperative perforator mapping,” Ann. Plast. Surg.66(4), 324–325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, R. Acosta, D. Grinsell, and M. W. Ashton, “The efficacy of clinical assessment in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: a review of 1140 consecutive cases,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(4), 1157–1166 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winer, J. H.

A. Matsui, B. T. Lee, J. H. Winer, R. G. Laurence, and J. V. Frangioni, “Quantitative assessment of perfusion and vascular compromise in perforator flaps using a near-infrared fluorescence-guided imaging system,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.124(2), 451–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yafi, A.

A. Yafi, T. S. Vetter, T. Scholz, S. Patel, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, G. R. Evans, and A. J. Durkin, “Postoperative quantitative assessment of reconstructive tissue status in a cutaneous flap model using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.127(1), 117–130 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Plast. Surg. (1)

M. H. Steele, “Three-year experience using near infrared spectroscopy tissue oximetry monitoring of free tissue transfers,” Ann. Plast. Surg.66(5), 540–545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Plast. Surg. (1)

D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, and M. W. Ashton, “Images in plastic surgery: digital thermographic photography (“thermal imaging”) for preoperative perforator mapping,” Ann. Plast. Surg.66(4), 324–325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Plast. Surg. (1)

M. S. Thorniley, J. S. Sinclair, N. J. Barnett, C. B. Shurey, and C. J. Green, “The use of near-infrared spectroscopy for assessing flap viability during reconstructive surgery,” Br. J. Plast. Surg.51(3), 218–226 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Plast. Surg. (1)

M. S. Irwin, M. S. Thorniley, C. J. Doré, and C. J. Green, “Near infra-red spectroscopy: a non-invasive monitor of perfusion and oxygenation within the microcirculation of limbs and flaps,” Br. J. Plast. Surg.48(1), 14–22 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Oral Investig. (1)

P. Pohlenz, M. Blessmann, F. Blake, L. Li, R. Schmelzle, and M. Heiland, “Outcome and complications of 540 microvascular free flaps: the Hamburg experience,” Clin. Oral Investig.11(1), 89–92 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mazhar, S. Dell, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Wavelength optimization for rapid chromophore mapping using spatial frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061716 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reconstr. Microsurg. (1)

I. S. Whitaker, G. F. Pratt, W. M. Rozen, S. A. Cairns, M. D. Barrett, L. Y. Hiew, M. A. Cooper, and D. J. Leaper, “Near infrared spectroscopy for monitoring flap viability following breast reconstruction,” J. Reconstr. Microsurg.28(03), 149–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (1)

K. T. Vakharia, D. Henstrom, R. Lindsay, M. B. Cunnane, M. Cheney, and T. Hadlock, “Color Doppler ultrasound: effective monitoring of the buried free flap in facial reanimation,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.146(3), 372–376 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (2)

D. Chubb, W. M. Rozen, I. S. Whitaker, R. Acosta, D. Grinsell, and M. W. Ashton, “The efficacy of clinical assessment in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: a review of 1140 consecutive cases,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(4), 1157–1166 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Pharaon, T. Scholz, S. Bogdanoff, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, D. B. Hoyt, and G. R. D. Evans, “Early detection of complete vascular occlusion in a pedicle flap model using quantitative [corrected] spectral imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.126(6), 1924–1935 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (10)

V. E. Hjortdal, E. S. Hansen, and E. Hauge, “Myocutaneous flap ischemia: flow dynamics following venous and arterial obstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.89(6), 1083–1091 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Russell, M. L. Conforti, N. P. Connor, and G. K. Hartig, “Cutaneous tissue flap viability following partial venous obstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.117(7), 2259–2266, discussion 2267–2268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chubb, I. S. Whitaker, W. M. Rozen, and M. W. Ashton, “Continued observations in the postoperative monitoring of free flaps: preliminary experiences with Masimo Radical-7 transcutaneous plethysmography and pulse oximetry,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.129(1), 222e–223e (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Bui, P. G. Cordeiro, Q.-Y. Hu, J. J. Disa, A. Pusic, and B. J. Mehrara, “Free flap reexploration: indications, treatment, and outcomes in 1193 free flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.119(7), 2092–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Smit, P. M. N. Werker, A. G. Liss, M. Enajat, G. H. de Bock, T. Audolfsson, and R. Acosta, “Introduction of the implantable Doppler system did not lead to an increased salvage rate of compromised flaps: a multivariate analysis,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.125(6), 1710–1717 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Kroll, M. A. Schusterman, G. P. Reece, M. J. Miller, G. R. Evans, G. L. Robb, and B. J. Baldwin, “Timing of pedicle thrombosis and flap loss after free-tissue transfer,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.98(7), 1230–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Gimbel, M. D. Rollins, E. Fukaya, and H. W. Hopf, “Monitoring partial and full venous outflow compromise in a rabbit skin flap model,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.124(3), 796–803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yafi, T. S. Vetter, T. Scholz, S. Patel, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, G. R. Evans, and A. J. Durkin, “Postoperative quantitative assessment of reconstructive tissue status in a cutaneous flap model using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.127(1), 117–130 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Matsui, B. T. Lee, J. H. Winer, R. G. Laurence, and J. V. Frangioni, “Quantitative assessment of perfusion and vascular compromise in perforator flaps using a near-infrared fluorescence-guided imaging system,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.124(2), 451–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scand. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. Hand Surg. (1)

F. Lorenzetti, J. Ahovuo, S. Suominen, A. Salmi, and S. Asko-Seljavaara, “Colour Doppler ultrasound evaluation of haemodynamic changes in free tram flaps and their donor sites,” Scand. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. Hand Surg.36(4), 202–206 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (3966 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (4063 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of SFDI imaging system and photograph of a typical swine pedicle flap preparation with approximate location of instrumentation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time course of typical blood flow changes during a series of partial occlusions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time course of average stO2 (%) measured with SFDI compared with tissue oxygen tension (mmHg) measured with Oxylite system and stO2 measured with the Inspectra system in the arterial and venous occlusion flaps.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time course of average oxygenated hemoglobin, (ctO2Hb), deoxygenated hemoglobin (ctHHb), total hemoglobin (ctTHb), and oxygen saturation (stO2). Parameters with significant changes at a given occlusion level are shown with an asterisk.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of tissue oxygen saturation, absolute changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, and a color image of the flaps are shown at different time points corresponding to a different arterial occlusion level (Media 1).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images of tissue oxygen saturation, absolute changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, and a color image of the flaps are shown at different time points corresponding to a different venous occlusion level (Media 2).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Relative change of SFDI parameters in occlusion flap

Metrics