Abstract

We report a newly developed high speed 1050nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system for imaging posterior segment of human eye. The system is capable of an axial resolution at ~10 µm in air, an imaging depth of 6.1 mm in air, a system sensitivity fall-off at ~6 dB/3mm and an imaging speed of 120,000 A-scans per second. We experimentally demonstrate the system’s capability to perform phase-resolved imaging of dynamic blood flow within retina, indicating high phase stability of the SDOCT system. Finally, we show an example that uses this newly developed system to image posterior segment of human eye with a large view of view (10 × 9 mm2), providing detailed visualization of microstructural features from anterior retina to posterior choroid. The demonstrated system parameters and imaging performances are comparable to those that a typical 1 µm swept source OCT would deliver for retinal imaging.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (1)

2011 (10)

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A. H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(10), 2770–2783 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-µm for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20886–20903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Multifunctional imaging of human retina and choroid with 1050-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 92-kHz line scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050503 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2938–2943 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source for high speed retinal optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm,” J Biophotonics 4(7-8), 552–558 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026011 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Li, and X. Li, “Generic real-time uniform K-space sampling method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9511–9517 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (8)

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Manapuram, V. G. R. Manne, and K. V. Larin, “Development of phase-stabilized swept-source OCT for the ultrasensitive quantification of microbubbles,” Laser Phys. 18(9), 1080–1086 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (6)

2005 (3)

2004 (4)

2003 (6)

2002 (1)

1998 (2)

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, M. Kulkarni, R. Ung-Arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 3(6), 219–229 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence radar” and “spectral radar”-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” Proc. SPIE 2891, 20–28 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” BMJ 305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
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D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
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Amoako-Mensah, T.

G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(3), 834–839 (2004).
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B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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Biedermann, B. R.

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U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” Proc. SPIE 2891, 20–28 (1997).
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B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
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G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(3), 834–839 (2004).
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Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feke, G. T.

E. Sato, G. T. Feke, M. N. Menke, and J. Wallace McMeel, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Eye (Lond.) 20(6), 697–702 (2006).
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R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
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R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
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Francis, P.

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G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(3), 834–839 (2004).
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Fujimoto, J. G.

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
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V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
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D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
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V. J. Srinivasan, R. Huber, I. Gorczynska, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, P. Reisen, and A. E. Cable, “High-speed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging with a frequency-swept laser at 850 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 361–363 (2007).
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B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(3), 834–839 (2004).
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Gorczynska, I.

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U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” Proc. SPIE 2891, 20–28 (1997).
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G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence radar” and “spectral radar”-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
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Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
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C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P. W. Lo, and Q. Y. Zhou, “Three-dimensional imaging of the human retina by high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(21), 2753–2761 (2003).
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
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Hong, Y. J.

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C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source for high speed retinal optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm,” J Biophotonics 4(7-8), 552–558 (2011).
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T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
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W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
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V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, R. Huber, I. Gorczynska, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, P. Reisen, and A. E. Cable, “High-speed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging with a frequency-swept laser at 850 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 361–363 (2007).
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Itoh, M.

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Izatt, J. A.

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Jain, R. K.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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Jansen, P.

U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” Proc. SPIE 2891, 20–28 (1997).
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Jiang, J.

Jiang, J. Y.

Ju, M. J.

Jung, Y.

Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2938–2943 (2011).
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Kaluzny, B. J.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Karnowski, K.

Kerbage, C.

Kim, D. Y.

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G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(3), 834–839 (2004).
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R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 3 (2006).

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Ko, T.

Kohner, E.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” BMJ 305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
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Kowalczyk, A.

Kraus, M. F.

Kulkarni, M.

Kuppermann, B. D.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
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Kurtz, R. M.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
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Lanning, R. M.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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R. K. Manapuram, V. G. R. Manne, and K. V. Larin, “Development of phase-stabilized swept-source OCT for the ultrasensitive quantification of microbubbles,” Laser Phys. 18(9), 1080–1086 (2008).
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Le, T.

Lee, B. H.

Lee, E. C.

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Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, J.

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Li, X.

Lim, H.

Lindner, M. W.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence radar” and “spectral radar”-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
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Liu, J. J.

Lo, P. W.

Loewenstein, J.

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 3 (2006).

R. K. Wang and Z. Ma, “Real-time flow imaging by removing texture pattern artifacts in spectral-domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 3001–3003 (2006).
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Manapuram, R. K.

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Manne, V. G. R.

R. K. Manapuram, V. G. R. Manne, and K. V. Larin, “Development of phase-stabilized swept-source OCT for the ultrasensitive quantification of microbubbles,” Laser Phys. 18(9), 1080–1086 (2008).
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Menke, M. N.

E. Sato, G. T. Feke, M. N. Menke, and J. Wallace McMeel, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Eye (Lond.) 20(6), 697–702 (2006).
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Miura, M.

Mujat, M.

Munn, L. L.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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Nassif, N.

Nelson, J.

Nelson, J. S.

Newsom, R.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” BMJ 305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
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R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056005 (2010).
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B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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Park, B.

Park, B. H.

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V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” BMJ 305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
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Pierce, M. C.

Potsaid, B.

Rainer, G.

G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(3), 834–839 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, B.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
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Rassam, S.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” BMJ 305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reif, R.

Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2938–2943 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reisen, P.

Reiser, B.

Ren, H.

Rollins, A. M.

Sarunic, M.

Sato, E.

E. Sato, G. T. Feke, M. N. Menke, and J. Wallace McMeel, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Eye (Lond.) 20(6), 697–702 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Saunders, S.

R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020502 (2010).
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Schmetterer, L.

G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(3), 834–839 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, H. J.

U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” Proc. SPIE 2891, 20–28 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schuman, J. S.

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, D.

Schwartz, D. M.

Shen, T. T.

Shepherd, N.

Sicam, V. A.

Srinivasan, V.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stingl, A.

Stylianopoulos, T.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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Subhush, H. M.

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026011 (2010).
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Swanson, E. A.

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

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P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
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Tyrrell, J. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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Unterhuber, A.

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B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5483–5493 (2005).
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G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(3), 834–839 (2004).
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Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2938–2943 (2011).
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R. K. Wang and L. An, “Multifunctional imaging of human retina and choroid with 1050-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 92-kHz line scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050503 (2011).
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R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
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R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056005 (2010).
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L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026011 (2010).
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R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020502 (2010).
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L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
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R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
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R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020502 (2010).
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L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026011 (2010).
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Wojtkowski, M.

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Yun, S.-H.

Zacharias, L. C.

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Zawadzki, R. J.

Zeng, Y.

Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2938–2943 (2011).
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R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 3 (2006).

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

BMJ (1)

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” BMJ 305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
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Eye (Lond.) (1)

E. Sato, G. T. Feke, M. N. Menke, and J. Wallace McMeel, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Eye (Lond.) 20(6), 697–702 (2006).
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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, B. Wally, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, K. Kircher, W. Buehl, T. Amoako-Mensah, H. G. Eichler, C. Vass, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow and systemic blood pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(3), 834–839 (2004).
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V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
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L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026011 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020502 (2010).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Multifunctional imaging of human retina and choroid with 1050-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 92-kHz line scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050503 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
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Laser Phys. (1)

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Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2938–2943 (2011).
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Nat. Med. (1)

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
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J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
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M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
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S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
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B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
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T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
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M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
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B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
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Opt. Lett. (6)

Proc. SPIE (1)

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the ultrahigh-speed SDOCT system setup. SLD: 1.0 µm superluminescent diode; PC: polarization controller; M: reference mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

System performances of the ultrahigh speed SDOCT. (a), system sensitivity fall-off curve of the new system (blue) and the SU1024 system (red). (d) measured system axial resolution at different depth positions for both the systems.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo B-scan retinal images at different depth locations captured by (a) the new system and (b) the SU1024 system. (a.I)–(a.IV) are the B-scan images captured at the positions of 1 mm, 2.5 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm, respectively. (b.I) and (b.II) are the B-scan images captured at the positions of 1mm and 2 mm, respectively. NFL: nerve fiber layer; GCL: gaglion cell layer; INL: inner nuclear layer; OPL: outer plexiform layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vivo evaluation of the dynamic retinal blood flow. (a) a typical B-scan image across optic disc. (b) the corresponding phase difference map calculated through the phase resolved technology. (c) retinal blood flow dynamic curve. The red curve corresponds to vessel 1 (artery) and blue one to vessel 2 (vein).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In vivo large field of view retinal and choroid imaging with a scanned area of 10 × 9 mm2. (a) OCT fundus image; (b) 3D rendering volumetric image.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Motion and curvature compensation for 3D image data set. (a) Typical cross sectional image along the slow scan axis; (b) typical cross sectional image along the fast scan axis; (c) zoomed cross sectional image covered by a selected window for motion compensation; (d) typical cross sectional image after motion compensation along the slow scan axis; (e) typical cross correlation map between two B-scan images; (f) typical cross sectional image after compensating the retina curvature along fast axis; (g) typical cross sectional image after compensating the retina curvature along the slow axis

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

In vivo large field of view retina and choroid imaging results after compensation. (a) 3D volumetric image; (b) retinal fundus image obtained though integrating between 20 and 250 mm above the RPE layer; (c) choroidal fundus image obtained through integrating between 10 and 250 mm below the RPE layer; (d-f) depth resolved choroid fundus image obtained through integrating from 5 to 30 μm, 30 to 100 μm and 100 to 250 μm below the RPE layer, respectively. See also Media 1.

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