Abstract

In this paper we present a multimodal device for imaging fundus of human eye in vivo which combines functionality of autofluorescence by confocal SLO with Fourier domain OCT. Native fluorescence of human fundus was excited by modulated laser beam (λ = 473 nm, 20 MHz) and lock-in detection was applied resulting in improving sensitivity. The setup allows for acquisition of high resolution OCT and high contrast AF images using fluorescence excitation power of 50-65 μW without averaging consecutive images. Successful functioning of constructed device have been demonstrated for 8 healthy volunteers of different age ranging from 24 to 83 years old.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

D. Schweitzer, E. R. Gaillard, J. Dillon, R. F. Mullins, S. Russell, B. Hoffmann, S. Peters, M. Hammer, C. Biskup, “Time-Resolved Autofluorescence Imaging of Human Donor Retina Tissue from Donors with Significant Extramacular Drusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3376–3386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Slipchenko, R. A. Oglesbee, D. L. Zhang, W. Wu, J. X. Cheng, “Heterodyne detected nonlinear optical imaging in a lock-in free manner,” J Biophotonics 5(10), 801–807 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, M. Sylwestrzak, A. Kowalczyk, M. Wojtkowski, “Efficient reduction of speckle noise in Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1337–1359 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2008

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, X. S. Xie, “Label-Free Biomedical Imaging with High Sensitivity by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Strauss, “The retinal pigment epithelium in visual function,” Physiol. Rev. 85(3), 845–881 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Sparrow, M. Boulton, “RPE lipofuscin and its role in retinal pathobiology,” Exp. Eye Res. 80(5), 595–606 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rózanowska, T. Sarna, “Light-induced damage to the retina: Role of rhodopsin chromophore revisited,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(6), 1305–1330 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, R. Anders, T. Doebbecke, S. Schenke, E. R. Gaillard, E. R. Gaillard, “In vivo measurement of time-resolved autofluorescence at the human fundus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1214–1222 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

N. M. Haralampus-Grynaviski, L. E. Lamb, C. M. R. Clancy, C. Skumatz, J. M. Burke, T. Sarna, J. D. Simon, “Spectroscopic and morphological studies of human retinal lipofuscin granules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(6), 3179–3184 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bellmann, G. S. Rubin, S. A. Kabanarou, A. C. Bird, F. W. Fitzke, “Fundus autofluorescence imaging compared with different confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87(11), 1381–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, C. K. Dorey, “Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(8), 1855–1866 (2001).
[PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, A. Kolb, M. Hammer, “Autofluorescence lifetime measurements in images of the human ocular fundus,” Diagn. Opt. Spectros. Biomed. 2, 29–39 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Fundus autofluorescence in age-related macular disease imaged with a laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(2), 478–486 (1997).
[PubMed]

1995

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, “In Vivo Fluorescence of the Ocular Fundus Exhibits Retinal Pigment Epithelium Lipofuscin Characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 718–729 (1995).
[PubMed]

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Distribution of Fundus Autofluorescence with a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79(5), 407–412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1993

G. E. Eldred, M. R. Lasky, “Retinal Age Pigments Generated by Self-Assembling Lysosomotropic Detergents,” Nature 361(6414), 724–726 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

Anders, R.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, R. Anders, T. Doebbecke, S. Schenke, E. R. Gaillard, E. R. Gaillard, “In vivo measurement of time-resolved autofluorescence at the human fundus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1214–1222 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, B. E.

Arend, O.

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, “In Vivo Fluorescence of the Ocular Fundus Exhibits Retinal Pigment Epithelium Lipofuscin Characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 718–729 (1995).
[PubMed]

Becker, W.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellmann, C.

C. Bellmann, G. S. Rubin, S. A. Kabanarou, A. C. Bird, F. W. Fitzke, “Fundus autofluorescence imaging compared with different confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87(11), 1381–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergmann, A.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bindewald, A.

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birckner, E.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bird, A. C.

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bellmann, G. S. Rubin, S. A. Kabanarou, A. C. Bird, F. W. Fitzke, “Fundus autofluorescence imaging compared with different confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87(11), 1381–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Fundus autofluorescence in age-related macular disease imaged with a laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(2), 478–486 (1997).
[PubMed]

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Distribution of Fundus Autofluorescence with a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79(5), 407–412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biskup, C.

D. Schweitzer, E. R. Gaillard, J. Dillon, R. F. Mullins, S. Russell, B. Hoffmann, S. Peters, M. Hammer, C. Biskup, “Time-Resolved Autofluorescence Imaging of Human Donor Retina Tissue from Donors with Significant Extramacular Drusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3376–3386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boulton, M.

J. R. Sparrow, M. Boulton, “RPE lipofuscin and its role in retinal pathobiology,” Exp. Eye Res. 80(5), 595–606 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burke, J. M.

N. M. Haralampus-Grynaviski, L. E. Lamb, C. M. R. Clancy, C. Skumatz, J. M. Burke, T. Sarna, J. D. Simon, “Spectroscopic and morphological studies of human retinal lipofuscin granules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(6), 3179–3184 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

M. N. Slipchenko, R. A. Oglesbee, D. L. Zhang, W. Wu, J. X. Cheng, “Heterodyne detected nonlinear optical imaging in a lock-in free manner,” J Biophotonics 5(10), 801–807 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clancy, C. M. R.

N. M. Haralampus-Grynaviski, L. E. Lamb, C. M. R. Clancy, C. Skumatz, J. M. Burke, T. Sarna, J. D. Simon, “Spectroscopic and morphological studies of human retinal lipofuscin granules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(6), 3179–3184 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dandekar, S. S.

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, C. K. Dorey, “Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(8), 1855–1866 (2001).
[PubMed]

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, “In Vivo Fluorescence of the Ocular Fundus Exhibits Retinal Pigment Epithelium Lipofuscin Characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 718–729 (1995).
[PubMed]

F. C. Delori, “Spectrophotometer for Noninvasive Measurement of Intrinsic Fluorescence and Reflectance of the Ocular Fundus,” Appl. Opt. 33(31), 7439–7452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, F. C. Delori, “Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 26(8), 1492–1499 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dillon, J.

D. Schweitzer, E. R. Gaillard, J. Dillon, R. F. Mullins, S. Russell, B. Hoffmann, S. Peters, M. Hammer, C. Biskup, “Time-Resolved Autofluorescence Imaging of Human Donor Retina Tissue from Donors with Significant Extramacular Drusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3376–3386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doebbecke, T.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, R. Anders, T. Doebbecke, S. Schenke, E. R. Gaillard, E. R. Gaillard, “In vivo measurement of time-resolved autofluorescence at the human fundus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1214–1222 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolar-Szczasny, J.

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorey, C. K.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, C. K. Dorey, “Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(8), 1855–1866 (2001).
[PubMed]

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, “In Vivo Fluorescence of the Ocular Fundus Exhibits Retinal Pigment Epithelium Lipofuscin Characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 718–729 (1995).
[PubMed]

Dreyhaupt, J.

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Einbock, W.

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eldred, G. E.

G. E. Eldred, M. R. Lasky, “Retinal Age Pigments Generated by Self-Assembling Lysosomotropic Detergents,” Nature 361(6414), 724–726 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, C. L.

Fitzke, F. W.

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bellmann, G. S. Rubin, S. A. Kabanarou, A. C. Bird, F. W. Fitzke, “Fundus autofluorescence imaging compared with different confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87(11), 1381–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Fundus autofluorescence in age-related macular disease imaged with a laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(2), 478–486 (1997).
[PubMed]

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Distribution of Fundus Autofluorescence with a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79(5), 407–412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C. W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, X. S. Xie, “Label-Free Biomedical Imaging with High Sensitivity by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaillard, E. R.

D. Schweitzer, E. R. Gaillard, J. Dillon, R. F. Mullins, S. Russell, B. Hoffmann, S. Peters, M. Hammer, C. Biskup, “Time-Resolved Autofluorescence Imaging of Human Donor Retina Tissue from Donors with Significant Extramacular Drusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3376–3386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, R. Anders, T. Doebbecke, S. Schenke, E. R. Gaillard, E. R. Gaillard, “In vivo measurement of time-resolved autofluorescence at the human fundus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1214–1222 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, R. Anders, T. Doebbecke, S. Schenke, E. R. Gaillard, E. R. Gaillard, “In vivo measurement of time-resolved autofluorescence at the human fundus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1214–1222 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goger, D. G.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, C. K. Dorey, “Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(8), 1855–1866 (2001).
[PubMed]

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, “In Vivo Fluorescence of the Ocular Fundus Exhibits Retinal Pigment Epithelium Lipofuscin Characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 718–729 (1995).
[PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

Hammer, M.

D. Schweitzer, E. R. Gaillard, J. Dillon, R. F. Mullins, S. Russell, B. Hoffmann, S. Peters, M. Hammer, C. Biskup, “Time-Resolved Autofluorescence Imaging of Human Donor Retina Tissue from Donors with Significant Extramacular Drusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3376–3386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, R. Anders, T. Doebbecke, S. Schenke, E. R. Gaillard, E. R. Gaillard, “In vivo measurement of time-resolved autofluorescence at the human fundus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1214–1222 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, A. Kolb, M. Hammer, “Autofluorescence lifetime measurements in images of the human ocular fundus,” Diagn. Opt. Spectros. Biomed. 2, 29–39 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haralampus-Grynaviski, N. M.

N. M. Haralampus-Grynaviski, L. E. Lamb, C. M. R. Clancy, C. Skumatz, J. M. Burke, T. Sarna, J. D. Simon, “Spectroscopic and morphological studies of human retinal lipofuscin granules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(6), 3179–3184 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, X. S. Xie, “Label-Free Biomedical Imaging with High Sensitivity by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, B.

D. Schweitzer, E. R. Gaillard, J. Dillon, R. F. Mullins, S. Russell, B. Hoffmann, S. Peters, M. Hammer, C. Biskup, “Time-Resolved Autofluorescence Imaging of Human Donor Retina Tissue from Donors with Significant Extramacular Drusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3376–3386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtom, G. R.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, X. S. Xie, “Label-Free Biomedical Imaging with High Sensitivity by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holz, F. G.

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, G. W.

Izatt, J. A.

Jentsch, S.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jorzik, J. J.

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabanarou, S. A.

C. Bellmann, G. S. Rubin, S. A. Kabanarou, A. C. Bird, F. W. Fitzke, “Fundus autofluorescence imaging compared with different confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87(11), 1381–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, X. S. Xie, “Label-Free Biomedical Imaging with High Sensitivity by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keilhauer, C.

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolb, A.

D. Schweitzer, A. Kolb, M. Hammer, “Autofluorescence lifetime measurements in images of the human ocular fundus,” Diagn. Opt. Spectros. Biomed. 2, 29–39 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

Lamb, L. E.

N. M. Haralampus-Grynaviski, L. E. Lamb, C. M. R. Clancy, C. Skumatz, J. M. Burke, T. Sarna, J. D. Simon, “Spectroscopic and morphological studies of human retinal lipofuscin granules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(6), 3179–3184 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasky, M. R.

G. E. Eldred, M. R. Lasky, “Retinal Age Pigments Generated by Self-Assembling Lysosomotropic Detergents,” Nature 361(6414), 724–726 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lois, N.

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, X. S. Xie, “Label-Free Biomedical Imaging with High Sensitivity by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, C. B.

Min, W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, X. S. Xie, “Label-Free Biomedical Imaging with High Sensitivity by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlynski, J.

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullins, R. F.

D. Schweitzer, E. R. Gaillard, J. Dillon, R. F. Mullins, S. Russell, B. Hoffmann, S. Peters, M. Hammer, C. Biskup, “Time-Resolved Autofluorescence Imaging of Human Donor Retina Tissue from Donors with Significant Extramacular Drusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3376–3386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oglesbee, R. A.

M. N. Slipchenko, R. A. Oglesbee, D. L. Zhang, W. Wu, J. X. Cheng, “Heterodyne detected nonlinear optical imaging in a lock-in free manner,” J Biophotonics 5(10), 801–807 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pauleikhoff, D.

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, S.

D. Schweitzer, E. R. Gaillard, J. Dillon, R. F. Mullins, S. Russell, B. Hoffmann, S. Peters, M. Hammer, C. Biskup, “Time-Resolved Autofluorescence Imaging of Human Donor Retina Tissue from Donors with Significant Extramacular Drusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3376–3386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potma, E. O.

Rózanowska, M.

M. Rózanowska, T. Sarna, “Light-induced damage to the retina: Role of rhodopsin chromophore revisited,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(6), 1305–1330 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, G. S.

C. Bellmann, G. S. Rubin, S. A. Kabanarou, A. C. Bird, F. W. Fitzke, “Fundus autofluorescence imaging compared with different confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87(11), 1381–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, S.

D. Schweitzer, E. R. Gaillard, J. Dillon, R. F. Mullins, S. Russell, B. Hoffmann, S. Peters, M. Hammer, C. Biskup, “Time-Resolved Autofluorescence Imaging of Human Donor Retina Tissue from Donors with Significant Extramacular Drusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3376–3386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saar, B. G.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, X. S. Xie, “Label-Free Biomedical Imaging with High Sensitivity by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarna, T.

M. Rózanowska, T. Sarna, “Light-induced damage to the retina: Role of rhodopsin chromophore revisited,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(6), 1305–1330 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Haralampus-Grynaviski, L. E. Lamb, C. M. R. Clancy, C. Skumatz, J. M. Burke, T. Sarna, J. D. Simon, “Spectroscopic and morphological studies of human retinal lipofuscin granules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(6), 3179–3184 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schenke, S.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, R. Anders, T. Doebbecke, S. Schenke, E. R. Gaillard, E. R. Gaillard, “In vivo measurement of time-resolved autofluorescence at the human fundus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1214–1222 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweitzer, D.

D. Schweitzer, E. R. Gaillard, J. Dillon, R. F. Mullins, S. Russell, B. Hoffmann, S. Peters, M. Hammer, C. Biskup, “Time-Resolved Autofluorescence Imaging of Human Donor Retina Tissue from Donors with Significant Extramacular Drusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3376–3386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, R. Anders, T. Doebbecke, S. Schenke, E. R. Gaillard, E. R. Gaillard, “In vivo measurement of time-resolved autofluorescence at the human fundus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1214–1222 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, A. Kolb, M. Hammer, “Autofluorescence lifetime measurements in images of the human ocular fundus,” Diagn. Opt. Spectros. Biomed. 2, 29–39 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, F.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, R. Anders, T. Doebbecke, S. Schenke, E. R. Gaillard, E. R. Gaillard, “In vivo measurement of time-resolved autofluorescence at the human fundus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1214–1222 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, J. D.

N. M. Haralampus-Grynaviski, L. E. Lamb, C. M. R. Clancy, C. Skumatz, J. M. Burke, T. Sarna, J. D. Simon, “Spectroscopic and morphological studies of human retinal lipofuscin granules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(6), 3179–3184 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skumatz, C.

N. M. Haralampus-Grynaviski, L. E. Lamb, C. M. R. Clancy, C. Skumatz, J. M. Burke, T. Sarna, J. D. Simon, “Spectroscopic and morphological studies of human retinal lipofuscin granules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(6), 3179–3184 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slipchenko, M. N.

M. N. Slipchenko, R. A. Oglesbee, D. L. Zhang, W. Wu, J. X. Cheng, “Heterodyne detected nonlinear optical imaging in a lock-in free manner,” J Biophotonics 5(10), 801–807 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sparrow, J. R.

J. R. Sparrow, M. Boulton, “RPE lipofuscin and its role in retinal pathobiology,” Exp. Eye Res. 80(5), 595–606 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staurenghi, G.

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, “In Vivo Fluorescence of the Ocular Fundus Exhibits Retinal Pigment Epithelium Lipofuscin Characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 718–729 (1995).
[PubMed]

Strauss, O.

O. Strauss, “The retinal pigment epithelium in visual function,” Physiol. Rev. 85(3), 845–881 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sylwestrzak, M.

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, X. S. Xie, “Label-Free Biomedical Imaging with High Sensitivity by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Keuren, E.

von Rückmann, A.

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Fundus autofluorescence in age-related macular disease imaged with a laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(2), 478–486 (1997).
[PubMed]

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Distribution of Fundus Autofluorescence with a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79(5), 407–412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Weiter, J. J.

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, “In Vivo Fluorescence of the Ocular Fundus Exhibits Retinal Pigment Epithelium Lipofuscin Characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 718–729 (1995).
[PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wolf, S.

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, W.

M. N. Slipchenko, R. A. Oglesbee, D. L. Zhang, W. Wu, J. X. Cheng, “Heterodyne detected nonlinear optical imaging in a lock-in free manner,” J Biophotonics 5(10), 801–807 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, X. S. Xie, “Label-Free Biomedical Imaging with High Sensitivity by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, X. S. Xie, “Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 241–243 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D. L.

M. N. Slipchenko, R. A. Oglesbee, D. L. Zhang, W. Wu, J. X. Cheng, “Heterodyne detected nonlinear optical imaging in a lock-in free manner,” J Biophotonics 5(10), 801–807 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Br. J. Ophthalmol.

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Distribution of Fundus Autofluorescence with a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79(5), 407–412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bellmann, G. S. Rubin, S. A. Kabanarou, A. C. Bird, F. W. Fitzke, “Fundus autofluorescence imaging compared with different confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87(11), 1381–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diagn. Opt. Spectros. Biomed.

D. Schweitzer, A. Kolb, M. Hammer, “Autofluorescence lifetime measurements in images of the human ocular fundus,” Diagn. Opt. Spectros. Biomed. 2, 29–39 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Eye Res.

J. R. Sparrow, M. Boulton, “RPE lipofuscin and its role in retinal pathobiology,” Exp. Eye Res. 80(5), 595–606 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, “In Vivo Fluorescence of the Ocular Fundus Exhibits Retinal Pigment Epithelium Lipofuscin Characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 718–729 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, E. R. Gaillard, J. Dillon, R. F. Mullins, S. Russell, B. Hoffmann, S. Peters, M. Hammer, C. Biskup, “Time-Resolved Autofluorescence Imaging of Human Donor Retina Tissue from Donors with Significant Extramacular Drusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3376–3386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Fundus autofluorescence in age-related macular disease imaged with a laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(2), 478–486 (1997).
[PubMed]

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, C. K. Dorey, “Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(8), 1855–1866 (2001).
[PubMed]

A. Bindewald, A. C. Bird, S. S. Dandekar, J. Dolar-Szczasny, J. Dreyhaupt, F. W. Fitzke, W. Einbock, F. G. Holz, J. J. Jorzik, C. Keilhauer, N. Lois, J. Mlynski, D. Pauleikhoff, G. Staurenghi, S. Wolf, “Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3309–3314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Biophotonics

M. N. Slipchenko, R. A. Oglesbee, D. L. Zhang, W. Wu, J. X. Cheng, “Heterodyne detected nonlinear optical imaging in a lock-in free manner,” J Biophotonics 5(10), 801–807 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, R. Anders, T. Doebbecke, S. Schenke, E. R. Gaillard, E. R. Gaillard, “In vivo measurement of time-resolved autofluorescence at the human fundus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1214–1222 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microsc. Res. Tech.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

G. E. Eldred, M. R. Lasky, “Retinal Age Pigments Generated by Self-Assembling Lysosomotropic Detergents,” Nature 361(6414), 724–726 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photochem. Photobiol.

M. Rózanowska, T. Sarna, “Light-induced damage to the retina: Role of rhodopsin chromophore revisited,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(6), 1305–1330 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Rev.

O. Strauss, “The retinal pigment epithelium in visual function,” Physiol. Rev. 85(3), 845–881 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

N. M. Haralampus-Grynaviski, L. E. Lamb, C. M. R. Clancy, C. Skumatz, J. M. Burke, T. Sarna, J. D. Simon, “Spectroscopic and morphological studies of human retinal lipofuscin granules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(6), 3179–3184 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, X. S. Xie, “Label-Free Biomedical Imaging with High Sensitivity by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Dubra, D. H. Scoles, and Y. N. Sulai, “In vivo Imaging of the Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cell Mosaic using Short-wavelength Autofluorescence and achromatizing lenses., ” in ARVO Annual Meeting, (Seattle, WA, USA, 2013).

D. H. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, and A. Dubra, “In vivo Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium using dark-field SLO,” in ARVO-ISIE Imaging Conference, 2013)

M. Boulton, “Lipofuscin of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium,” in Fundus Autofluorescence, N. Lois and J. V. Forrester, eds. (Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009).

S. S. Seehafer and D. A. Pearce, “Lipofuscin: The “Wear and Tear” Pigment,” in Fundus Autofluorescence, N. Lois and J. V. Forrester, eds. (Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009).

N. Lois and J. V. Forrester, eds., Fundus Autofluorescence (Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009).

Blue Laser Autofluorescence: the new experience” (a webpage of Heidelberg Engineering, 2013), retrieved http://bluepeakexperience.com/us .

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg and F. Fitzke, “Imaging Techniques of Fundus Autofluorescence,” in Fundus autofluorescence, N. Lois and J. V. Forrester, eds. (Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009).

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