Abstract

Angiogenesis and hypoxia are reported to correlate with tumor aggressiveness. In this study, we investigated the potential of optically measured total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and blood oxygen saturation (StO2) as a quantitative measure of angiogenesis and hypoxia in oral lesions with an immunohistochemical comparison. 12 normal subjects and 40 oral patients (22 oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 18 benign/premalignant lesions including 11 verrucous hyperplasia (VH) and 7 hyperkeratosis/parakeratosis (HK)) were studied. The results showed that the THC measurement was consistent with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvessel staining in the stromal area, but StO2 was not associated with HIF-1α. We observed inflammation induced neovascular formation in the stromal area of VH and HK that were likely attributed to higher-than-control THC and StO2 and resulted in no difference in optical measurements between all lesions. However, we found that in majority of SCC, the ratio of THC and StO2 levels between lesions and the surrounding tissues provide potential distinguishing characteristics from VH, which are not visually differentiable from SCC, with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 91%, 68%, and 76%, respectively.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. GLOBOCAN (IARC, 2008) Section of Cancer Information. http://globocan.iarc.fr/factsheets/populations/factsheet.asp?uno=900
  2. B. W. Neville, T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 52(4), 195–215 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. J. Sciubba, “Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment,” Am. J. Clin. Dermatol. 2(4), 239–251 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. H. Binnie and K. V. Rankin, Oral cancer: clinical and pathologic correlations (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1998).
  5. M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8(2), 146–154 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Amelink, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the microvascular properties of non-dysplastic and dysplastic oral leukoplakias by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 47(12), 1165–1170 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. C. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014018 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
    [PubMed]
  17. H. W. Wang, J. K. Jiang, C. H. Lin, J. K. Lin, G. J. Huang, J. S. Yu, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy detects increased hemoglobin concentration and decreased oxygenation during colon carcinogenesis from normal to malignant tumors,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2805–2817 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218(1), 261–266 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  19. H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, T. M. Busch, “Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome,” Cancer Res. 64(20), 7553–7561 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, A. G. Yodh, “Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034023 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. Mărgăritescu, C. Simionescu, D. Pirici, L. Mogoantă, R. Ciurea, A. Stepan, “Immunohistochemical characterization of tumoral vessels in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Rom. J. Morphol. Embryol. 49(4), 447–458 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  23. Z. J. Shang, J. R. Li, “Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma: its correlation with angiogenesis and disease progression,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 34(3), 134–139 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. N. J. Beasley, R. Prevo, S. Banerji, R. D. Leek, J. Moore, P. van Trappen, G. Cox, A. L. Harris, D. G. Jackson, “Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer,” Cancer Res. 62(5), 1315–1320 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  25. R. L. de Cicco, J. C. Watson, D. E. Bassi, S. Litwin, A. J. Klein-Szanto, “Simultaneous expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma progression,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(13), 4480–4488 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Y. K. Wong, C. J. Liu, P. C. Kwan, S. Y. Chao, “Microvascular density and vascular endothelial growth factor immunoreactivity as predictors of regional lymph node metastasis from betel-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 61(11), 1257–1262 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. Gandolfo, A. Keszler, H. Lanfranchi, M. E. Itoiz, “Increased subepithelial vascularization and VEGF expression reveal potentially malignant changes in human oral mucosa lesions,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 111(4), 486–493 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, R. Cheng, and A. G. Yodh, “Near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy for assessment of tissue blood flow,” in Handbook of Biomedical Optics, D. A. Boas, C. Pitris, and N. Ramanujam, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2011), pp. 195–216.
  30. S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. D. J. Rohrbach, N. Rigual, E. Tracy, A. Kowalczewski, K. L. Keymel, M. T. Cooper, W. Mo, H. Baumann, B. W. Henderson, U. Sunar, “Interlesion differences in the local photodynamic therapy response of oral cavity lesions assessed by diffuse optical spectroscopies,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 2142–2153 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. Carlile, K. Harada, R. Baillie, M. Macluskey, D. M. Chisholm, G. R. Ogden, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral tissues: possible relevance to angiogenesis, tumour progression and field cancerisation,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 30(8), 449–457 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. J. A. Nagy, L. F. Brown, D. R. Senger, N. Lanir, L. Van de Water, A. M. Dvorak, H. F. Dvorak, “Pathogenesis of tumor stroma generation: a critical role for leaky blood vessels and fibrin deposition,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 948(3), 305–326 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  34. K. J. Davey, S. Perrier, G. Ohe, A. D. Gilbert, A. Bankfalvi, W. P. Saunders, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Assessment of vascularity as an index of angiogenesis in periradicular granulomas. Comparison with oral carcinomas and normal tissue counterparts,” Int. Endod. J. 41(11), 987–996 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. F. Tanaka, Y. Otake, K. Yanagihara, Y. Kawano, R. Miyahara, M. Li, T. Yamada, N. Hanaoka, K. Inui, H. Wada, “Evaluation of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer: comparison between anti-CD34 antibody and anti-CD105 antibody,” Clin. Cancer Res. 7(11), 3410–3415 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  36. D. Kademani, J. T. Lewis, D. H. Lamb, D. J. Rallis, J. R. Harrington, “Angiogenesis and CD34 expression as a predictor of recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 67(9), 1800–1805 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. U. K. Zätterström, E. Brun, R. Willén, E. Kjellén, J. Wennerberg, “Tumor angiogenesis and prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Head Neck 17(4), 312–318 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. K. Dellas, M. Bache, S. U. Pigorsch, H. Taubert, M. Kappler, D. Holzapfel, E. Zorn, H. J. Holzhausen, G. Haensgen, “Prognostic impact of HIF-1 α expression in patients with definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 184(3), 169–174 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. K. Sakata, M. Someya, H. Nagakura, K. Nakata, A. Oouchi, M. Hareyama, M. Satoh, “A clinical study of hypoxia using endogenous hypoxic markers and polarographic oxygen electrodes,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 182(9), 511–517 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. A. Mayer, M. Höckel, P. Vaupel, “Endogenous hypoxia markers: case not proven!” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 614, 127–136 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. N. J. Beasley, R. Leek, M. Alam, H. Turley, G. J. Cox, K. Gatter, P. Millard, S. Fuggle, A. L. Harris, “Hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in head and neck cancer: relationship to tumor biology and treatment outcome in surgically resected patients,” Cancer Res. 62(9), 2493–2497 (2002).
    [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

M. Gandolfo, A. Keszler, H. Lanfranchi, M. E. Itoiz, “Increased subepithelial vascularization and VEGF expression reveal potentially malignant changes in human oral mucosa lesions,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 111(4), 486–493 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the microvascular properties of non-dysplastic and dysplastic oral leukoplakias by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 47(12), 1165–1170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

H. W. Wang, J. K. Jiang, C. H. Lin, J. K. Lin, G. J. Huang, J. S. Yu, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy detects increased hemoglobin concentration and decreased oxygenation during colon carcinogenesis from normal to malignant tumors,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2805–2817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kademani, J. T. Lewis, D. H. Lamb, D. J. Rallis, J. R. Harrington, “Angiogenesis and CD34 expression as a predictor of recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 67(9), 1800–1805 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (8)

K. Dellas, M. Bache, S. U. Pigorsch, H. Taubert, M. Kappler, D. Holzapfel, E. Zorn, H. J. Holzhausen, G. Haensgen, “Prognostic impact of HIF-1 α expression in patients with definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 184(3), 169–174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Davey, S. Perrier, G. Ohe, A. D. Gilbert, A. Bankfalvi, W. P. Saunders, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Assessment of vascularity as an index of angiogenesis in periradicular granulomas. Comparison with oral carcinomas and normal tissue counterparts,” Int. Endod. J. 41(11), 987–996 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mărgăritescu, C. Simionescu, D. Pirici, L. Mogoantă, R. Ciurea, A. Stepan, “Immunohistochemical characterization of tumoral vessels in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Rom. J. Morphol. Embryol. 49(4), 447–458 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mayer, M. Höckel, P. Vaupel, “Endogenous hypoxia markers: case not proven!” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 614, 127–136 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, A. G. Yodh, “Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sakata, M. Someya, H. Nagakura, K. Nakata, A. Oouchi, M. Hareyama, M. Satoh, “A clinical study of hypoxia using endogenous hypoxic markers and polarographic oxygen electrodes,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 182(9), 511–517 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8(2), 146–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

D. C. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. J. Shang, J. R. Li, “Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma: its correlation with angiogenesis and disease progression,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 34(3), 134–139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, T. M. Busch, “Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome,” Cancer Res. 64(20), 7553–7561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. de Cicco, J. C. Watson, D. E. Bassi, S. Litwin, A. J. Klein-Szanto, “Simultaneous expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma progression,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(13), 4480–4488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Wong, C. J. Liu, P. C. Kwan, S. Y. Chao, “Microvascular density and vascular endothelial growth factor immunoreactivity as predictors of regional lymph node metastasis from betel-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 61(11), 1257–1262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

B. W. Neville, T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 52(4), 195–215 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Beasley, R. Prevo, S. Banerji, R. D. Leek, J. Moore, P. van Trappen, G. Cox, A. L. Harris, D. G. Jackson, “Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer,” Cancer Res. 62(5), 1315–1320 (2002).
[PubMed]

N. J. Beasley, R. Leek, M. Alam, H. Turley, G. J. Cox, K. Gatter, P. Millard, S. Fuggle, A. L. Harris, “Hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in head and neck cancer: relationship to tumor biology and treatment outcome in surgically resected patients,” Cancer Res. 62(9), 2493–2497 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (4)

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218(1), 261–266 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. J. Sciubba, “Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment,” Am. J. Clin. Dermatol. 2(4), 239–251 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tanaka, Y. Otake, K. Yanagihara, Y. Kawano, R. Miyahara, M. Li, T. Yamada, N. Hanaoka, K. Inui, H. Wada, “Evaluation of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer: comparison between anti-CD34 antibody and anti-CD105 antibody,” Clin. Cancer Res. 7(11), 3410–3415 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. Carlile, K. Harada, R. Baillie, M. Macluskey, D. M. Chisholm, G. R. Ogden, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral tissues: possible relevance to angiogenesis, tumour progression and field cancerisation,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 30(8), 449–457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

U. K. Zätterström, E. Brun, R. Willén, E. Kjellén, J. Wennerberg, “Tumor angiogenesis and prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Head Neck 17(4), 312–318 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

J. A. Nagy, L. F. Brown, D. R. Senger, N. Lanir, L. Van de Water, A. M. Dvorak, H. F. Dvorak, “Pathogenesis of tumor stroma generation: a critical role for leaky blood vessels and fibrin deposition,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 948(3), 305–326 (1989).
[PubMed]

Alam, M.

N. J. Beasley, R. Leek, M. Alam, H. Turley, G. J. Cox, K. Gatter, P. Millard, S. Fuggle, A. L. Harris, “Hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in head and neck cancer: relationship to tumor biology and treatment outcome in surgically resected patients,” Cancer Res. 62(9), 2493–2497 (2002).
[PubMed]

Amelink, A.

A. Amelink, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the microvascular properties of non-dysplastic and dysplastic oral leukoplakias by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 47(12), 1165–1170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bache, M.

K. Dellas, M. Bache, S. U. Pigorsch, H. Taubert, M. Kappler, D. Holzapfel, E. Zorn, H. J. Holzhausen, G. Haensgen, “Prognostic impact of HIF-1 α expression in patients with definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 184(3), 169–174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baillie, R.

J. Carlile, K. Harada, R. Baillie, M. Macluskey, D. M. Chisholm, G. R. Ogden, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral tissues: possible relevance to angiogenesis, tumour progression and field cancerisation,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 30(8), 449–457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerji, S.

N. J. Beasley, R. Prevo, S. Banerji, R. D. Leek, J. Moore, P. van Trappen, G. Cox, A. L. Harris, D. G. Jackson, “Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer,” Cancer Res. 62(5), 1315–1320 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bankfalvi, A.

K. J. Davey, S. Perrier, G. Ohe, A. D. Gilbert, A. Bankfalvi, W. P. Saunders, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Assessment of vascularity as an index of angiogenesis in periradicular granulomas. Comparison with oral carcinomas and normal tissue counterparts,” Int. Endod. J. 41(11), 987–996 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassi, D. E.

R. L. de Cicco, J. C. Watson, D. E. Bassi, S. Litwin, A. J. Klein-Szanto, “Simultaneous expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma progression,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(13), 4480–4488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, H.

Bean, S. M.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Beasley, N. J.

N. J. Beasley, R. Prevo, S. Banerji, R. D. Leek, J. Moore, P. van Trappen, G. Cox, A. L. Harris, D. G. Jackson, “Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer,” Cancer Res. 62(5), 1315–1320 (2002).
[PubMed]

N. J. Beasley, R. Leek, M. Alam, H. Turley, G. J. Cox, K. Gatter, P. Millard, S. Fuggle, A. L. Harris, “Hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in head and neck cancer: relationship to tumor biology and treatment outcome in surgically resected patients,” Cancer Res. 62(9), 2493–2497 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bentley, R. C.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, R. E.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, L. F.

J. A. Nagy, L. F. Brown, D. R. Senger, N. Lanir, L. Van de Water, A. M. Dvorak, H. F. Dvorak, “Pathogenesis of tumor stroma generation: a critical role for leaky blood vessels and fibrin deposition,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 948(3), 305–326 (1989).
[PubMed]

Brun, E.

U. K. Zätterström, E. Brun, R. Willén, E. Kjellén, J. Wennerberg, “Tumor angiogenesis and prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Head Neck 17(4), 312–318 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, M. G.

Busch, D. R.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, T. M.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, A. G. Yodh, “Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, T. M. Busch, “Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome,” Cancer Res. 64(20), 7553–7561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlile, J.

J. Carlile, K. Harada, R. Baillie, M. Macluskey, D. M. Chisholm, G. R. Ogden, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral tissues: possible relevance to angiogenesis, tumour progression and field cancerisation,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 30(8), 449–457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cartwright, P. S.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chance, B.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, V. T.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chao, S. Y.

Y. K. Wong, C. J. Liu, P. C. Kwan, S. Y. Chao, “Microvascular density and vascular endothelial growth factor immunoreactivity as predictors of regional lymph node metastasis from betel-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 61(11), 1257–1262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chisholm, D. M.

J. Carlile, K. Harada, R. Baillie, M. Macluskey, D. M. Chisholm, G. R. Ogden, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral tissues: possible relevance to angiogenesis, tumour progression and field cancerisation,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 30(8), 449–457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciurea, R.

C. Mărgăritescu, C. Simionescu, D. Pirici, L. Mogoantă, R. Ciurea, A. Stepan, “Immunohistochemical characterization of tumoral vessels in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Rom. J. Morphol. Embryol. 49(4), 447–458 (2008).
[PubMed]

Cooper, M. T.

Corlu, A.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, G.

N. J. Beasley, R. Prevo, S. Banerji, R. D. Leek, J. Moore, P. van Trappen, G. Cox, A. L. Harris, D. G. Jackson, “Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer,” Cancer Res. 62(5), 1315–1320 (2002).
[PubMed]

Cox, G. J.

N. J. Beasley, R. Leek, M. Alam, H. Turley, G. J. Cox, K. Gatter, P. Millard, S. Fuggle, A. L. Harris, “Hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in head and neck cancer: relationship to tumor biology and treatment outcome in surgically resected patients,” Cancer Res. 62(9), 2493–2497 (2002).
[PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czerniecki, B. J.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davey, K. J.

K. J. Davey, S. Perrier, G. Ohe, A. D. Gilbert, A. Bankfalvi, W. P. Saunders, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Assessment of vascularity as an index of angiogenesis in periradicular granulomas. Comparison with oral carcinomas and normal tissue counterparts,” Int. Endod. J. 41(11), 987–996 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, T. A.

B. W. Neville, T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 52(4), 195–215 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Cicco, R. L.

R. L. de Cicco, J. C. Watson, D. E. Bassi, S. Litwin, A. J. Klein-Szanto, “Simultaneous expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma progression,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(13), 4480–4488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Veld, D. C.

D. C. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dellas, K.

K. Dellas, M. Bache, S. U. Pigorsch, H. Taubert, M. Kappler, D. Holzapfel, E. Zorn, H. J. Holzhausen, G. Haensgen, “Prognostic impact of HIF-1 α expression in patients with definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 184(3), 169–174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demichele, A.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Detre, J. A.

Dimofte, A.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duin, R. P.

D. C. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dvorak, A. M.

J. A. Nagy, L. F. Brown, D. R. Senger, N. Lanir, L. Van de Water, A. M. Dvorak, H. F. Dvorak, “Pathogenesis of tumor stroma generation: a critical role for leaky blood vessels and fibrin deposition,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 948(3), 305–326 (1989).
[PubMed]

Dvorak, H. F.

J. A. Nagy, L. F. Brown, D. R. Senger, N. Lanir, L. Van de Water, A. M. Dvorak, H. F. Dvorak, “Pathogenesis of tumor stroma generation: a critical role for leaky blood vessels and fibrin deposition,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 948(3), 305–326 (1989).
[PubMed]

Elackattu, A.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Naggar, A. K.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emanuele, M. J.

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, T. M. Busch, “Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome,” Cancer Res. 64(20), 7553–7561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, S. M.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, A. G. Yodh, “Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finlay, J. C.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, A. G. Yodh, “Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraker, D. L.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuentes, C.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuggle, S.

N. J. Beasley, R. Leek, M. Alam, H. Turley, G. J. Cox, K. Gatter, P. Millard, S. Fuggle, A. L. Harris, “Hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in head and neck cancer: relationship to tumor biology and treatment outcome in surgically resected patients,” Cancer Res. 62(9), 2493–2497 (2002).
[PubMed]

Galindo, L.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, G.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gandolfo, M.

M. Gandolfo, A. Keszler, H. Lanfranchi, M. E. Itoiz, “Increased subepithelial vascularization and VEGF expression reveal potentially malignant changes in human oral mucosa lesions,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 111(4), 486–493 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatter, K.

N. J. Beasley, R. Leek, M. Alam, H. Turley, G. J. Cox, K. Gatter, P. Millard, S. Fuggle, A. L. Harris, “Hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in head and neck cancer: relationship to tumor biology and treatment outcome in surgically resected patients,” Cancer Res. 62(9), 2493–2497 (2002).
[PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbert, A. D.

K. J. Davey, S. Perrier, G. Ohe, A. D. Gilbert, A. Bankfalvi, W. P. Saunders, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Assessment of vascularity as an index of angiogenesis in periradicular granulomas. Comparison with oral carcinomas and normal tissue counterparts,” Int. Endod. J. 41(11), 987–996 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8(2), 146–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A. M.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glatstein, E.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, A. G. Yodh, “Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, T. M. Busch, “Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome,” Cancer Res. 64(20), 7553–7561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, M. J.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomes, A.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, J. H.

Grillone, G.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haensgen, G.

K. Dellas, M. Bache, S. U. Pigorsch, H. Taubert, M. Kappler, D. Holzapfel, E. Zorn, H. J. Holzhausen, G. Haensgen, “Prognostic impact of HIF-1 α expression in patients with definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 184(3), 169–174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, S. M.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, A. G. Yodh, “Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanaoka, N.

F. Tanaka, Y. Otake, K. Yanagihara, Y. Kawano, R. Miyahara, M. Li, T. Yamada, N. Hanaoka, K. Inui, H. Wada, “Evaluation of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer: comparison between anti-CD34 antibody and anti-CD105 antibody,” Clin. Cancer Res. 7(11), 3410–3415 (2001).
[PubMed]

Harada, K.

J. Carlile, K. Harada, R. Baillie, M. Macluskey, D. M. Chisholm, G. R. Ogden, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral tissues: possible relevance to angiogenesis, tumour progression and field cancerisation,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 30(8), 449–457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hareyama, M.

K. Sakata, M. Someya, H. Nagakura, K. Nakata, A. Oouchi, M. Hareyama, M. Satoh, “A clinical study of hypoxia using endogenous hypoxic markers and polarographic oxygen electrodes,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 182(9), 511–517 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrington, J. R.

D. Kademani, J. T. Lewis, D. H. Lamb, D. J. Rallis, J. R. Harrington, “Angiogenesis and CD34 expression as a predictor of recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 67(9), 1800–1805 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, A. L.

N. J. Beasley, R. Leek, M. Alam, H. Turley, G. J. Cox, K. Gatter, P. Millard, S. Fuggle, A. L. Harris, “Hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in head and neck cancer: relationship to tumor biology and treatment outcome in surgically resected patients,” Cancer Res. 62(9), 2493–2497 (2002).
[PubMed]

N. J. Beasley, R. Prevo, S. Banerji, R. D. Leek, J. Moore, P. van Trappen, G. Cox, A. L. Harris, D. G. Jackson, “Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer,” Cancer Res. 62(5), 1315–1320 (2002).
[PubMed]

Hasabou, N.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henderson, B. W.

Höckel, M.

A. Mayer, M. Höckel, P. Vaupel, “Endogenous hypoxia markers: case not proven!” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 614, 127–136 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzapfel, D.

K. Dellas, M. Bache, S. U. Pigorsch, H. Taubert, M. Kappler, D. Holzapfel, E. Zorn, H. J. Holzhausen, G. Haensgen, “Prognostic impact of HIF-1 α expression in patients with definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 184(3), 169–174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzhausen, H. J.

K. Dellas, M. Bache, S. U. Pigorsch, H. Taubert, M. Kappler, D. Holzapfel, E. Zorn, H. J. Holzhausen, G. Haensgen, “Prognostic impact of HIF-1 α expression in patients with definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 184(3), 169–174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, G. J.

Inui, K.

F. Tanaka, Y. Otake, K. Yanagihara, Y. Kawano, R. Miyahara, M. Li, T. Yamada, N. Hanaoka, K. Inui, H. Wada, “Evaluation of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer: comparison between anti-CD34 antibody and anti-CD105 antibody,” Clin. Cancer Res. 7(11), 3410–3415 (2001).
[PubMed]

Itoiz, M. E.

M. Gandolfo, A. Keszler, H. Lanfranchi, M. E. Itoiz, “Increased subepithelial vascularization and VEGF expression reveal potentially malignant changes in human oral mucosa lesions,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 111(4), 486–493 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, D. G.

N. J. Beasley, R. Prevo, S. Banerji, R. D. Leek, J. Moore, P. van Trappen, G. Cox, A. L. Harris, D. G. Jackson, “Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer,” Cancer Res. 62(5), 1315–1320 (2002).
[PubMed]

Jameel, M.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J. K.

Kabani, S.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kademani, D.

D. Kademani, J. T. Lewis, D. H. Lamb, D. J. Rallis, J. R. Harrington, “Angiogenesis and CD34 expression as a predictor of recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 67(9), 1800–1805 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalmar, J. R.

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kappler, M.

K. Dellas, M. Bache, S. U. Pigorsch, H. Taubert, M. Kappler, D. Holzapfel, E. Zorn, H. J. Holzhausen, G. Haensgen, “Prognostic impact of HIF-1 α expression in patients with definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 184(3), 169–174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karrison, T.

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaspers, O. P.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawano, Y.

F. Tanaka, Y. Otake, K. Yanagihara, Y. Kawano, R. Miyahara, M. Li, T. Yamada, N. Hanaoka, K. Inui, H. Wada, “Evaluation of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer: comparison between anti-CD34 antibody and anti-CD105 antibody,” Clin. Cancer Res. 7(11), 3410–3415 (2001).
[PubMed]

Keszler, A.

M. Gandolfo, A. Keszler, H. Lanfranchi, M. E. Itoiz, “Increased subepithelial vascularization and VEGF expression reveal potentially malignant changes in human oral mucosa lesions,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 111(4), 486–493 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keymel, K. L.

Kjellén, E.

U. K. Zätterström, E. Brun, R. Willén, E. Kjellén, J. Wennerberg, “Tumor angiogenesis and prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Head Neck 17(4), 312–318 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein-Szanto, A. J.

R. L. de Cicco, J. C. Watson, D. E. Bassi, S. Litwin, A. J. Klein-Szanto, “Simultaneous expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma progression,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(13), 4480–4488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, C. J.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, A. G. Yodh, “Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konecky, S. D.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczewski, A.

Kromine, A.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurachi, C.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwan, P. C.

Y. K. Wong, C. J. Liu, P. C. Kwan, S. Y. Chao, “Microvascular density and vascular endothelial growth factor immunoreactivity as predictors of regional lymph node metastasis from betel-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 61(11), 1257–1262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamb, D. H.

D. Kademani, J. T. Lewis, D. H. Lamb, D. J. Rallis, J. R. Harrington, “Angiogenesis and CD34 expression as a predictor of recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 67(9), 1800–1805 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanfranchi, H.

M. Gandolfo, A. Keszler, H. Lanfranchi, M. E. Itoiz, “Increased subepithelial vascularization and VEGF expression reveal potentially malignant changes in human oral mucosa lesions,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 111(4), 486–493 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanir, N.

J. A. Nagy, L. F. Brown, D. R. Senger, N. Lanir, L. Van de Water, A. M. Dvorak, H. F. Dvorak, “Pathogenesis of tumor stroma generation: a critical role for leaky blood vessels and fibrin deposition,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 948(3), 305–326 (1989).
[PubMed]

Laver, N.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lech, G.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. J.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, A. G. Yodh, “Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leek, R.

N. J. Beasley, R. Leek, M. Alam, H. Turley, G. J. Cox, K. Gatter, P. Millard, S. Fuggle, A. L. Harris, “Hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in head and neck cancer: relationship to tumor biology and treatment outcome in surgically resected patients,” Cancer Res. 62(9), 2493–2497 (2002).
[PubMed]

Leek, R. D.

N. J. Beasley, R. Prevo, S. Banerji, R. D. Leek, J. Moore, P. van Trappen, G. Cox, A. L. Harris, D. G. Jackson, “Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer,” Cancer Res. 62(5), 1315–1320 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lewis, J. T.

D. Kademani, J. T. Lewis, D. H. Lamb, D. J. Rallis, J. R. Harrington, “Angiogenesis and CD34 expression as a predictor of recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 67(9), 1800–1805 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J. R.

Z. J. Shang, J. R. Li, “Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma: its correlation with angiogenesis and disease progression,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 34(3), 134–139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.

F. Tanaka, Y. Otake, K. Yanagihara, Y. Kawano, R. Miyahara, M. Li, T. Yamada, N. Hanaoka, K. Inui, H. Wada, “Evaluation of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer: comparison between anti-CD34 antibody and anti-CD105 antibody,” Clin. Cancer Res. 7(11), 3410–3415 (2001).
[PubMed]

Lin, C. H.

Lin, J. K.

Lingen, M. W.

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litwin, S.

R. L. de Cicco, J. C. Watson, D. E. Bassi, S. Litwin, A. J. Klein-Szanto, “Simultaneous expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma progression,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(13), 4480–4488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C. J.

Y. K. Wong, C. J. Liu, P. C. Kwan, S. Y. Chao, “Microvascular density and vascular endothelial growth factor immunoreactivity as predictors of regional lymph node metastasis from betel-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 61(11), 1257–1262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macluskey, M.

J. Carlile, K. Harada, R. Baillie, M. Macluskey, D. M. Chisholm, G. R. Ogden, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral tissues: possible relevance to angiogenesis, tumour progression and field cancerisation,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 30(8), 449–457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madhavan, J.

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallia, J. R.

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mardirossian, V.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margaritescu, C.

C. Mărgăritescu, C. Simionescu, D. Pirici, L. Mogoantă, R. Ciurea, A. Stepan, “Immunohistochemical characterization of tumoral vessels in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Rom. J. Morphol. Embryol. 49(4), 447–458 (2008).
[PubMed]

Mathews, A.

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayer, A.

A. Mayer, M. Höckel, P. Vaupel, “Endogenous hypoxia markers: case not proven!” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 614, 127–136 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McBride, T. O.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218(1), 261–266 (2001).
[PubMed]

McGee, S.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metz, J.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miles, J.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millard, P.

N. J. Beasley, R. Leek, M. Alam, H. Turley, G. J. Cox, K. Gatter, P. Millard, S. Fuggle, A. L. Harris, “Hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in head and neck cancer: relationship to tumor biology and treatment outcome in surgically resected patients,” Cancer Res. 62(9), 2493–2497 (2002).
[PubMed]

Mirkovic, J.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyahara, R.

F. Tanaka, Y. Otake, K. Yanagihara, Y. Kawano, R. Miyahara, M. Li, T. Yamada, N. Hanaoka, K. Inui, H. Wada, “Evaluation of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer: comparison between anti-CD34 antibody and anti-CD105 antibody,” Clin. Cancer Res. 7(11), 3410–3415 (2001).
[PubMed]

Mo, W.

Mogoanta, L.

C. Mărgăritescu, C. Simionescu, D. Pirici, L. Mogoantă, R. Ciurea, A. Stepan, “Immunohistochemical characterization of tumoral vessels in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Rom. J. Morphol. Embryol. 49(4), 447–458 (2008).
[PubMed]

Mohler, E. R.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, J.

N. J. Beasley, R. Prevo, S. Banerji, R. D. Leek, J. Moore, P. van Trappen, G. Cox, A. L. Harris, D. G. Jackson, “Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer,” Cancer Res. 62(5), 1315–1320 (2002).
[PubMed]

Müller, M. G.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagakura, H.

K. Sakata, M. Someya, H. Nagakura, K. Nakata, A. Oouchi, M. Hareyama, M. Satoh, “A clinical study of hypoxia using endogenous hypoxic markers and polarographic oxygen electrodes,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 182(9), 511–517 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagy, J. A.

J. A. Nagy, L. F. Brown, D. R. Senger, N. Lanir, L. Van de Water, A. M. Dvorak, H. F. Dvorak, “Pathogenesis of tumor stroma generation: a critical role for leaky blood vessels and fibrin deposition,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 948(3), 305–326 (1989).
[PubMed]

Nakata, K.

K. Sakata, M. Someya, H. Nagakura, K. Nakata, A. Oouchi, M. Hareyama, M. Satoh, “A clinical study of hypoxia using endogenous hypoxic markers and polarographic oxygen electrodes,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 182(9), 511–517 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neville, B. W.

B. W. Neville, T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 52(4), 195–215 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogden, G. R.

J. Carlile, K. Harada, R. Baillie, M. Macluskey, D. M. Chisholm, G. R. Ogden, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral tissues: possible relevance to angiogenesis, tumour progression and field cancerisation,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 30(8), 449–457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohe, G.

K. J. Davey, S. Perrier, G. Ohe, A. D. Gilbert, A. Bankfalvi, W. P. Saunders, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Assessment of vascularity as an index of angiogenesis in periradicular granulomas. Comparison with oral carcinomas and normal tissue counterparts,” Int. Endod. J. 41(11), 987–996 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oouchi, A.

K. Sakata, M. Someya, H. Nagakura, K. Nakata, A. Oouchi, M. Hareyama, M. Satoh, “A clinical study of hypoxia using endogenous hypoxic markers and polarographic oxygen electrodes,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 182(9), 511–517 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterberg, U. L.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218(1), 261–266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Osterman, K. S.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218(1), 261–266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Otake, Y.

F. Tanaka, Y. Otake, K. Yanagihara, Y. Kawano, R. Miyahara, M. Li, T. Yamada, N. Hanaoka, K. Inui, H. Wada, “Evaluation of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer: comparison between anti-CD34 antibody and anti-CD105 antibody,” Clin. Cancer Res. 7(11), 3410–3415 (2001).
[PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Papadimitrakopoulou, V.

A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8(2), 146–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pathak, S.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218(1), 261–266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Perrier, S.

K. J. Davey, S. Perrier, G. Ohe, A. D. Gilbert, A. Bankfalvi, W. P. Saunders, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Assessment of vascularity as an index of angiogenesis in periradicular granulomas. Comparison with oral carcinomas and normal tissue counterparts,” Int. Endod. J. 41(11), 987–996 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pigorsch, S. U.

K. Dellas, M. Bache, S. U. Pigorsch, H. Taubert, M. Kappler, D. Holzapfel, E. Zorn, H. J. Holzhausen, G. Haensgen, “Prognostic impact of HIF-1 α expression in patients with definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 184(3), 169–174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pirici, D.

C. Mărgăritescu, C. Simionescu, D. Pirici, L. Mogoantă, R. Ciurea, A. Stepan, “Immunohistochemical characterization of tumoral vessels in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Rom. J. Morphol. Embryol. 49(4), 447–458 (2008).
[PubMed]

Pistey, R.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218(1), 261–266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Poplack, S. P.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218(1), 261–266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Prevo, R.

N. J. Beasley, R. Prevo, S. Banerji, R. D. Leek, J. Moore, P. van Trappen, G. Cox, A. L. Harris, D. G. Jackson, “Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer,” Cancer Res. 62(5), 1315–1320 (2002).
[PubMed]

Putt, M. E.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, A. G. Yodh, “Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, T. M. Busch, “Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome,” Cancer Res. 64(20), 7553–7561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rallis, D. J.

D. Kademani, J. T. Lewis, D. H. Lamb, D. J. Rallis, J. R. Harrington, “Angiogenesis and CD34 expression as a predictor of recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 67(9), 1800–1805 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Redden Weber, C.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8(2), 146–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rigual, N.

Rogers, J.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohrbach, D. J.

Roodenburg, J. L.

A. Amelink, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the microvascular properties of non-dysplastic and dysplastic oral leukoplakias by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 47(12), 1165–1170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, M. A.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, H. K.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruderman, S.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakata, K.

K. Sakata, M. Someya, H. Nagakura, K. Nakata, A. Oouchi, M. Hareyama, M. Satoh, “A clinical study of hypoxia using endogenous hypoxic markers and polarographic oxygen electrodes,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 182(9), 511–517 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Satoh, M.

K. Sakata, M. Someya, H. Nagakura, K. Nakata, A. Oouchi, M. Hareyama, M. Satoh, “A clinical study of hypoxia using endogenous hypoxic markers and polarographic oxygen electrodes,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 182(9), 511–517 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, W. P.

K. J. Davey, S. Perrier, G. Ohe, A. D. Gilbert, A. Bankfalvi, W. P. Saunders, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Assessment of vascularity as an index of angiogenesis in periradicular granulomas. Comparison with oral carcinomas and normal tissue counterparts,” Int. Endod. J. 41(11), 987–996 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnall, M. D.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schor, A. M.

K. J. Davey, S. Perrier, G. Ohe, A. D. Gilbert, A. Bankfalvi, W. P. Saunders, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Assessment of vascularity as an index of angiogenesis in periradicular granulomas. Comparison with oral carcinomas and normal tissue counterparts,” Int. Endod. J. 41(11), 987–996 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carlile, K. Harada, R. Baillie, M. Macluskey, D. M. Chisholm, G. R. Ogden, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral tissues: possible relevance to angiogenesis, tumour progression and field cancerisation,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 30(8), 449–457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schor, S. L.

K. J. Davey, S. Perrier, G. Ohe, A. D. Gilbert, A. Bankfalvi, W. P. Saunders, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Assessment of vascularity as an index of angiogenesis in periradicular granulomas. Comparison with oral carcinomas and normal tissue counterparts,” Int. Endod. J. 41(11), 987–996 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carlile, K. Harada, R. Baillie, M. Macluskey, D. M. Chisholm, G. R. Ogden, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral tissues: possible relevance to angiogenesis, tumour progression and field cancerisation,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 30(8), 449–457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, R. A.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sciubba, J. J.

J. J. Sciubba, “Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment,” Am. J. Clin. Dermatol. 2(4), 239–251 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sebastian, P.

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senger, D. R.

J. A. Nagy, L. F. Brown, D. R. Senger, N. Lanir, L. Van de Water, A. M. Dvorak, H. F. Dvorak, “Pathogenesis of tumor stroma generation: a critical role for leaky blood vessels and fibrin deposition,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 948(3), 305–326 (1989).
[PubMed]

Shang, Z. J.

Z. J. Shang, J. R. Li, “Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma: its correlation with angiogenesis and disease progression,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 34(3), 134–139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapshay, S. M.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, D. B.

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, T. M. Busch, “Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome,” Cancer Res. 64(20), 7553–7561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simionescu, C.

C. Mărgăritescu, C. Simionescu, D. Pirici, L. Mogoantă, R. Ciurea, A. Stepan, “Immunohistochemical characterization of tumoral vessels in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Rom. J. Morphol. Embryol. 49(4), 447–458 (2008).
[PubMed]

Skurichina, M.

D. C. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solonenko, M.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Someya, M.

K. Sakata, M. Someya, H. Nagakura, K. Nakata, A. Oouchi, M. Hareyama, M. Satoh, “A clinical study of hypoxia using endogenous hypoxic markers and polarographic oxygen electrodes,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 182(9), 511–517 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speight, P. M.

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepan, A.

C. Mărgăritescu, C. Simionescu, D. Pirici, L. Mogoantă, R. Ciurea, A. Stepan, “Immunohistochemical characterization of tumoral vessels in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Rom. J. Morphol. Embryol. 49(4), 447–458 (2008).
[PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

A. Amelink, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the microvascular properties of non-dysplastic and dysplastic oral leukoplakias by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 47(12), 1165–1170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subhash, N.

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sunar, U.

Tanaka, F.

F. Tanaka, Y. Otake, K. Yanagihara, Y. Kawano, R. Miyahara, M. Li, T. Yamada, N. Hanaoka, K. Inui, H. Wada, “Evaluation of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer: comparison between anti-CD34 antibody and anti-CD105 antibody,” Clin. Cancer Res. 7(11), 3410–3415 (2001).
[PubMed]

Taubert, H.

K. Dellas, M. Bache, S. U. Pigorsch, H. Taubert, M. Kappler, D. Holzapfel, E. Zorn, H. J. Holzhausen, G. Haensgen, “Prognostic impact of HIF-1 α expression in patients with definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 184(3), 169–174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tchou, J.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, S. S.

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tracy, E.

Turley, H.

N. J. Beasley, R. Leek, M. Alam, H. Turley, G. J. Cox, K. Gatter, P. Millard, S. Fuggle, A. L. Harris, “Hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in head and neck cancer: relationship to tumor biology and treatment outcome in surgically resected patients,” Cancer Res. 62(9), 2493–2497 (2002).
[PubMed]

Turzhitsky, V.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakil, P.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valdez, T. A.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van de Water, L.

J. A. Nagy, L. F. Brown, D. R. Senger, N. Lanir, L. Van de Water, A. M. Dvorak, H. F. Dvorak, “Pathogenesis of tumor stroma generation: a critical role for leaky blood vessels and fibrin deposition,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 948(3), 305–326 (1989).
[PubMed]

van der Wal, J. E.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Trappen, P.

N. J. Beasley, R. Prevo, S. Banerji, R. D. Leek, J. Moore, P. van Trappen, G. Cox, A. L. Harris, D. G. Jackson, “Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer,” Cancer Res. 62(5), 1315–1320 (2002).
[PubMed]

Vaupel, P.

A. Mayer, M. Höckel, P. Vaupel, “Endogenous hypoxia markers: case not proven!” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 614, 127–136 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, H.

F. Tanaka, Y. Otake, K. Yanagihara, Y. Kawano, R. Miyahara, M. Li, T. Yamada, N. Hanaoka, K. Inui, H. Wada, “Evaluation of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer: comparison between anti-CD34 antibody and anti-CD105 antibody,” Clin. Cancer Res. 7(11), 3410–3415 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wang, H. W.

H. W. Wang, J. K. Jiang, C. H. Lin, J. K. Lin, G. J. Huang, J. S. Yu, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy detects increased hemoglobin concentration and decreased oxygenation during colon carcinogenesis from normal to malignant tumors,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2805–2817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, A. G. Yodh, “Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, T. M. Busch, “Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome,” Cancer Res. 64(20), 7553–7561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, Z.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, J. C.

R. L. de Cicco, J. C. Watson, D. E. Bassi, S. Litwin, A. J. Klein-Szanto, “Simultaneous expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma progression,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(13), 4480–4488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, W. A.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218(1), 261–266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wennerberg, J.

U. K. Zätterström, E. Brun, R. Willén, E. Kjellén, J. Wennerberg, “Tumor angiogenesis and prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Head Neck 17(4), 312–318 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willén, R.

U. K. Zätterström, E. Brun, R. Willén, E. Kjellén, J. Wennerberg, “Tumor angiogenesis and prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Head Neck 17(4), 312–318 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witjes, M. J.

A. Amelink, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the microvascular properties of non-dysplastic and dysplastic oral leukoplakias by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 47(12), 1165–1170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, Y. K.

Y. K. Wong, C. J. Liu, P. C. Kwan, S. Y. Chao, “Microvascular density and vascular endothelial growth factor immunoreactivity as predictors of regional lymph node metastasis from betel-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 61(11), 1257–1262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, T.

F. Tanaka, Y. Otake, K. Yanagihara, Y. Kawano, R. Miyahara, M. Li, T. Yamada, N. Hanaoka, K. Inui, H. Wada, “Evaluation of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer: comparison between anti-CD34 antibody and anti-CD105 antibody,” Clin. Cancer Res. 7(11), 3410–3415 (2001).
[PubMed]

Yanagihara, K.

F. Tanaka, Y. Otake, K. Yanagihara, Y. Kawano, R. Miyahara, M. Li, T. Yamada, N. Hanaoka, K. Inui, H. Wada, “Evaluation of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer: comparison between anti-CD34 antibody and anti-CD105 antibody,” Clin. Cancer Res. 7(11), 3410–3415 (2001).
[PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, A. G. Yodh, “Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, T. M. Busch, “Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome,” Cancer Res. 64(20), 7553–7561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, K. L.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C. C.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J. S.

Zätterström, U. K.

U. K. Zätterström, E. Brun, R. Willén, E. Kjellén, J. Wennerberg, “Tumor angiogenesis and prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Head Neck 17(4), 312–318 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, T. C.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, A. G. Yodh, “Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zorn, E.

K. Dellas, M. Bache, S. U. Pigorsch, H. Taubert, M. Kappler, D. Holzapfel, E. Zorn, H. J. Holzhausen, G. Haensgen, “Prognostic impact of HIF-1 α expression in patients with definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 184(3), 169–174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1)

A. Mayer, M. Höckel, P. Vaupel, “Endogenous hypoxia markers: case not proven!” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 614, 127–136 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Clin. Dermatol. (1)

J. J. Sciubba, “Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment,” Am. J. Clin. Dermatol. 2(4), 239–251 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

J. A. Nagy, L. F. Brown, D. R. Senger, N. Lanir, L. Van de Water, A. M. Dvorak, H. F. Dvorak, “Pathogenesis of tumor stroma generation: a critical role for leaky blood vessels and fibrin deposition,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 948(3), 305–326 (1989).
[PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

B. W. Neville, T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 52(4), 195–215 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer (2)

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (3)

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, T. M. Busch, “Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome,” Cancer Res. 64(20), 7553–7561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Beasley, R. Prevo, S. Banerji, R. D. Leek, J. Moore, P. van Trappen, G. Cox, A. L. Harris, D. G. Jackson, “Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer,” Cancer Res. 62(5), 1315–1320 (2002).
[PubMed]

N. J. Beasley, R. Leek, M. Alam, H. Turley, G. J. Cox, K. Gatter, P. Millard, S. Fuggle, A. L. Harris, “Hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in head and neck cancer: relationship to tumor biology and treatment outcome in surgically resected patients,” Cancer Res. 62(9), 2493–2497 (2002).
[PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res. (2)

R. L. de Cicco, J. C. Watson, D. E. Bassi, S. Litwin, A. J. Klein-Szanto, “Simultaneous expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma progression,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(13), 4480–4488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tanaka, Y. Otake, K. Yanagihara, Y. Kawano, R. Miyahara, M. Li, T. Yamada, N. Hanaoka, K. Inui, H. Wada, “Evaluation of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer: comparison between anti-CD34 antibody and anti-CD105 antibody,” Clin. Cancer Res. 7(11), 3410–3415 (2001).
[PubMed]

Curr. Oncol. Rep. (1)

A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8(2), 146–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Head Neck (1)

U. K. Zätterström, E. Brun, R. Willén, E. Kjellén, J. Wennerberg, “Tumor angiogenesis and prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Head Neck 17(4), 312–318 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. Endod. J. (1)

K. J. Davey, S. Perrier, G. Ohe, A. D. Gilbert, A. Bankfalvi, W. P. Saunders, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Assessment of vascularity as an index of angiogenesis in periradicular granulomas. Comparison with oral carcinomas and normal tissue counterparts,” Int. Endod. J. 41(11), 987–996 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (6)

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, A. G. Yodh, “Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. (2)

D. Kademani, J. T. Lewis, D. H. Lamb, D. J. Rallis, J. R. Harrington, “Angiogenesis and CD34 expression as a predictor of recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 67(9), 1800–1805 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Wong, C. J. Liu, P. C. Kwan, S. Y. Chao, “Microvascular density and vascular endothelial growth factor immunoreactivity as predictors of regional lymph node metastasis from betel-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 61(11), 1257–1262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Oral Pathol. Med. (2)

Z. J. Shang, J. R. Li, “Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma: its correlation with angiogenesis and disease progression,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 34(3), 134–139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carlile, K. Harada, R. Baillie, M. Macluskey, D. M. Chisholm, G. R. Ogden, S. L. Schor, A. M. Schor, “Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral tissues: possible relevance to angiogenesis, tumour progression and field cancerisation,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 30(8), 449–457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

D. C. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neoplasia (1)

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Oral Oncol. (3)

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, H. J. Sterenborg, J. L. Roodenburg, M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the microvascular properties of non-dysplastic and dysplastic oral leukoplakias by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 47(12), 1165–1170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. (1)

M. Gandolfo, A. Keszler, H. Lanfranchi, M. E. Itoiz, “Increased subepithelial vascularization and VEGF expression reveal potentially malignant changes in human oral mucosa lesions,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 111(4), 486–493 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology (1)

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218(1), 261–266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Rom. J. Morphol. Embryol. (1)

C. Mărgăritescu, C. Simionescu, D. Pirici, L. Mogoantă, R. Ciurea, A. Stepan, “Immunohistochemical characterization of tumoral vessels in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Rom. J. Morphol. Embryol. 49(4), 447–458 (2008).
[PubMed]

Strahlenther. Onkol. (2)

K. Dellas, M. Bache, S. U. Pigorsch, H. Taubert, M. Kappler, D. Holzapfel, E. Zorn, H. J. Holzhausen, G. Haensgen, “Prognostic impact of HIF-1 α expression in patients with definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 184(3), 169–174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sakata, M. Someya, H. Nagakura, K. Nakata, A. Oouchi, M. Hareyama, M. Satoh, “A clinical study of hypoxia using endogenous hypoxic markers and polarographic oxygen electrodes,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 182(9), 511–517 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, R. Cheng, and A. G. Yodh, “Near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy for assessment of tissue blood flow,” in Handbook of Biomedical Optics, D. A. Boas, C. Pitris, and N. Ramanujam, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2011), pp. 195–216.

GLOBOCAN (IARC, 2008) Section of Cancer Information. http://globocan.iarc.fr/factsheets/populations/factsheet.asp?uno=900

W. H. Binnie and K. V. Rankin, Oral cancer: clinical and pathologic correlations (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1998).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) The photograph and schematic diagram of the fiber optic probe. (B) to (D) show representative measured normalized DRS spectra nR (──) and fitted results (-----) from a normal subject (B, C) and a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patient (D, E). The spectra are plotted for two separations (ρ) (B, D) and four separations (C, E). See text for more details on extracted physiological properties.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Bar plots of average total hemoglobin concentration (THC) in lesion (A) and adjacent (B) tissue sites for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), verrucous hyperplasia (VH), and hyperkeratosis/parakeratosis (HK) patients. Symbol * indicates the average THC value is significantly different from the value of normal subjects, with a p-value less than 0.05. The distribution of THC (C) and the THC ratio (rTHC) (D) for all patients. Each data point represents a single patient.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

H&E and immunohistochemical staining, including VEGF, vWF, CD31, and CD34 of verrucous hyperplasia tissue specimens. Endothelial cell-lined blood vessels were stained positive for VEGF, vWF, CD31, and CD34, especially in the granulomatous tissue in the stromal tissue layer. Symbols E and S represent epithelial and stromal layer, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

H&E and immunohistochemical staining, including VEGF, vWF, CD31, CD34, of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Endothelial cell-lined blood vessels (arrows) were stained positive for VEGF, vWF, CD31, and CD34. There was a decrease of vessel staining around the tumor nest as compared to the granulomatous tissue in the stromal tissue layer of verrucous hyperplasia shown in Fig. 3. Symbol T represents tumor nest.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Bar plots of average tissue blood oxygen saturation (StO2) in lesion (A) and adjacent (B) tissue sites for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), verrucous hyperplasia (VH), and hyperkeratosis/parakeratosis (HK) patients. Symbol * indicates the average StO2 value is significantly different from the value of normal subjects, with a p-value less than 0.05. The distribution of StO2 (C) and the StO2 ratio (rStO2) (D) for all patients. Each data point represents a single patient.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Strategies to differentiate between squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and verrucous hyperplasia (VH) patients by setting a threshold value of rStO2 equal to one, and then rTHC equal to two, respectively. The relative hypoxia and angiogenesis features of SCC lesion compared to its surrounding tissue help differentiate SCC from VH, with a sensitivity greater than 90%.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of patient number and the corresponding IHC and DRS measurement results. THC, StO2, rTHC and rStO2 results are expressed as mean ± standard error

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of physiological properties measured from the human oral cavity in vivo

Metrics