Abstract

We report a newly developed high speed 1050nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system for imaging posterior segment of human eye. The system is capable of an axial resolution at ~10 µm in air, an imaging depth of 6.1 mm in air, a system sensitivity fall-off at ~6 dB/3mm and an imaging speed of 120,000 A-scans per second. We experimentally demonstrate the system’s capability to perform phase-resolved imaging of dynamic blood flow within retina, indicating high phase stability of the SDOCT system. Finally, we show an example that uses this newly developed system to image posterior segment of human eye with a large view of view (10 × 9 mm2), providing detailed visualization of microstructural features from anterior retina to posterior choroid. The demonstrated system parameters and imaging performances are comparable to those that a typical 1 µm swept source OCT would deliver for retinal imaging.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (1)

Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express20(3), 2740–2760 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (10)

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Multifunctional imaging of human retina and choroid with 1050-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 92-kHz line scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 050503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2938–2943 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(10), 2770–2783 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source for high speed retinal optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm,” J Biophotonics4(7-8), 552–558 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A. H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-µm for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid,” Opt. Express19(21), 20886–20903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Li, and X. Li, “Generic real-time uniform K-space sampling method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express18(9), 9511–9517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (8)

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Manapuram, V. G. R. Manne, and K. V. Larin, “Development of phase-stabilized swept-source OCT for the ultrasensitive quantification of microbubbles,” Laser Phys.18(9), 1080–1086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

V. J. Srinivasan, R. Huber, I. Gorczynska, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, P. Reisen, and A. E. Cable, “High-speed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging with a frequency-swept laser at 850 nm,” Opt. Lett.32(4), 361–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

2005 (3)

2004 (4)

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(3), 834–839 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

2002 (1)

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence radar” and “spectral radar”-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, M. Kulkarni, R. Ung-Arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express3(6), 219–229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” Proc. SPIE2891, 20–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett.22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” BMJ305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amoako-Mensah, T.

G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(3), 834–839 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Multifunctional imaging of human retina and choroid with 1050-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 92-kHz line scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 050503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(10), 2770–2783 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachmann, A. H.

Bajraszewski, T.

Barry, S.

Bartlett, L. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Biedermann, B. R.

Blatter, C.

Blazek, V.

U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” Proc. SPIE2891, 20–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express13(14), 5483–5493 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braaf, B.

Buehl, W.

G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(3), 834–839 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnes, D. L.

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

Cense, B.

Chang, S.

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Chen, T. C.

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lim, M. Mujat, C. Kerbage, E. C. Lee, Y. Chen, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed imaging of human retina in vivo with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(26), 12902–12908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lim, M. Mujat, C. Kerbage, E. C. Lee, Y. Chen, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed imaging of human retina in vivo with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(26), 12902–12908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. L.

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and Z. Chen, “In vivo blood flow imaging by a swept laser source based Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express13(19), 7449–7457 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, J. Nelson, Z. Chen, B. Reiser, R. Chuck, and R. Windeler, “Optimal wavelength for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(12), 1411–1417 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, H. K.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chinn, S. R.

Choma, M.

Chuck, R.

de Boer, J.

B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

de Bruin, D. M.

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhalla, A. H.

H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A. H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Z.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Duker, J.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

Eichler, H. G.

G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(3), 834–839 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Esmaili, D. D.

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feke, G. T.

E. Sato, G. T. Feke, M. N. Menke, and J. Wallace McMeel, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Eye (Lond.)20(6), 697–702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Fingler, J.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francis, P.

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, G.

G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(3), 834–839 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, R. Huber, I. Gorczynska, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, P. Reisen, and A. E. Cable, “High-speed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging with a frequency-swept laser at 850 nm,” Opt. Lett.32(4), 361–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett.22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukumura, D.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgopoulos, M.

G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(3), 834–839 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gora, M.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, R. Huber, I. Gorczynska, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, P. Reisen, and A. E. Cable, “High-speed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging with a frequency-swept laser at 850 nm,” Opt. Lett.32(4), 361–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haberland, U.

U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” Proc. SPIE2891, 20–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence radar” and “spectral radar”-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendargo, H. C.

H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A. H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P. W. Lo, and Q. Y. Zhou, “Three-dimensional imaging of the human retina by high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(21), 2753–2761 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Hong, Y.

Hong, Y. J.

Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express20(3), 2740–2760 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

Huang, S. W.

Huber, R.

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source for high speed retinal optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm,” J Biophotonics4(7-8), 552–558 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
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D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
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V. J. Srinivasan, R. Huber, I. Gorczynska, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, P. Reisen, and A. E. Cable, “High-speed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging with a frequency-swept laser at 850 nm,” Opt. Lett.32(4), 361–363 (2007).
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Huo, L.

J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Li, and X. Li, “Generic real-time uniform K-space sampling method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express18(9), 9511–9517 (2010).
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Itoh, M.

Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express20(3), 2740–2760 (2012).
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Izatt, J. A.

H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A. H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
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A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, M. Kulkarni, R. Ung-Arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express3(6), 219–229 (1998).
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Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express20(3), 2740–2760 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
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Jain, R. K.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” Proc. SPIE2891, 20–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J. Y.

V. J. Srinivasan, R. Huber, I. Gorczynska, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, P. Reisen, and A. E. Cable, “High-speed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging with a frequency-swept laser at 850 nm,” Opt. Lett.32(4), 361–363 (2007).
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Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express20(3), 2740–2760 (2012).
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Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2938–2943 (2011).
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M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
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M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
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Kerbage, C.

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
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G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(3), 834–839 (2004).
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R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 3 (2006).

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Ko, T.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
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Kohner, E.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” BMJ305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
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Kowalczyk, A.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
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M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
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Kulkarni, M.

Kuppermann, B. D.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 040505 (2008).
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B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 040505 (2008).
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B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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R. K. Manapuram, V. G. R. Manne, and K. V. Larin, “Development of phase-stabilized swept-source OCT for the ultrasensitive quantification of microbubbles,” Laser Phys.18(9), 1080–1086 (2008).
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Le, T.

Lee, B. H.

Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express20(3), 2740–2760 (2012).
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Lee, E. C.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, J.

J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Li, and X. Li, “Generic real-time uniform K-space sampling method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express18(9), 9511–9517 (2010).
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Li, P.

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(10), 2770–2783 (2011).
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Li, X.

J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Li, and X. Li, “Generic real-time uniform K-space sampling method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express18(9), 9511–9517 (2010).
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Lindner, M. W.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence radar” and “spectral radar”-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(1), 21–31 (1998).
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D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
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Ma, Z.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 3 (2006).

R. K. Wang and Z. Ma, “Real-time flow imaging by removing texture pattern artifacts in spectral-domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.31(20), 3001–3003 (2006).
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Makita, S.

Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express20(3), 2740–2760 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
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S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
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R. K. Manapuram, V. G. R. Manne, and K. V. Larin, “Development of phase-stabilized swept-source OCT for the ultrasensitive quantification of microbubbles,” Laser Phys.18(9), 1080–1086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manne, V. G. R.

R. K. Manapuram, V. G. R. Manne, and K. V. Larin, “Development of phase-stabilized swept-source OCT for the ultrasensitive quantification of microbubbles,” Laser Phys.18(9), 1080–1086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A. H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
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E. Sato, G. T. Feke, M. N. Menke, and J. Wallace McMeel, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Eye (Lond.)20(6), 697–702 (2006).
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Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express20(3), 2740–2760 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, M.

Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express20(3), 2740–2760 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
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Mujat, M.

Munn, L. L.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
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B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
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Nelson, J.

Nelson, J. S.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 98–100 (2002).
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V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” BMJ305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
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R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056005 (2010).
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B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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Park, B.

Park, B. H.

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
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B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
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V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” BMJ305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
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Pierce, M.

Pierce, M. C.

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Rainer, G.

G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(3), 834–839 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rassam, S.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” BMJ305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, R.

Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2938–2943 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reisen, P.

V. J. Srinivasan, R. Huber, I. Gorczynska, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, P. Reisen, and A. E. Cable, “High-speed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging with a frequency-swept laser at 850 nm,” Opt. Lett.32(4), 361–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiser, B.

Ren, H.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Sarunic, M.

Sato, E.

E. Sato, G. T. Feke, M. N. Menke, and J. Wallace McMeel, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Eye (Lond.)20(6), 697–702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

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R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020502 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” Proc. SPIE2891, 20–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, D.

Schwartz, D. M.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, T. T.

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(10), 2770–2783 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shepherd, N.

H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A. H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sicam, V. A.

Srinivasan, V.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, R. Huber, I. Gorczynska, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, P. Reisen, and A. E. Cable, “High-speed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging with a frequency-swept laser at 850 nm,” Opt. Lett.32(4), 361–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stingl, A.

Stylianopoulos, T.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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Subhush, H. M.

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express13(14), 5483–5493 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlins, P. H.

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Trost, P.

Tyrrell, J. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ung-Arunyawee, R.

Unterhuber, A.

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express13(14), 5483–5493 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Meurs, J. C.

van Zeeburg, E.

Vass, C.

G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(3), 834–839 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vermeer, K. A.

Villiger, M. L.

Wallace McMeel, J.

E. Sato, G. T. Feke, M. N. Menke, and J. Wallace McMeel, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Eye (Lond.)20(6), 697–702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wally, B.

G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(3), 834–839 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Multifunctional imaging of human retina and choroid with 1050-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 92-kHz line scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 050503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(10), 2770–2783 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2938–2943 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and Z. Ma, “Real-time flow imaging by removing texture pattern artifacts in spectral-domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.31(20), 3001–3003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 3 (2006).

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Werner, J. S.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, B. R.

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiek, J.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” BMJ305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieser, W.

Wilson, D. J.

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R.

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xi, J.

J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Li, and X. Li, “Generic real-time uniform K-space sampling method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express18(9), 9511–9517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yasuno, Y.

Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express20(3), 2740–2760 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yatagai, T.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yu, L.

L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Yun, S.-H.

Zacharias, L. C.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zawadzki, R. J.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, Y.

Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2938–2943 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q. Y.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 3 (2006).

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(10), 2770–2783 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A. H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

BMJ (1)

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” BMJ305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eye (Lond.) (1)

E. Sato, G. T. Feke, M. N. Menke, and J. Wallace McMeel, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Eye (Lond.)20(6), 697–702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(3), 834–839 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Biophotonics (1)

C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source for high speed retinal optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm,” J Biophotonics4(7-8), 552–558 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence radar” and “spectral radar”-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Multifunctional imaging of human retina and choroid with 1050-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 92-kHz line scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 050503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

R. K. Manapuram, V. G. R. Manne, and K. V. Larin, “Development of phase-stabilized swept-source OCT for the ultrasensitive quantification of microbubbles,” Laser Phys.18(9), 1080–1086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2938–2943 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Li, and X. Li, “Generic real-time uniform K-space sampling method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express18(9), 9511–9517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express20(3), 2740–2760 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, R. Huber, I. Gorczynska, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, P. Reisen, and A. E. Cable, “High-speed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging with a frequency-swept laser at 850 nm,” Opt. Lett.32(4), 361–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (20)

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, M. Kulkarni, R. Ung-Arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express3(6), 219–229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, J. Nelson, Z. Chen, B. Reiser, R. Chuck, and R. Windeler, “Optimal wavelength for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(12), 1411–1417 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P. W. Lo, and Q. Y. Zhou, “Three-dimensional imaging of the human retina by high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(21), 2753–2761 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-µm for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid,” Opt. Express19(21), 20886–20903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express13(14), 5483–5493 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and Z. Chen, “In vivo blood flow imaging by a swept laser source based Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express13(19), 7449–7457 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid,” Opt. Express14(10), 4403–4411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lim, M. Mujat, C. Kerbage, E. C. Lee, Y. Chen, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed imaging of human retina in vivo with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(26), 12902–12908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (25284 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the ultrahigh-speed SDOCT system setup. SLD: 1.0 µm superluminescent diode; PC: polarization controller; M: reference mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

System performances of the ultrahigh speed SDOCT. (a), system sensitivity fall-off curve of the new system (blue) and the SU1024 system (red). (d) measured system axial resolution at different depth positions for both the systems.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo B-scan retinal images at different depth locations captured by (a) the new system and (b) the SU1024 system. (a.I)–(a.IV) are the B-scan images captured at the positions of 1 mm, 2.5 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm, respectively. (b.I) and (b.II) are the B-scan images captured at the positions of 1mm and 2 mm, respectively. NFL: nerve fiber layer; GCL: gaglion cell layer; INL: inner nuclear layer; OPL: outer plexiform layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vivo evaluation of the dynamic retinal blood flow. (a) a typical B-scan image across optic disc. (b) the corresponding phase difference map calculated through the phase resolved technology. (c) retinal blood flow dynamic curve. The red curve corresponds to vessel 1 (artery) and blue one to vessel 2 (vein).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In vivo large field of view retinal and choroid imaging with a scanned area of 10 × 9 mm2. (a) OCT fundus image; (b) 3D rendering volumetric image.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Motion and curvature compensation for 3D image data set. (a) Typical cross sectional image along the slow scan axis; (b) typical cross sectional image along the fast scan axis; (c) zoomed cross sectional image covered by a selected window for motion compensation; (d) typical cross sectional image after motion compensation along the slow scan axis; (e) typical cross correlation map between two B-scan images; (f) typical cross sectional image after compensating the retina curvature along fast axis; (g) typical cross sectional image after compensating the retina curvature along the slow axis

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

In vivo large field of view retina and choroid imaging results after compensation. (a) 3D volumetric image; (b) retinal fundus image obtained though integrating between 20 and 250 mm above the RPE layer; (c) choroidal fundus image obtained through integrating between 10 and 250 mm below the RPE layer; (d-f) depth resolved choroid fundus image obtained through integrating from 5 to 30 μm, 30 to 100 μm and 100 to 250 μm below the RPE layer, respectively. See also Media 1.

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