Abstract

In this paper, human ovarian tissue with malignant and benign features was imaged ex vivo using an optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) system. The feasibility of PAM to differentiate malignant from normal ovarian tissues was explored by comparing the PAM images morphologically. Based on the observed differences between PAM images of normal and malignant ovarian tissues in microvasculature features and distributions, seven features were quantitatively extracted from the PAM images, and a logistic model was used to classify ovaries as normal or malignant. 106 PAM images from 18 ovaries were studied. 57 images were used to train the seven-parameter logistic model, and a specificity of 92.1% and a sensitivity of 89.5% were achieved; 49 images were then tested, and a specificity of 81.3% and a sensitivity of 88.2% were achieved. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of our PAM system in mapping microvasculature networks as well as characterizing the ovarian tissue, and could be extremely valuable in assisting surgeons for in vivo evaluation of ovarian tissue during minimally invasive surgery.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Brewer, U. Utzinger, J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, N. D. Kirkpatrick, W. R. Brands, J. R. Davis, K. Hunt, S. J. Stevens, and A. F. Gmitro, “Imaging of the ovary,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.3(6), 617–627 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  2. M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(4), 041101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys.35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Coregistered three-dimensional ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Aguirre, Y. Ardeshirpour, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Potential role of coregistered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging in ovarian cancer detection and characterization,” Transl Oncol4(1), 29–37 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  6. U. Alqasemi, P. Kumavor, A. Aguirre, and Q. Zhu, “Recognition algorithm for assisting ovarian cancer diagnosis from coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images: ex vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(12), 126003 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Kumavor, U. Alqasemi, B. Tavakoli, H. Li, Y. Yang, X. Sun, E. Warych, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered pulse-echo/photoacoustic transvaginal probe for real time imaging of ovarian tissue,” J. Biophotonics. 1-10, (2013).
  8. K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.30(6), 625–627 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett.33(9), 929–931 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. J. Zemp, L. Song, R. Bitton, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, In vivo realtime photoacoustic microscopy in vivo with a 30-MHz ultrasound array transducer,” Opt. Express16(11), 7915–7928 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics3(9), 503–509 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Z. Xie, S. Jiao, H. F. Zhang, and C. A. Puliafito, “Laser-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(12), 1771–1773 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Hu, P. Yan, K. Maslov, J. M. Lee, and L. V. Wang, “Intravital imaging of amyloid plaques in a transgenic mouse model using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(24), 3899–3901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. Rao, L. Li, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Hybrid-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo vasculature imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1521–1523 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Subwavelength-resolution label-free photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption in vivo,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3195–3197 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Z. Xie, W. Roberts, P. Carson, X. Liu, C. Tao, and X. Wang, “Evaluation of bladder microvasculature with high-resolution photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Lett.36(24), 4815–4817 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Z. Guo, C. Favazza, A. Garcia-Uribe, and L. V. Wang, “Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066011 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

P. Kumavor, U. Alqasemi, B. Tavakoli, H. Li, Y. Yang, X. Sun, E. Warych, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered pulse-echo/photoacoustic transvaginal probe for real time imaging of ovarian tissue,” J. Biophotonics. 1-10, (2013).

2012 (3)

U. Alqasemi, P. Kumavor, A. Aguirre, and Q. Zhu, “Recognition algorithm for assisting ovarian cancer diagnosis from coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images: ex vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(12), 126003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, C. Favazza, A. Garcia-Uribe, and L. V. Wang, “Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2009 (4)

Z. Xie, S. Jiao, H. F. Zhang, and C. A. Puliafito, “Laser-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(12), 1771–1773 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, P. Yan, K. Maslov, J. M. Lee, and L. V. Wang, “Intravital imaging of amyloid plaques in a transgenic mouse model using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(24), 3899–3901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Coregistered three-dimensional ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2006 (2)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

M. A. Brewer, U. Utzinger, J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, N. D. Kirkpatrick, W. R. Brands, J. R. Davis, K. Hunt, S. J. Stevens, and A. F. Gmitro, “Imaging of the ovary,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.3(6), 617–627 (2004).
[PubMed]

Aguirre, A.

U. Alqasemi, P. Kumavor, A. Aguirre, and Q. Zhu, “Recognition algorithm for assisting ovarian cancer diagnosis from coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images: ex vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(12), 126003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aguirre, Y. Ardeshirpour, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Potential role of coregistered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging in ovarian cancer detection and characterization,” Transl Oncol4(1), 29–37 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Coregistered three-dimensional ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alqasemi, U.

P. Kumavor, U. Alqasemi, B. Tavakoli, H. Li, Y. Yang, X. Sun, E. Warych, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered pulse-echo/photoacoustic transvaginal probe for real time imaging of ovarian tissue,” J. Biophotonics. 1-10, (2013).

U. Alqasemi, P. Kumavor, A. Aguirre, and Q. Zhu, “Recognition algorithm for assisting ovarian cancer diagnosis from coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images: ex vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(12), 126003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ardeshirpour, Y.

A. Aguirre, Y. Ardeshirpour, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Potential role of coregistered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging in ovarian cancer detection and characterization,” Transl Oncol4(1), 29–37 (2011).
[PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

M. A. Brewer, U. Utzinger, J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, N. D. Kirkpatrick, W. R. Brands, J. R. Davis, K. Hunt, S. J. Stevens, and A. F. Gmitro, “Imaging of the ovary,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.3(6), 617–627 (2004).
[PubMed]

Bitton, R.

Brands, W. R.

M. A. Brewer, U. Utzinger, J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, N. D. Kirkpatrick, W. R. Brands, J. R. Davis, K. Hunt, S. J. Stevens, and A. F. Gmitro, “Imaging of the ovary,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.3(6), 617–627 (2004).
[PubMed]

Brewer, M.

A. Aguirre, Y. Ardeshirpour, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Potential role of coregistered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging in ovarian cancer detection and characterization,” Transl Oncol4(1), 29–37 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Coregistered three-dimensional ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewer, M. A.

M. A. Brewer, U. Utzinger, J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, N. D. Kirkpatrick, W. R. Brands, J. R. Davis, K. Hunt, S. J. Stevens, and A. F. Gmitro, “Imaging of the ovary,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.3(6), 617–627 (2004).
[PubMed]

Carson, P.

Chen, R.

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, J. R.

M. A. Brewer, U. Utzinger, J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, N. D. Kirkpatrick, W. R. Brands, J. R. Davis, K. Hunt, S. J. Stevens, and A. F. Gmitro, “Imaging of the ovary,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.3(6), 617–627 (2004).
[PubMed]

Favazza, C.

Z. Guo, C. Favazza, A. Garcia-Uribe, and L. V. Wang, “Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gamelin, J.

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Coregistered three-dimensional ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Uribe, A.

Z. Guo, C. Favazza, A. Garcia-Uribe, and L. V. Wang, “Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmitro, A. F.

M. A. Brewer, U. Utzinger, J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, N. D. Kirkpatrick, W. R. Brands, J. R. Davis, K. Hunt, S. J. Stevens, and A. F. Gmitro, “Imaging of the ovary,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.3(6), 617–627 (2004).
[PubMed]

Guo, P.

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Coregistered three-dimensional ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

Z. Guo, C. Favazza, A. Garcia-Uribe, and L. V. Wang, “Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoying, J. B.

M. A. Brewer, U. Utzinger, J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, N. D. Kirkpatrick, W. R. Brands, J. R. Davis, K. Hunt, S. J. Stevens, and A. F. Gmitro, “Imaging of the ovary,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.3(6), 617–627 (2004).
[PubMed]

Hu, S.

Hunt, K.

M. A. Brewer, U. Utzinger, J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, N. D. Kirkpatrick, W. R. Brands, J. R. Davis, K. Hunt, S. J. Stevens, and A. F. Gmitro, “Imaging of the ovary,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.3(6), 617–627 (2004).
[PubMed]

Jiao, S.

Kirkpatrick, N. D.

M. A. Brewer, U. Utzinger, J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, N. D. Kirkpatrick, W. R. Brands, J. R. Davis, K. Hunt, S. J. Stevens, and A. F. Gmitro, “Imaging of the ovary,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.3(6), 617–627 (2004).
[PubMed]

Kumavor, P.

P. Kumavor, U. Alqasemi, B. Tavakoli, H. Li, Y. Yang, X. Sun, E. Warych, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered pulse-echo/photoacoustic transvaginal probe for real time imaging of ovarian tissue,” J. Biophotonics. 1-10, (2013).

U. Alqasemi, P. Kumavor, A. Aguirre, and Q. Zhu, “Recognition algorithm for assisting ovarian cancer diagnosis from coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images: ex vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(12), 126003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. M.

Li, H.

P. Kumavor, U. Alqasemi, B. Tavakoli, H. Li, Y. Yang, X. Sun, E. Warych, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered pulse-echo/photoacoustic transvaginal probe for real time imaging of ovarian tissue,” J. Biophotonics. 1-10, (2013).

Li, L.

Liu, X.

Maslov, K.

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Li, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Hybrid-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo vasculature imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1521–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Subwavelength-resolution label-free photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption in vivo,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3195–3197 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, P. Yan, K. Maslov, J. M. Lee, and L. V. Wang, “Intravital imaging of amyloid plaques in a transgenic mouse model using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(24), 3899–3901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett.33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.30(6), 625–627 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

Rao, B.

Roberts, W.

Sanders, M. M.

A. Aguirre, Y. Ardeshirpour, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Potential role of coregistered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging in ovarian cancer detection and characterization,” Transl Oncol4(1), 29–37 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Coregistered three-dimensional ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shung, K. K.

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zemp, L. Song, R. Bitton, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, In vivo realtime photoacoustic microscopy in vivo with a 30-MHz ultrasound array transducer,” Opt. Express16(11), 7915–7928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, L.

Stevens, S. J.

M. A. Brewer, U. Utzinger, J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, N. D. Kirkpatrick, W. R. Brands, J. R. Davis, K. Hunt, S. J. Stevens, and A. F. Gmitro, “Imaging of the ovary,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.3(6), 617–627 (2004).
[PubMed]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.30(6), 625–627 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

P. Kumavor, U. Alqasemi, B. Tavakoli, H. Li, Y. Yang, X. Sun, E. Warych, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered pulse-echo/photoacoustic transvaginal probe for real time imaging of ovarian tissue,” J. Biophotonics. 1-10, (2013).

Tao, C.

Tavakoli, B.

P. Kumavor, U. Alqasemi, B. Tavakoli, H. Li, Y. Yang, X. Sun, E. Warych, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered pulse-echo/photoacoustic transvaginal probe for real time imaging of ovarian tissue,” J. Biophotonics. 1-10, (2013).

Utzinger, U.

M. A. Brewer, U. Utzinger, J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, N. D. Kirkpatrick, W. R. Brands, J. R. Davis, K. Hunt, S. J. Stevens, and A. F. Gmitro, “Imaging of the ovary,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.3(6), 617–627 (2004).
[PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

Z. Guo, C. Favazza, A. Garcia-Uribe, and L. V. Wang, “Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Li, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Hybrid-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo vasculature imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1521–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Subwavelength-resolution label-free photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption in vivo,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3195–3197 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, P. Yan, K. Maslov, J. M. Lee, and L. V. Wang, “Intravital imaging of amyloid plaques in a transgenic mouse model using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(24), 3899–3901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett.33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zemp, L. Song, R. Bitton, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, In vivo realtime photoacoustic microscopy in vivo with a 30-MHz ultrasound array transducer,” Opt. Express16(11), 7915–7928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys.35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.30(6), 625–627 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Warych, E.

P. Kumavor, U. Alqasemi, B. Tavakoli, H. Li, Y. Yang, X. Sun, E. Warych, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered pulse-echo/photoacoustic transvaginal probe for real time imaging of ovarian tissue,” J. Biophotonics. 1-10, (2013).

Xie, Z.

Xu, M.

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yan, P.

Yan, S.

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Coregistered three-dimensional ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

P. Kumavor, U. Alqasemi, B. Tavakoli, H. Li, Y. Yang, X. Sun, E. Warych, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered pulse-echo/photoacoustic transvaginal probe for real time imaging of ovarian tissue,” J. Biophotonics. 1-10, (2013).

Zemp, R. J.

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Subwavelength-resolution label-free photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption in vivo,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3195–3197 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

Zhou, Q.

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Q.

P. Kumavor, U. Alqasemi, B. Tavakoli, H. Li, Y. Yang, X. Sun, E. Warych, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered pulse-echo/photoacoustic transvaginal probe for real time imaging of ovarian tissue,” J. Biophotonics. 1-10, (2013).

U. Alqasemi, P. Kumavor, A. Aguirre, and Q. Zhu, “Recognition algorithm for assisting ovarian cancer diagnosis from coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images: ex vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(12), 126003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aguirre, Y. Ardeshirpour, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Potential role of coregistered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging in ovarian cancer detection and characterization,” Transl Oncol4(1), 29–37 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Coregistered three-dimensional ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Co-registered pulse-echo/photoacoustic transvaginal probe for real time imaging of ovarian tissue (1)

P. Kumavor, U. Alqasemi, B. Tavakoli, H. Li, Y. Yang, X. Sun, E. Warych, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered pulse-echo/photoacoustic transvaginal probe for real time imaging of ovarian tissue,” J. Biophotonics. 1-10, (2013).

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

U. Alqasemi, P. Kumavor, A. Aguirre, and Q. Zhu, “Recognition algorithm for assisting ovarian cancer diagnosis from coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images: ex vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(12), 126003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Coregistered three-dimensional ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).
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C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, C. Favazza, A. Garcia-Uribe, and L. V. Wang, “Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys.35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Z. Xie, S. Jiao, H. F. Zhang, and C. A. Puliafito, “Laser-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(12), 1771–1773 (2009).
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S. Hu, P. Yan, K. Maslov, J. M. Lee, and L. V. Wang, “Intravital imaging of amyloid plaques in a transgenic mouse model using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(24), 3899–3901 (2009).
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B. Rao, L. Li, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Hybrid-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo vasculature imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1521–1523 (2010).
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C. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Subwavelength-resolution label-free photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption in vivo,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3195–3197 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
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Z. Xie, W. Roberts, P. Carson, X. Liu, C. Tao, and X. Wang, “Evaluation of bladder microvasculature with high-resolution photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Lett.36(24), 4815–4817 (2011).
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K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.30(6), 625–627 (2005).
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K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett.33(9), 929–931 (2008).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

M. A. Brewer, U. Utzinger, J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, N. D. Kirkpatrick, W. R. Brands, J. R. Davis, K. Hunt, S. J. Stevens, and A. F. Gmitro, “Imaging of the ovary,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.3(6), 617–627 (2004).
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Transl Oncol (1)

A. Aguirre, Y. Ardeshirpour, M. M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Potential role of coregistered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging in ovarian cancer detection and characterization,” Transl Oncol4(1), 29–37 (2011).
[PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the OR-PAM system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) PAM MAP image of a 7µm carbon fiber, scale bar: 50µm; (b) normalized cross-sectional profile of the carbon fiber along the dotted line in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PAM images of (a) normal ovarian tissue and (b) malignant ovarian tissue; (c) H&E corresponding to (a); (d) H&E corresponding to (b); scale bar: 300µm; arrows: blood vessels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Boxplots of (a) low frequency; (b) high frequency; (c) Gaussian fitting SD; (d) Gaussian fitting error; (e) statistical mean; (f) Gamma mean; (g) Gamma variance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

ROC curves of (a) training set; (b) testing set.

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