Abstract

Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, and non-small cell carcinoma accounts for 85% of all lung cancer cases. One major characteristic of non-small cell carcinoma is the appearance of desmoplasia and deposition of dense extracellular collagen around the tumor. The desmoplastic response provides a radiologic target but may impair sampling during traditional image-guided needle biopsy and is difficult to differentiate from normal tissues using single label free imaging modality; for translational purposes, label-free techniques provide a more promising route to clinics. We thus investigated the potential of using multimodal, label free optical microscopy that incorporates Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS), Two-Photon Excited AutoFluorescence (TPEAF), and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) techniques for differentiating lung cancer from normal and desmoplastic tissues. Lung tissue samples from patients were imaged using CARS, TPEAF, and SHG for comparison and showed that the combination of the three non-linear optics techniques is essential for attaining reliable differentiation. These images also illustrated good pathological correlation with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections from the same tissue samples. Automated image analysis algorithms were developed for quantitative segmentation and feature extraction to enable lung tissue differentiation. Our results indicate that coupled with automated morphology analysis, the proposed tri-modal nonlinear optical imaging technique potentially offers a powerful translational strategy to differentiate cancer lesions reliably from surrounding non-tumor and desmoplastic tissues.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

R. Siegel, D. Naishadham, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin.62(1), 10–29 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Ahmad and F. C. Detterbeck, “Current status of lung cancer screening,” Semin. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.24(1), 27–36 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Jacobson, R. deVere White, and S. G. Demos, “In vivo testing of a prototype system providing simultaneous white light and near infrared autofluorescence image acquisition for detection of bladder cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Cicchi, and F. S. Pavone, “Protein conformation and molecular order probed by second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 060901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, M. L. Akins, K. Murari, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, K. Luby-Phelps, M. Mahendroo, and X. Li, “A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(32), 12878–12883 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Otranto, V. Sarrazy, F. Bonté, B. Hinz, G. Gabbiani, and A. Desmoulière, “The role of the myofibroblast in tumor stroma remodeling,” Cell Adhes. Migr.6(3), 203–219 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

R. Navab, D. Strumpf, B. Bandarchi, C.-Q. Zhu, M. Pintilie, V. R. Ramnarine, E. Ibrahimov, N. Radulovich, L. Leung, M. Barczyk, D. Panchal, C. To, J. J. Yun, S. Der, F. A. Shepherd, I. Jurisica, and M.-S. Tsao, “Prognostic gene-expression signature of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in non-small cell lung cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(17), 7160–7165 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Bremnes, T. Dønnem, S. Al-Saad, K. Al-Shibli, S. Andersen, R. Sirera, C. Camps, I. Marinez, and L.-T. Busund, “The Role of Tumor Stroma in Cancer Progression and Prognosis: Emphasis on Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer,” J. Thorac. Oncol.6(1), 209–217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gao, F. Li, M. J. Thrall, Y. Yang, J. Xing, A. A. Hammoudi, H. Zhao, Y. Massoud, P. T. Cagle, Y. Fan, K. K. Wong, Z. Wang, and S. T. C. Wong, “On-the-spot lung cancer differential diagnosis by label-free, molecular vibrational imaging and knowledge-based classification,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(9), 096004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gao, H. Zhou, M. J. Thrall, F. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Wang, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, G. S. Palapattu, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free high-resolution imaging of prostate glands and cavernous nerves using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 915–926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, F. Li, L. Gao, Z. Wang, M. J. Thrall, S. S. Shen, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Differential diagnosis of breast cancer using quantitative, label-free and molecular vibrational imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2160–2174 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, “Global cancer statistics,” CA Cancer J. Clin.61(2), 69–90 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, R. M. Peters, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for lung cancer,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng.7569, 756918 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009

L. Thiberville, M. Salaün, S. Lachkar, S. Dominique, S. Moreno-Swirc, C. Vever-Bizet, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Human in vivo fluorescence microimaging of the alveolar ducts and sacs during bronchoscopy,” Eur. Respir. J.33(5), 974–985 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-C. Wang, F.-C. Li, R.-J. Wu, V. A. Hovhannisyan, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif)1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jemal, M. J. Thun, L. A. G. Ries, H. L. Howe, H. K. Weir, M. M. Center, E. Ward, X.-C. Wu, C. Eheman, R. Anderson, U. A. Ajani, B. Kohler, and B. K. Edwards, “Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2005, featuring trends in lung cancer, tobacco use, and tobacco control,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.100(23), 1672–1694 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Youlden, S. M. Cramb, and P. D. Baade, “The international epidemiology of lung cancer: geographical distribution and secular trends,” J. Thorac. Oncol.3(8), 819–831 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, D. Débarre, J. Marchal-Somme, B. Crestani, J.-L. Martin, E. Beaurepaire, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Three-dimensional investigation and scoring of extracellular matrix remodeling during lung fibrosis using multiphoton microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.70(2), 162–170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. Monici, “Cell and tissue autofluorescence research and diagnostic applications,” Biotechnol. Annu. Rev.11, 227–256 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. G. Demos, R. Gandour-Edwards, R. Ramsamooj, and R. deVere White, “Spectroscopic detection of bladder cancer using near-infrared imaging techniques,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(4), 767–771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Montaudon, V. Latrabe, A. Pariente, O. Corneloup, H. Begueret, and F. Laurent, “Factors influencing accuracy of CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of pulmonary lesions,” Eur. Radiol.14(7), 1234–1240 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Toshima, Y. Ohtani, and O. Ohtani, “Three-dimensional architecture of elastin and collagen fiber networks in the human and rat lung,” Arch. Histol. Cytol.67(1), 31–40 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

R. A. Cairns, R. Khokha, and R. P. Hill, “Molecular mechanisms of tumor invasion and metastasis: an integrated view,” Curr. Mol. Med.3(7), 659–671 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Fidler, “The pathogenesis of cancer metastasis: the ‘seed and soil’ hypothesis revisited,” Nat. Rev. Cancer3(6), 453–458 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

L. M. Demarchi, M. M. Reis, S. A. Palomino, C. Farhat, T. Y. Takagaki, R. Beyruti, P. H. Saldiva, and V. L. Capelozzi, “Prognostic Values of Stromal Proportion and PCNA, Ki-67, And P53 Proteins in Patients with Resected Adenocarcinoma of the Lung,” Mod. Pathol.13(5), 511–520 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, N. Shiraga, H. Atsumi, S. Yoshida, T. Koller, G. Gerig, and R. Kikinis, “Three-dimensional multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images,” Med. Image Anal.2(2), 143–168 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

T. Eto, H. Suzuki, A. Honda, and Y. Nagashima, “The changes of the stromal elastotic framework in the growth of peripheral lung adenocarcinomas,” Cancer77(4), 646–656 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

P. K. S. J. N. Kapur and A. C. K. Wong, “A new method for gray-level picture thresholding using the entropy of the histogram,” Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process29, 273–285 (1985).

1983

S. Sternberg, “Biomedical Image Processing,” IEEE Computer16(1), 22–34 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1965

P. D. Maker and R. W. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev.137(3A), A801–A818 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, U.

U. Ahmad and F. C. Detterbeck, “Current status of lung cancer screening,” Semin. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.24(1), 27–36 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ajani, U. A.

A. Jemal, M. J. Thun, L. A. G. Ries, H. L. Howe, H. K. Weir, M. M. Center, E. Ward, X.-C. Wu, C. Eheman, R. Anderson, U. A. Ajani, B. Kohler, and B. K. Edwards, “Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2005, featuring trends in lung cancer, tobacco use, and tobacco control,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.100(23), 1672–1694 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akins, M. L.

Y. Zhang, M. L. Akins, K. Murari, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, K. Luby-Phelps, M. Mahendroo, and X. Li, “A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(32), 12878–12883 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al-Saad, S.

R. M. Bremnes, T. Dønnem, S. Al-Saad, K. Al-Shibli, S. Andersen, R. Sirera, C. Camps, I. Marinez, and L.-T. Busund, “The Role of Tumor Stroma in Cancer Progression and Prognosis: Emphasis on Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer,” J. Thorac. Oncol.6(1), 209–217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al-Shibli, K.

R. M. Bremnes, T. Dønnem, S. Al-Saad, K. Al-Shibli, S. Andersen, R. Sirera, C. Camps, I. Marinez, and L.-T. Busund, “The Role of Tumor Stroma in Cancer Progression and Prognosis: Emphasis on Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer,” J. Thorac. Oncol.6(1), 209–217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, S.

R. M. Bremnes, T. Dønnem, S. Al-Saad, K. Al-Shibli, S. Andersen, R. Sirera, C. Camps, I. Marinez, and L.-T. Busund, “The Role of Tumor Stroma in Cancer Progression and Prognosis: Emphasis on Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer,” J. Thorac. Oncol.6(1), 209–217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R.

A. Jemal, M. J. Thun, L. A. G. Ries, H. L. Howe, H. K. Weir, M. M. Center, E. Ward, X.-C. Wu, C. Eheman, R. Anderson, U. A. Ajani, B. Kohler, and B. K. Edwards, “Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2005, featuring trends in lung cancer, tobacco use, and tobacco control,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.100(23), 1672–1694 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atsumi, H.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, N. Shiraga, H. Atsumi, S. Yoshida, T. Koller, G. Gerig, and R. Kikinis, “Three-dimensional multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images,” Med. Image Anal.2(2), 143–168 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baade, P. D.

D. R. Youlden, S. M. Cramb, and P. D. Baade, “The international epidemiology of lung cancer: geographical distribution and secular trends,” J. Thorac. Oncol.3(8), 819–831 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandarchi, B.

R. Navab, D. Strumpf, B. Bandarchi, C.-Q. Zhu, M. Pintilie, V. R. Ramnarine, E. Ibrahimov, N. Radulovich, L. Leung, M. Barczyk, D. Panchal, C. To, J. J. Yun, S. Der, F. A. Shepherd, I. Jurisica, and M.-S. Tsao, “Prognostic gene-expression signature of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in non-small cell lung cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(17), 7160–7165 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barczyk, M.

R. Navab, D. Strumpf, B. Bandarchi, C.-Q. Zhu, M. Pintilie, V. R. Ramnarine, E. Ibrahimov, N. Radulovich, L. Leung, M. Barczyk, D. Panchal, C. To, J. J. Yun, S. Der, F. A. Shepherd, I. Jurisica, and M.-S. Tsao, “Prognostic gene-expression signature of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in non-small cell lung cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(17), 7160–7165 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaurepaire, E.

A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, D. Débarre, J. Marchal-Somme, B. Crestani, J.-L. Martin, E. Beaurepaire, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Three-dimensional investigation and scoring of extracellular matrix remodeling during lung fibrosis using multiphoton microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.70(2), 162–170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Begueret, H.

M. Montaudon, V. Latrabe, A. Pariente, O. Corneloup, H. Begueret, and F. Laurent, “Factors influencing accuracy of CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of pulmonary lesions,” Eur. Radiol.14(7), 1234–1240 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beyruti, R.

L. M. Demarchi, M. M. Reis, S. A. Palomino, C. Farhat, T. Y. Takagaki, R. Beyruti, P. H. Saldiva, and V. L. Capelozzi, “Prognostic Values of Stromal Proportion and PCNA, Ki-67, And P53 Proteins in Patients with Resected Adenocarcinoma of the Lung,” Mod. Pathol.13(5), 511–520 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonté, F.

M. Otranto, V. Sarrazy, F. Bonté, B. Hinz, G. Gabbiani, and A. Desmoulière, “The role of the myofibroblast in tumor stroma remodeling,” Cell Adhes. Migr.6(3), 203–219 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. C. Jacobson, R. deVere White, and S. G. Demos, “In vivo testing of a prototype system providing simultaneous white light and near infrared autofluorescence image acquisition for detection of bladder cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036011 (2012).
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A. Jemal, M. J. Thun, L. A. G. Ries, H. L. Howe, H. K. Weir, M. M. Center, E. Ward, X.-C. Wu, C. Eheman, R. Anderson, U. A. Ajani, B. Kohler, and B. K. Edwards, “Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2005, featuring trends in lung cancer, tobacco use, and tobacco control,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.100(23), 1672–1694 (2008).
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M. Montaudon, V. Latrabe, A. Pariente, O. Corneloup, H. Begueret, and F. Laurent, “Factors influencing accuracy of CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of pulmonary lesions,” Eur. Radiol.14(7), 1234–1240 (2004).
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M. Montaudon, V. Latrabe, A. Pariente, O. Corneloup, H. Begueret, and F. Laurent, “Factors influencing accuracy of CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of pulmonary lesions,” Eur. Radiol.14(7), 1234–1240 (2004).
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R. Navab, D. Strumpf, B. Bandarchi, C.-Q. Zhu, M. Pintilie, V. R. Ramnarine, E. Ibrahimov, N. Radulovich, L. Leung, M. Barczyk, D. Panchal, C. To, J. J. Yun, S. Der, F. A. Shepherd, I. Jurisica, and M.-S. Tsao, “Prognostic gene-expression signature of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in non-small cell lung cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(17), 7160–7165 (2011).
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Y. Zhang, M. L. Akins, K. Murari, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, K. Luby-Phelps, M. Mahendroo, and X. Li, “A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(32), 12878–12883 (2012).
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Mahendroo, M.

Y. Zhang, M. L. Akins, K. Murari, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, K. Luby-Phelps, M. Mahendroo, and X. Li, “A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(32), 12878–12883 (2012).
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L. Gao, F. Li, M. J. Thrall, Y. Yang, J. Xing, A. A. Hammoudi, H. Zhao, Y. Massoud, P. T. Cagle, Y. Fan, K. K. Wong, Z. Wang, and S. T. C. Wong, “On-the-spot lung cancer differential diagnosis by label-free, molecular vibrational imaging and knowledge-based classification,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(9), 096004 (2011).
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R. Navab, D. Strumpf, B. Bandarchi, C.-Q. Zhu, M. Pintilie, V. R. Ramnarine, E. Ibrahimov, N. Radulovich, L. Leung, M. Barczyk, D. Panchal, C. To, J. J. Yun, S. Der, F. A. Shepherd, I. Jurisica, and M.-S. Tsao, “Prognostic gene-expression signature of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in non-small cell lung cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(17), 7160–7165 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Navab, D. Strumpf, B. Bandarchi, C.-Q. Zhu, M. Pintilie, V. R. Ramnarine, E. Ibrahimov, N. Radulovich, L. Leung, M. Barczyk, D. Panchal, C. To, J. J. Yun, S. Der, F. A. Shepherd, I. Jurisica, and M.-S. Tsao, “Prognostic gene-expression signature of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in non-small cell lung cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(17), 7160–7165 (2011).
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Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng.

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, R. M. Peters, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for lung cancer,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng.7569, 756918 (2010).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TPEAF, SHG, CARS, and H&E images of normal lung tissue. (A) TPEAF image. (B) SHG image. (C) CARS image. (D) Superimposed TPEAF and SHG image. (E) Superimposed TPEAF, SHG, and CARS images. (F) H&E image of the same lung tissue but at a different location. Green indicates the TPEAF of elastin fiber in the range of 500-600 nm. Blue indicates the SHG signal from collagen fiber at 408.5 nm. CARS image (grey scale) shows signals from cells and fibrous structures of elastin and collagen. Yellow arrow and blue arrow point to a cell with a central dark nucleus and fibrous protein, respectively. Scale bar: 50 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TPEAF, SHG, CARS, and H&E images of adenocarcinoma tissue. (A) TPEAF image of adenocarcinoma tissue. (B) SHG image of adenocarcinoma tissue. (C) CARS image of adenocarcinoma tissue. (D) Superimposed TPEAF and SHG image of adenocarcinoma tissue. (E) Superimposed TPEAF, SHG, and CARS images of adenocarcinoma tissue. (F) H&E image of the same adenocarcinoma tissue. Green indicates the TPEAF of elastin fiber in the range of 500-600 nm. Blue indicates the SHG signal from collagen fiber at 408.5 nm. CARS image (grey scale) shows signals from cells and fibrous structures of elastin and collagen. Yellow arrow and blue arrow point to a cell with a central dark nucleus and fibrous protein, respectively. Scale bar: 50 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TPEAF, SHG, CARS, and H&E images of squamous cell carcinoma tissue. (A) TPEAF image of squamous cell carcinoma tissue. (B) SHG image of squamous cell carcinoma tissue. (C) CARS image of squamous cell carcinoma tissue. (D) Superimposed TPEAF and SHG image of squamous cell carcinoma tissue. (E) Superimposed TPEAF, SHG, and CARS images of squamous cell carcinoma tissue. (F) H&E image of the same squamous cell carcinoma tissue. Green indicates the TPEAF of elastin fiber in the range of 500-600 nm. Blue indicates the SHG signal from collagen fiber at 408.5 nm. CARS image (grey scale) shows signals from cells and fibrous structures of elastin and collagen. Yellow arrow and blue arrow point to a cell with a central dark nucleus and fibrous protein, respectively. Scale bar: 50 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TPEAF, SHG, CARS, and H&E images of desmoplastic edge. (A) TPEAF image. (B) SHG image. (C) CARS image. (D) Superimposed TPEAF and SHG image. (E) Superimposed TPEAF, SHG, and CARS images. (F) H&E image of the same lung tissue. (G) A low magnification image that shows the position of the imaged area (Black square). Green indicates the TPEAF of elastin fibers in the range of 500-600 nm. Blue indicates the SHG signal from collagen fibers at 408.5 nm. CARS image (grey scale) shows signals from a cell with a central dark nucleus, a lipid-rich focus, and fibrous structures of elastin and collagen. Yellow arrow and blue arrow point to a cell nucleus and fiber protein, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Segmented results of elastin fibers in an example TPEAF image of normal lung tissue. (B) Segmented results of collagen fibers in an SHG image of normal lung tissue.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of normal, desmoplastic and tumor tissues in multimodal images. (A) Collagen fibers in SHG images. (B) Elastin fibers in TPEAF images. A total of six images of normal tissues, 13 images of desmoplastic edge tissues, and 33 images of tumorous tissues are analyzed in this study.

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