Abstract

A novel acquisition and processing method that enables single snapshot wide field imaging of optical properties in the Spatial Frequency Domain (SFD) is described. This method makes use of a Fourier transform performed on a single image and processing in the frequency space to extract two spatial frequency images at once. The performance of the method is compared to the standard six image SFD acquisition method, assessed on tissue mimicking phantoms and in vivo. Overall both methods perform similarly in extracting optical properties.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Gioux, H. S. Choi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided surgery using invisible near-infrared light: fundamentals of clinical translation,” Mol. Imaging9(5), 237–255 (2010).
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2013 (5)

T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Leproux, J. H. Chen, S. Bahri, A. Matlock, D. Roblyer, C. E. McLaren, W. P. Chen, A. E. Cerussi, M. Y. Su, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging correlates with magnetic resonance imaging breast density and reveals composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res.15(1), R14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res.15(4), R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS ONE8(7), e69906 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hariri Tabrizi, S. Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, F. Farzaneh, A. Amelink, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy on cervical premalignancies: the potential for reduction of the number of unnecessary biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(1), 017002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. M. A’Amar, L. Liou, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, A. De Las Morenas, and I. J. Bigio, “Comparison of elastic scattering spectroscopy with histology in ex vivo prostate glands: potential application for optically guided biopsy and directed treatment,” Lasers Med. Sci.28(5), 1323–1329 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Translation of near-infrared fluorescence imaging technologies: emerging clinical applications,” Annu. Rev. Med.63(1), 217–231 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med.17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Nguyen, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, K. M. Kelly, J. Jakowatz, D. Hsiang, and A. J. Durkin, “Effects of motion on optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. Gioux, H. S. Choi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided surgery using invisible near-infrared light: fundamentals of clinical translation,” Mol. Imaging9(5), 237–255 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

N. Dognitz and G. Wagnieres, “Determination of tissue optical properties by steady-state spatial frequency-domain reflectometry,” Lasers Med. Sci.13, 55–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A’Amar, O. M.

O. M. A’Amar, L. Liou, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, A. De Las Morenas, and I. J. Bigio, “Comparison of elastic scattering spectroscopy with histology in ex vivo prostate glands: potential application for optically guided biopsy and directed treatment,” Lasers Med. Sci.28(5), 1323–1329 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

S. Hariri Tabrizi, S. Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, F. Farzaneh, A. Amelink, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy on cervical premalignancies: the potential for reduction of the number of unnecessary biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(1), 017002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arts, H. J.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med.17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashitate, Y.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bahri, S.

T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Leproux, J. H. Chen, S. Bahri, A. Matlock, D. Roblyer, C. E. McLaren, W. P. Chen, A. E. Cerussi, M. Y. Su, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging correlates with magnetic resonance imaging breast density and reveals composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res.15(1), R14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry, W. T.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS ONE8(7), e69906 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bart, J.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med.17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barth, R. J.

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res.15(4), R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

O. M. A’Amar, L. Liou, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, A. De Las Morenas, and I. J. Bigio, “Comparison of elastic scattering spectroscopy with histology in ex vivo prostate glands: potential application for optically guided biopsy and directed treatment,” Lasers Med. Sci.28(5), 1323–1329 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J. Q.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS ONE8(7), e69906 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bydlon, T. M.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS ONE8(7), e69906 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caldwell, M. L.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS ONE8(7), e69906 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A. E.

T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Leproux, J. H. Chen, S. Bahri, A. Matlock, D. Roblyer, C. E. McLaren, W. P. Chen, A. E. Cerussi, M. Y. Su, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging correlates with magnetic resonance imaging breast density and reveals composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res.15(1), R14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. H.

T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Leproux, J. H. Chen, S. Bahri, A. Matlock, D. Roblyer, C. E. McLaren, W. P. Chen, A. E. Cerussi, M. Y. Su, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging correlates with magnetic resonance imaging breast density and reveals composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res.15(1), R14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. P.

T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Leproux, J. H. Chen, S. Bahri, A. Matlock, D. Roblyer, C. E. McLaren, W. P. Chen, A. E. Cerussi, M. Y. Su, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging correlates with magnetic resonance imaging breast density and reveals composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res.15(1), R14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H. S.

S. Gioux, H. S. Choi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided surgery using invisible near-infrared light: fundamentals of clinical translation,” Mol. Imaging9(5), 237–255 (2010).
[PubMed]

Crane, L. M.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med.17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuccia, D. J.

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res.15(4), R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Nguyen, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, K. M. Kelly, J. Jakowatz, D. Hsiang, and A. J. Durkin, “Effects of motion on optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jong, J. S.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med.17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Las Morenas, A.

O. M. A’Amar, L. Liou, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, A. De Las Morenas, and I. J. Bigio, “Comparison of elastic scattering spectroscopy with histology in ex vivo prostate glands: potential application for optically guided biopsy and directed treatment,” Lasers Med. Sci.28(5), 1323–1329 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dognitz, N.

N. Dognitz and G. Wagnieres, “Determination of tissue optical properties by steady-state spatial frequency-domain reflectometry,” Lasers Med. Sci.13, 55–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Durkin, A. J.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Nguyen, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, K. M. Kelly, J. Jakowatz, D. Hsiang, and A. J. Durkin, “Effects of motion on optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durr, N. J.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farzaneh, F.

S. Hariri Tabrizi, S. Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, F. Farzaneh, A. Amelink, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy on cervical premalignancies: the potential for reduction of the number of unnecessary biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(1), 017002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frangioni, J. V.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, H. S. Choi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided surgery using invisible near-infrared light: fundamentals of clinical translation,” Mol. Imaging9(5), 237–255 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, J. E.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS ONE8(7), e69906 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geradts, J.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS ONE8(7), e69906 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gioux, S.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, H. S. Choi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided surgery using invisible near-infrared light: fundamentals of clinical translation,” Mol. Imaging9(5), 237–255 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hariri Tabrizi, S.

S. Hariri Tabrizi, S. Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, F. Farzaneh, A. Amelink, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy on cervical premalignancies: the potential for reduction of the number of unnecessary biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(1), 017002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harlaar, N. J.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med.17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiang, D.

J. Q. Nguyen, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, K. M. Kelly, J. Jakowatz, D. Hsiang, and A. J. Durkin, “Effects of motion on optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jakowatz, J.

J. Q. Nguyen, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, K. M. Kelly, J. Jakowatz, D. Hsiang, and A. J. Durkin, “Effects of motion on optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Junker, M.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS ONE8(7), e69906 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelder, W.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med.17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, E.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, K. M.

J. Q. Nguyen, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, K. M. Kelly, J. Jakowatz, D. Hsiang, and A. J. Durkin, “Effects of motion on optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, S. A.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS ONE8(7), e69906 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnaswamy, V.

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res.15(4), R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laughney, A. M.

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res.15(4), R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. T.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leproux, A.

T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Leproux, J. H. Chen, S. Bahri, A. Matlock, D. Roblyer, C. E. McLaren, W. P. Chen, A. E. Cerussi, M. Y. Su, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging correlates with magnetic resonance imaging breast density and reveals composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res.15(1), R14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S. J.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liou, L.

O. M. A’Amar, L. Liou, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, A. De Las Morenas, and I. J. Bigio, “Comparison of elastic scattering spectroscopy with histology in ex vivo prostate glands: potential application for optically guided biopsy and directed treatment,” Lasers Med. Sci.28(5), 1323–1329 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Low, P. S.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med.17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, S.

S. Hariri Tabrizi, S. Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, F. Farzaneh, A. Amelink, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy on cervical premalignancies: the potential for reduction of the number of unnecessary biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(1), 017002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matlock, A.

T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Leproux, J. H. Chen, S. Bahri, A. Matlock, D. Roblyer, C. E. McLaren, W. P. Chen, A. E. Cerussi, M. Y. Su, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging correlates with magnetic resonance imaging breast density and reveals composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res.15(1), R14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazhar, A.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaren, C. E.

T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Leproux, J. H. Chen, S. Bahri, A. Matlock, D. Roblyer, C. E. McLaren, W. P. Chen, A. E. Cerussi, M. Y. Su, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging correlates with magnetic resonance imaging breast density and reveals composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res.15(1), R14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moffitt, L. A.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, J. Q.

J. Q. Nguyen, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, K. M. Kelly, J. Jakowatz, D. Hsiang, and A. J. Durkin, “Effects of motion on optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med.17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Sullivan, T. D.

T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Leproux, J. H. Chen, S. Bahri, A. Matlock, D. Roblyer, C. E. McLaren, W. P. Chen, A. E. Cerussi, M. Y. Su, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging correlates with magnetic resonance imaging breast density and reveals composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res.15(1), R14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oketokoun, R.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res.15(4), R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pleijhuis, R. G.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med.17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res.15(4), R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS ONE8(7), e69906 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rizzo, E. J.

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res.15(4), R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roblyer, D.

T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Leproux, J. H. Chen, S. Bahri, A. Matlock, D. Roblyer, C. E. McLaren, W. P. Chen, A. E. Cerussi, M. Y. Su, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging correlates with magnetic resonance imaging breast density and reveals composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res.15(1), R14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez-Diaz, E.

O. M. A’Amar, L. Liou, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, A. De Las Morenas, and I. J. Bigio, “Comparison of elastic scattering spectroscopy with histology in ex vivo prostate glands: potential application for optically guided biopsy and directed treatment,” Lasers Med. Sci.28(5), 1323–1329 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saager, R. B.

J. Q. Nguyen, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, K. M. Kelly, J. Jakowatz, D. Hsiang, and A. J. Durkin, “Effects of motion on optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarantopoulos, A.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med.17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwab, M. C.

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res.15(4), R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Translation of near-infrared fluorescence imaging technologies: emerging clinical applications,” Annu. Rev. Med.63(1), 217–231 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

S. Hariri Tabrizi, S. Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, F. Farzaneh, A. Amelink, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy on cervical premalignancies: the potential for reduction of the number of unnecessary biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(1), 017002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockdale, A.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, M. Y.

T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Leproux, J. H. Chen, S. Bahri, A. Matlock, D. Roblyer, C. E. McLaren, W. P. Chen, A. E. Cerussi, M. Y. Su, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging correlates with magnetic resonance imaging breast density and reveals composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res.15(1), R14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Themelis, G.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med.17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tobias, A. M.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Leproux, J. H. Chen, S. Bahri, A. Matlock, D. Roblyer, C. E. McLaren, W. P. Chen, A. E. Cerussi, M. Y. Su, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging correlates with magnetic resonance imaging breast density and reveals composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res.15(1), R14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res.15(4), R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Dam, G. M.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med.17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Zee, A. G.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med.17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagnieres, G.

N. Dognitz and G. Wagnieres, “Determination of tissue optical properties by steady-state spatial frequency-domain reflectometry,” Lasers Med. Sci.13, 55–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weinmann, M.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, W. A.

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res.15(4), R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilke, L. G.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS ONE8(7), e69906 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Med. (1)

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Translation of near-infrared fluorescence imaging technologies: emerging clinical applications,” Annu. Rev. Med.63(1), 217–231 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breast Cancer Res. (2)

T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Leproux, J. H. Chen, S. Bahri, A. Matlock, D. Roblyer, C. E. McLaren, W. P. Chen, A. E. Cerussi, M. Y. Su, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging correlates with magnetic resonance imaging breast density and reveals composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res.15(1), R14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res.15(4), R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

S. Hariri Tabrizi, S. Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, F. Farzaneh, A. Amelink, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy on cervical premalignancies: the potential for reduction of the number of unnecessary biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(1), 017002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, B. T. Lee, S. J. Lin, A. M. Tobias, D. J. Cuccia, A. Stockdale, R. Oketokoun, Y. Ashitate, E. Kelly, M. Weinmann, N. J. Durr, L. A. Moffitt, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 086015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Nguyen, R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, K. M. Kelly, J. Jakowatz, D. Hsiang, and A. J. Durkin, “Effects of motion on optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (2)

N. Dognitz and G. Wagnieres, “Determination of tissue optical properties by steady-state spatial frequency-domain reflectometry,” Lasers Med. Sci.13, 55–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. M. A’Amar, L. Liou, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, A. De Las Morenas, and I. J. Bigio, “Comparison of elastic scattering spectroscopy with histology in ex vivo prostate glands: potential application for optically guided biopsy and directed treatment,” Lasers Med. Sci.28(5), 1323–1329 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mol. Imaging (1)

S. Gioux, H. S. Choi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided surgery using invisible near-infrared light: fundamentals of clinical translation,” Mol. Imaging9(5), 237–255 (2010).
[PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med.17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE (1)

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS ONE8(7), e69906 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

F. Ayers, A. Grant, D. Kuo, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Fabrication and characterization of silicone-based tissue phantoms with tunable optical properties in the visible and near infrared domain,” in Proc. SPIE(2008), p. 6870E.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spatial frequency domain imaging. Images are acquired, the AC and DC components extracted and the optical property images calculated. Note the standard acquisition process including six images (Top Left) and the snapshot acquisition process (Bottom Left).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single snapshot method. Each line of a single, high frequency image is processed. Spectrum is obtained via Fast Fourier Transform then DC and AC components are separated at a cutoff frequency fc to create two spectra. The final DC and AC images are then formed via Inverse Fast Fourier Transform. On the spectra plots in the center, the y axis represents intensity, I (A.U.), and the x axis spatial frequency, fx (mm−1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Homogeneous phantoms measurements. Left: absorption, Right: reduced scattering, with both the standard and the snapshot methods. Bottom: plots comparing the optical properties recovered with both methods.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Step function phantoms measurements. Left: absorption variation, Right: reduced scattering variation, with both the standard and the snapshot methods. Bottom: Average line profile across the phantoms with both methods.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In vivo measurements. Left: absorption, Right: reduced scattering, with both the standard and the snapshot methods. Bottom: line profile across the sample with both methods (white line in images).

Metrics