Abstract

Gold nanorods (NRs) are attractive for in vivo imaging due to their high optical cross-sections and tunable absorbance. However, the feasibility of using NRs for cell tracking has not been fully explored. Here, we synthesized dye doped silica-coated NRs as multimodal contrast agents for imaging of macrophages – immune cells which play an important role in cancer and cardiovascular diseases. We showed the importance of silica coating in imaging of NR-labeled cells. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging of NRs labeled macrophages showed high sensitivity. Therefore, these results provide foundation for applications of silica-coated NRs and PA imaging in tracking of immune cells.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

P. P. Joshi, S. J. Yoon, W. G. Hardin, S. Emelianov, K. V. Sokolov, “Conjugation of antibodies to gold nanorods through fc portion: Synthesis and molecular specific imaging,” Bioconjug. Chem. 24(6), 878–888 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

T. P. Gustafson, Q. Cao, S. T. Wang, M. Y. Berezin, “Design of irreversible optical nanothermometers for thermal ablations,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(7), 680–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Jokerst, M. Thangaraj, P. J. Kempen, R. Sinclair, S. S. Gambhir, “Photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in living mice via silica-coated gold nanorods,” ACS Nano 6(7), 5920–5930 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Choi, J. Yang, D. Bang, J. Park, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, S. Haam, “Targetable gold nanorods for epithelial cancer therapy guided by near-ir absorption imaging,” Small 8(5), 746–753 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Larson, P. P. Joshi, K. Sokolov, “Preventing protein adsorption and macrophage uptake of gold nanoparticles via a hydrophobic shield,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9182–9190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Nam, L. M. Ricles, L. J. Suggs, S. Y. Emelianov, “In vivo ultrasound and photoacoustic monitoring of mesenchymal stem cells labeled with gold nanotracers,” PLoS ONE 7(5), e37267 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (10)

S. Mallidi, G. P. Luke, S. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging in cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment guidance,” Trends Biotechnol. 29(5), 213–221 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Kennedy, A. S. Bear, J. K. Young, N. A. Lewinski, J. Kim, A. E. Foster, R. A. Drezek, “T cells enhance gold nanoparticle delivery to tumors in vivo,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Ricles, S. Y. Nam, K. Sokolov, S. Y. Emelianov, L. J. Suggs, “Function of mesenchymal stem cells following loading of gold nanotracers,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 6, 407–416 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Baek, A. R. Makkouk, T. Krasieva, C. H. Sun, S. J. Madsen, H. Hirschberg, “Photothermal treatment of glioma; an in vitro study of macrophage-mediated delivery of gold nanoshells,” J. Neurooncol. 104(2), 439–448 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xia, W. Li, C. M. Cobley, J. Chen, X. Xia, Q. Zhang, M. Yang, E. C. Cho, P. K. Brown, “Gold nanocages: From synthesis to theranostic applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 44(10), 914–924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ratto, P. Matteini, S. Centi, F. Rossi, R. Pini, “Gold nanorods as new nanochromophores for photothermal therapies,” J Biophotonics 4(1-2), 64–73 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Arnida, M. M. Janát-Amsbury, A. Ray, C. M. Peterson, H. Ghandehari, “Geometry and surface characteristics of gold nanoparticles influence their biodistribution and uptake by macrophages,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 77(3), 417–423 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ungureanu, R. Kroes, W. Petersen, T. A. M. Groothuis, F. Ungureanu, H. Janssen, F. W. B. van Leeuwen, R. P. H. Kooyman, S. Manohar, T. G. van Leeuwen, “Light interactions with gold nanorods and cells: Implications for photothermal nanotherapeutics,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1887–1894 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 348–354 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Bayer, Y.-S. Chen, S. Kim, S. Mallidi, K. Sokolov, S. Emelianov, “Multiplex photoacoustic molecular imaging using targeted silica-coated gold nanorods,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1828–1835 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

Y.-S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, K. Homan, P. Kruizinga, K. Sokolov, S. Emelianov, “Enhanced thermal stability of silica-coated gold nanorods for photoacoustic imaging and image-guided therapy,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8867–8878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Taruttis, E. Herzog, D. Razansky, V. Ntziachristos, “Real-time imaging of cardiovascular dynamics and circulating gold nanorods with multispectral optoacoustic tomography,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19592–19602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Chen, L. Jiang, Y. L. Wang, J. Qian, S. He, “Multilayered polyelectrolyte-coated gold nanorods as multifunctional optical contrast agents for cancer cell imaging,” J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B 11(6), 417–422 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cui, X. Yang, “In vivo imaging and treatment of solid tumor using integrated photoacoustic imaging and high intensity focused ultrasound system,” Med. Phys. 37(9), 4777–4781 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Jha, D. Golovko, S. Bains, D. Hostetter, R. Meier, M. F. Wendland, H. E. Daldrup-Link, “Monitoring of natural killer cell immunotherapy using noninvasive imaging modalities,” Cancer Res. 70(15), 6109–6113 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hong, Y. Yang, Y. Zhang, W. Cai, “Non-invasive cell tracking in cancer and cancer therapy,” Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 10(12), 1237–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

C. E. Green, T. Liu, V. Montel, G. Hsiao, R. D. Lester, S. Subramaniam, S. L. Gonias, R. L. Klemke, “Chemoattractant signaling between tumor cells and macrophages regulates cancer cell migration, metastasis and neovascularization,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6713 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Song, C. Kim, C. M. Cobley, Y. Xia, L. V. Wang, “Near-infrared gold nanocages as a new class of tracers for photoacoustic sentinel lymph node mapping on a rat model,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 183–188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Tam, P. P. Joshi, A. Karpiouk, K. Sokolov, S. Emelianov, “Multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging and plasmon resonance coupling of gold nanoparticles for selective detection of cancer,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2825–2831 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, K. Sokolov, “Molecular imaging and darkfield microspectroscopy of live cells using gold plasmonic nanoparticles,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1-2), 146–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Huang, S. Neretina, M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold nanorods: From synthesis and properties to biological and biomedical applications,” Adv. Mater. 21(48), 4880–4910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Tong, Q. Wei, A. Wei, J.-X. Cheng, “Gold nanorods as contrast agents for biological imaging: Optical properties, surface conjugation and photothermal effects,” Photochem. Photobiol. 85(1), 21–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Chanda, R. Shukla, K. V. Katti, R. Kannan, “Gastrin releasing protein receptor specific gold nanorods: breast and prostate tumor avid nanovectors for molecular imaging,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1798–1805 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Alkilany, P. K. Nagaria, C. R. Hexel, T. J. Shaw, C. J. Murphy, M. D. Wyatt, “Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of gold nanorods: Molecular origin of cytotoxicity and surface effects,” Small 5(6), 701–708 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

G. J. Nusz, S. M. Marinakos, A. C. Curry, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, A. Wax, A. Chilkoti, “Label-free plasmonic detection of biomolecular binding by a single gold nanorod,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 984–989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. E. Milner, S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Dickerson, E. C. Dreaden, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, H. Chu, S. Pushpanketh, J. F. McDonald, M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold nanorod assisted near-infrared plasmonic photothermal therapy (pptt) of squamous cell carcinoma in mice,” Cancer Lett. 269(1), 57–66 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. M. Stern, J. Stanfield, W. Kabbani, J.-T. Hsieh, J. A. Cadeddu, “Selective prostate cancer thermal ablation with laser activated gold nanoshells,” J. Urol. 179(2), 748–753 (2008).
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M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of epidermal growth factor receptor in live cells using immunotargeted gold nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
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2007 (12)

J. S. Aaron, N. Nitin, K. Travis, S. Kumar, T. Collier, S. Y. Park, M. José-Yacamán, L. Coghlan, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, K. V. Sokolov, “Plasmon resonance coupling of metal nanoparticles for molecular imaging of carcinogenesis in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034007 (2007).
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A. H. Kyle, L. A. Huxham, D. M. Yeoman, A. I. Minchinton, “Limited tissue penetration of taxanes: A mechanism for resistance in solid tumors,” Clin. Cancer Res. 13(9), 2804–2810 (2007).
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M. R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
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J. Chen, D. Wang, J. Xi, L. Au, A. Siekkinen, A. Warsen, Z.-Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Xia, X. Li, “Immuno gold nanocages with tailored optical properties for targeted photothermal destruction of cancer cells,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1318–1322 (2007).
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X. Yang, S. E. Skrabalak, Z. Y. Li, Y. Xia, L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of a rat cerebral cortex in vivo with au nanocages as an optical contrast agent,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3798–3802 (2007).
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N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
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A. K. Oyelere, P. C. Chen, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, M. A. El-Sayed, “Peptide-conjugated gold nanorods for nuclear targeting,” Bioconjug. Chem. 18(5), 1490–1497 (2007).
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H. Ding, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, H. E. Pudavar, W. C. Law, E. J. Bergey, P. N. Prasad, “Gold nanorods coated with multilayer polyelectrolyte as contrast agents for multimodal imaging,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(34), 12552–12557 (2007).
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A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O'Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064701 (2007).
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H. Shi, X. He, K. Wang, Y. Yuan, K. Deng, J. Chen, W. Tan, “Rhodamine b isothiocyanate doped silica-coated fluorescent nanoparticles (rbitc-dsfnps)-based bioprobes conjugated to annexin v for apoptosis detection and imaging,” Nanomedicine 3(4), 266–272 (2007).
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2006 (2)

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
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2005 (2)

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, J.-X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
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B. M. Reinhard, M. Siu, H. Agarwal, A. P. Alivisatos, J. Liphardt, “Calibration of dynamic molecular rulers based on plasmon coupling between gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2246–2252 (2005).
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2004 (1)

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, R. Drezek, “Nanoshell-enabled photonics-based imaging and therapy of cancer,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(1), 33–40 (2004).
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2003 (4)

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X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
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I. F. Tannock, C. M. Lee, J. K. Tunggal, D. S. Cowan, M. J. Egorin, “Limited penetration of anticancer drugs through tumor tissue: A potential cause of resistance of solid tumors to chemotherapy,” Clin. Cancer Res. 8(3), 878–884 (2002).
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2001 (1)

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, S. V. Solomatin, E. V. Savateeva, V. A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, R. D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).
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R. Goldman, “Induction of a high phagocytic capability in p388d1, a macrophage-like tumor cell line, by 1 α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin d3,” Cancer Res. 44(1), 11–19 (1984).
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S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, S. Emelianov, “Molecular specific optoacoustic imaging with plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6583–6588 (2007).
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K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
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J. S. Aaron, N. Nitin, K. Travis, S. Kumar, T. Collier, S. Y. Park, M. José-Yacamán, L. Coghlan, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, K. V. Sokolov, “Plasmon resonance coupling of metal nanoparticles for molecular imaging of carcinogenesis in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034007 (2007).
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A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O'Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064701 (2007).
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B. M. Reinhard, M. Siu, H. Agarwal, A. P. Alivisatos, J. Liphardt, “Calibration of dynamic molecular rulers based on plasmon coupling between gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2246–2252 (2005).
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Aglyamov, S.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. E. Milner, S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034024 (2008).
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Alivisatos, A. P.

B. M. Reinhard, M. Siu, H. Agarwal, A. P. Alivisatos, J. Liphardt, “Calibration of dynamic molecular rulers based on plasmon coupling between gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2246–2252 (2005).
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Alkilany, A. M.

A. M. Alkilany, P. K. Nagaria, C. R. Hexel, T. J. Shaw, C. J. Murphy, M. D. Wyatt, “Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of gold nanorods: Molecular origin of cytotoxicity and surface effects,” Small 5(6), 701–708 (2009).
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A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, S. V. Solomatin, E. V. Savateeva, V. A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, R. D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).
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M. M. Arnida, M. M. Janát-Amsbury, A. Ray, C. M. Peterson, H. Ghandehari, “Geometry and surface characteristics of gold nanoparticles influence their biodistribution and uptake by macrophages,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 77(3), 417–423 (2011).
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A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O'Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064701 (2007).
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Au, L.

J. Chen, D. Wang, J. Xi, L. Au, A. Siekkinen, A. Warsen, Z.-Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Xia, X. Li, “Immuno gold nanocages with tailored optical properties for targeted photothermal destruction of cancer cells,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1318–1322 (2007).
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Badve, S.

M. R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
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S. K. Baek, A. R. Makkouk, T. Krasieva, C. H. Sun, S. J. Madsen, H. Hirschberg, “Photothermal treatment of glioma; an in vitro study of macrophage-mediated delivery of gold nanoshells,” J. Neurooncol. 104(2), 439–448 (2011).
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P. Jha, D. Golovko, S. Bains, D. Hostetter, R. Meier, M. F. Wendland, H. E. Daldrup-Link, “Monitoring of natural killer cell immunotherapy using noninvasive imaging modalities,” Cancer Res. 70(15), 6109–6113 (2010).
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Bang, D.

J. Choi, J. Yang, D. Bang, J. Park, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, S. Haam, “Targetable gold nanorods for epithelial cancer therapy guided by near-ir absorption imaging,” Small 8(5), 746–753 (2012).
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L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
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M. R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
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Barton, J.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, R. Drezek, “Nanoshell-enabled photonics-based imaging and therapy of cancer,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(1), 33–40 (2004).
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M. R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
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Baxter, S. C.

C. J. Murphy, A. M. Gole, J. W. Stone, P. N. Sisco, A. M. Alkilany, E. C. Goldsmith, S. C. Baxter, “Gold nanoparticles in biology: Beyond toxicity to cellular imaging,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1721–1730 (2008).
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Bear, A. S.

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H. Ding, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, H. E. Pudavar, W. C. Law, E. J. Bergey, P. N. Prasad, “Gold nanorods coated with multilayer polyelectrolyte as contrast agents for multimodal imaging,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(34), 12552–12557 (2007).
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Y. Xia, W. Li, C. M. Cobley, J. Chen, X. Xia, Q. Zhang, M. Yang, E. C. Cho, P. K. Brown, “Gold nanocages: From synthesis to theranostic applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 44(10), 914–924 (2011).
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Cadeddu, J. A.

J. M. Stern, J. Stanfield, W. Kabbani, J.-T. Hsieh, J. A. Cadeddu, “Selective prostate cancer thermal ablation with laser activated gold nanoshells,” J. Urol. 179(2), 748–753 (2008).
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H. Hong, Y. Yang, Y. Zhang, W. Cai, “Non-invasive cell tracking in cancer and cancer therapy,” Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 10(12), 1237–1248 (2010).
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T. P. Gustafson, Q. Cao, S. T. Wang, M. Y. Berezin, “Design of irreversible optical nanothermometers for thermal ablations,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(7), 680–682 (2012).
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Centi, S.

F. Ratto, P. Matteini, S. Centi, F. Rossi, R. Pini, “Gold nanorods as new nanochromophores for photothermal therapies,” J Biophotonics 4(1-2), 64–73 (2011).
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N. Chanda, R. Shukla, K. V. Katti, R. Kannan, “Gastrin releasing protein receptor specific gold nanorods: breast and prostate tumor avid nanovectors for molecular imaging,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1798–1805 (2009).
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Chen, J.

Y. Xia, W. Li, C. M. Cobley, J. Chen, X. Xia, Q. Zhang, M. Yang, E. C. Cho, P. K. Brown, “Gold nanocages: From synthesis to theranostic applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 44(10), 914–924 (2011).
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H. Shi, X. He, K. Wang, Y. Yuan, K. Deng, J. Chen, W. Tan, “Rhodamine b isothiocyanate doped silica-coated fluorescent nanoparticles (rbitc-dsfnps)-based bioprobes conjugated to annexin v for apoptosis detection and imaging,” Nanomedicine 3(4), 266–272 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, D. Wang, J. Xi, L. Au, A. Siekkinen, A. Warsen, Z.-Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Xia, X. Li, “Immuno gold nanocages with tailored optical properties for targeted photothermal destruction of cancer cells,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1318–1322 (2007).
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Chen, L. L.

L. L. Chen, L. Jiang, Y. L. Wang, J. Qian, S. He, “Multilayered polyelectrolyte-coated gold nanorods as multifunctional optical contrast agents for cancer cell imaging,” J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B 11(6), 417–422 (2010).
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Chen, P. C.

A. K. Oyelere, P. C. Chen, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, M. A. El-Sayed, “Peptide-conjugated gold nanorods for nuclear targeting,” Bioconjug. Chem. 18(5), 1490–1497 (2007).
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Chen, Y. S.

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 348–354 (2011).
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Chen, Y.-S.

Cheng, J.-X.

L. Tong, Q. Wei, A. Wei, J.-X. Cheng, “Gold nanorods as contrast agents for biological imaging: Optical properties, surface conjugation and photothermal effects,” Photochem. Photobiol. 85(1), 21–32 (2009).
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H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, J.-X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
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Chilkoti, A.

G. J. Nusz, S. M. Marinakos, A. C. Curry, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, A. Wax, A. Chilkoti, “Label-free plasmonic detection of biomolecular binding by a single gold nanorod,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 984–989 (2008).
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Cho, E. C.

Y. Xia, W. Li, C. M. Cobley, J. Chen, X. Xia, Q. Zhang, M. Yang, E. C. Cho, P. K. Brown, “Gold nanocages: From synthesis to theranostic applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 44(10), 914–924 (2011).
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Choi, J.

J. Choi, J. Yang, D. Bang, J. Park, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, S. Haam, “Targetable gold nanorods for epithelial cancer therapy guided by near-ir absorption imaging,” Small 8(5), 746–753 (2012).
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Choi, M. R.

M. R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
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Chu, H.

E. B. Dickerson, E. C. Dreaden, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, H. Chu, S. Pushpanketh, J. F. McDonald, M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold nanorod assisted near-infrared plasmonic photothermal therapy (pptt) of squamous cell carcinoma in mice,” Cancer Lett. 269(1), 57–66 (2008).
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M. R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
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Cobley, C. M.

Y. Xia, W. Li, C. M. Cobley, J. Chen, X. Xia, Q. Zhang, M. Yang, E. C. Cho, P. K. Brown, “Gold nanocages: From synthesis to theranostic applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 44(10), 914–924 (2011).
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Coghlan, L.

J. S. Aaron, N. Nitin, K. Travis, S. Kumar, T. Collier, S. Y. Park, M. José-Yacamán, L. Coghlan, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, K. V. Sokolov, “Plasmon resonance coupling of metal nanoparticles for molecular imaging of carcinogenesis in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034007 (2007).
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Collier, T.

J. S. Aaron, N. Nitin, K. Travis, S. Kumar, T. Collier, S. Y. Park, M. José-Yacamán, L. Coghlan, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, K. V. Sokolov, “Plasmon resonance coupling of metal nanoparticles for molecular imaging of carcinogenesis in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034007 (2007).
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Cowan, D. S.

I. F. Tannock, C. M. Lee, J. K. Tunggal, D. S. Cowan, M. J. Egorin, “Limited penetration of anticancer drugs through tumor tissue: A potential cause of resistance of solid tumors to chemotherapy,” Clin. Cancer Res. 8(3), 878–884 (2002).
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Crow, M. J.

M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of epidermal growth factor receptor in live cells using immunotargeted gold nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
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Dahlin, A.

G. J. Nusz, S. M. Marinakos, A. C. Curry, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, A. Wax, A. Chilkoti, “Label-free plasmonic detection of biomolecular binding by a single gold nanorod,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 984–989 (2008).
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Daldrup-Link, H. E.

P. Jha, D. Golovko, S. Bains, D. Hostetter, R. Meier, M. F. Wendland, H. E. Daldrup-Link, “Monitoring of natural killer cell immunotherapy using noninvasive imaging modalities,” Cancer Res. 70(15), 6109–6113 (2010).
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Day, K. C.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O'Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Day, M.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O'Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064701 (2007).
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X. Yang, S. E. Skrabalak, Z. Y. Li, Y. Xia, L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of a rat cerebral cortex in vivo with au nanocages as an optical contrast agent,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3798–3802 (2007).
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Y. Xia, W. Li, C. M. Cobley, J. Chen, X. Xia, Q. Zhang, M. Yang, E. C. Cho, P. K. Brown, “Gold nanocages: From synthesis to theranostic applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 44(10), 914–924 (2011).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of approach used to synthesize fluorescent silica-coated nanorods.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission Electron Microscopy of Rhodamine silica-coated nanorods (RhSilicaNRs), scale bar: 100 nm; (b) fluorescence emission spectra of RhSilicaNRs (ex 540 nm) and plain silica-coated nanorods (SilicaNRs).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Viability of mouse monocyte macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) loaded with mPEG-NRs and RhSilicaNRs immediately after 18 hrs of incubation with nanoparticles and 24 and 48 hours of cell culture after the incubation. RhSilicaNRs show no toxicity during extended cell culture of labeled cells. Statistically different results based on student t-test (p-value < 0.01) are identified by (*).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Extinction spectra of: (a) RhSilicaNRs in suspension and P388D1 cells loaded with RhSilicaNRs; (b) SilicaNRs in suspension and RAW 264.7 cells loaded with SilicaNRs; (c) polymer-coated nanorods (PAH-PSS-NRs) in suspension and RAW 264.7 cells loaded with PAH-PSS-NRs. Longitudinal peak position and extinction spectra of silica-coated nanorods do not undergo significant changes after cell uptake in contrast to polymer-coated NRs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dark-field (a, b, c) and fluorescence (d, e, f) images of RAW 264.7 cells alone (a, d), RAW 264.7 cells loaded with RhSilicaNRs (b, e) and P388D1 cells loaded with RhSilicaNRs (c, f). Scale bar 50 µm. Images were acquired with Leica DM600 upright microscope using 20x 0.5 NA objective. Fluorescence imaging was performed using Cy3 filter cube, ex/em 555/590 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photoacoustic images of tissue-mimicking phantoms prepared with different concentrations of P388D1 cells loaded with Rh-Silica-NRs (a). Each image covers a 6.3 x 8.8 mm field of view. Dependence of PA signal amplitudes on concentration of nanorod-loaded cells at 780 nm excitation wavelength (b); the top horizontal axis shows a number of cells per imaging kernel size of the photoacoustic system of approximately 160 μm x 110 μm x 220 μm. The solid blue line represents the linear regression fit of the data and the black line shows the noise level in PA imaging (b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characterization of absorbance spectra of nanorods and cells-loaded with nanorods; FMHM – full width at half maximum.

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