Abstract

We developed a method to image myocardial fiber architecture in the mouse heart using a Jones matrix-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) system. The “cross-helical” laminar structure of myocardial fibers can be clearly visualized using this technology. The obtained myocardial fiber organization agrees well with existing knowledge acquired using conventional histology and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. D. Streeter, H. M. Spotnitz, D. P. Patel, J. Ross, E. H. Sonnenblick, “Fiber orientation in the canine left ventricle during diastole and systole,” Circ. Res. 24(3), 339–347 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. D. Streeter, D. L. Bassett, “An engineering analysis of myocardial fiber orientation in pig’s left ventricle in systole,” Anat. Rec. 155(4), 503–511 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. J. LeGrice, B. H. Smaill, L. Z. Chai, S. G. Edgar, J. B. Gavin, P. J. Hunter, “Laminar structure of the heart: ventricular myocyte arrangement and connective tissue architecture in the dog,” Am. J. Physiol.-Heart. C. 269(2 38–2), H571–H582 (1995).
  4. B. Taccardi, E. Macchi, R. L. Lux, P. R. Ershler, S. Spaggiari, S. Baruffi, Y. Vyhmeister, “Effect of myocardial fiber direction on epicardial potentials,” Circulation 90(6), 3076–3090 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. J. LeGrice, Y. Takayama, J. W. Covell, “Transverse shear along myocardial cleavage planes provides a mechanism for normal systolic wall thickening,” Circ. Res. 77(1), 182–193 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. J. Strijkers, A. Bouts, W. M. Blankesteijn, T. H. J. M. Peeters, A. Vilanova, M. C. van Prooijen, H. M. H. F. Sanders, E. Heijman, K. Nicolay, “Diffusion tensor imaging of left ventricular remodeling in response to myocardial infarction in the mouse,” NMR Biomed. 22(2), 182–190 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. E. Sosnovik, R. Wang, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, V. J. Wedeen, “Diffusion MR tractography of the heart,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11(1), 47–61 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. P. Fleming, C. M. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, A. M. Rollins, “Quantification of cardiac fiber orientation using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030505 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. M. Ambrosi, V. V. Fedorov, R. B. Schuessler, A. M. Rollins, I. R. Efimov, “Quantification of fiber orientation in the canine atrial pacemaker complex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 071309 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. J. Goergen, H. Radhakrishnan, S. Sakadžić, E. T. Mandeville, E. H. Lo, D. E. Sosnovik, V. J. Srinivasan, “Optical coherence tractography using intrinsic contrast,” Opt. Lett. 37(18), 3882–3884 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Fan, G. Yao, “Mapping local retardance in birefringent samples using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1415–1417 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Fan, G. Yao, “Mapping local optical axis in birefringent samples using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110501 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Fan, G. Yao, “Imaging myocardial fiber orientation using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(3), 460–465 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Fan, G. Yao, “Full-range spectral domain Jones matrix optical coherence tomography using a single spectral camera,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22360–22371 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Jiang, K. Pandya, O. Smithies, E. W. Hsu, “Three-dimensional diffusion tensor microscopy of fixed mouse hearts,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52(3), 453–460 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. J. Healy, Y. Jiang, E. W. Hsu, “Quantitative comparison of myocardial fiber structure between mice, rabbit, and sheep using diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 13(1), 74 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. Mekkaoui, S. Huang, H. H. Chen, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, W. J. Kostis, A. Thiagalingam, P. Maurovich-Horvat, J. N. Ruskin, U. Hoffmann, M. P. Jackowski, D. E. Sosnovik, “Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 14(1), 70 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. H. Clayton, S. Abdalhamid, R. Bloor, G. Kyprianou, K. Kotagiri, J. Lee, A. Mane, R. White, “Transmural changes in fibre helix angle in normal and failing canine ventricles,” Comput. Cardiol. 37, art. 5738123, 915–918 (2010).
  19. W. J. Karlon, J. W. Covell, A. D. McCulloch, J. J. Hunter, J. H. Omens, “Automated measurement of myofiber disarray in transgenic mice with ventricular expression of ras,” Anat. Rec. 252(4), 612–625 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (6)

C. Fan, G. Yao, “Mapping local retardance in birefringent samples using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1415–1417 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Goergen, H. Radhakrishnan, S. Sakadžić, E. T. Mandeville, E. H. Lo, D. E. Sosnovik, V. J. Srinivasan, “Optical coherence tractography using intrinsic contrast,” Opt. Lett. 37(18), 3882–3884 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fan, G. Yao, “Full-range spectral domain Jones matrix optical coherence tomography using a single spectral camera,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22360–22371 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mekkaoui, S. Huang, H. H. Chen, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, W. J. Kostis, A. Thiagalingam, P. Maurovich-Horvat, J. N. Ruskin, U. Hoffmann, M. P. Jackowski, D. E. Sosnovik, “Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 14(1), 70 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Ambrosi, V. V. Fedorov, R. B. Schuessler, A. M. Rollins, I. R. Efimov, “Quantification of fiber orientation in the canine atrial pacemaker complex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 071309 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fan, G. Yao, “Mapping local optical axis in birefringent samples using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

L. J. Healy, Y. Jiang, E. W. Hsu, “Quantitative comparison of myocardial fiber structure between mice, rabbit, and sheep using diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 13(1), 74 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

R. H. Clayton, S. Abdalhamid, R. Bloor, G. Kyprianou, K. Kotagiri, J. Lee, A. Mane, R. White, “Transmural changes in fibre helix angle in normal and failing canine ventricles,” Comput. Cardiol. 37, art. 5738123, 915–918 (2010).

2009 (2)

G. J. Strijkers, A. Bouts, W. M. Blankesteijn, T. H. J. M. Peeters, A. Vilanova, M. C. van Prooijen, H. M. H. F. Sanders, E. Heijman, K. Nicolay, “Diffusion tensor imaging of left ventricular remodeling in response to myocardial infarction in the mouse,” NMR Biomed. 22(2), 182–190 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Sosnovik, R. Wang, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, V. J. Wedeen, “Diffusion MR tractography of the heart,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11(1), 47–61 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. P. Fleming, C. M. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, A. M. Rollins, “Quantification of cardiac fiber orientation using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Y. Jiang, K. Pandya, O. Smithies, E. W. Hsu, “Three-dimensional diffusion tensor microscopy of fixed mouse hearts,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52(3), 453–460 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

W. J. Karlon, J. W. Covell, A. D. McCulloch, J. J. Hunter, J. H. Omens, “Automated measurement of myofiber disarray in transgenic mice with ventricular expression of ras,” Anat. Rec. 252(4), 612–625 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

I. J. LeGrice, Y. Takayama, J. W. Covell, “Transverse shear along myocardial cleavage planes provides a mechanism for normal systolic wall thickening,” Circ. Res. 77(1), 182–193 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. LeGrice, B. H. Smaill, L. Z. Chai, S. G. Edgar, J. B. Gavin, P. J. Hunter, “Laminar structure of the heart: ventricular myocyte arrangement and connective tissue architecture in the dog,” Am. J. Physiol.-Heart. C. 269(2 38–2), H571–H582 (1995).

1994 (1)

B. Taccardi, E. Macchi, R. L. Lux, P. R. Ershler, S. Spaggiari, S. Baruffi, Y. Vyhmeister, “Effect of myocardial fiber direction on epicardial potentials,” Circulation 90(6), 3076–3090 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

D. D. Streeter, H. M. Spotnitz, D. P. Patel, J. Ross, E. H. Sonnenblick, “Fiber orientation in the canine left ventricle during diastole and systole,” Circ. Res. 24(3), 339–347 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

D. D. Streeter, D. L. Bassett, “An engineering analysis of myocardial fiber orientation in pig’s left ventricle in systole,” Anat. Rec. 155(4), 503–511 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Abdalhamid, S.

R. H. Clayton, S. Abdalhamid, R. Bloor, G. Kyprianou, K. Kotagiri, J. Lee, A. Mane, R. White, “Transmural changes in fibre helix angle in normal and failing canine ventricles,” Comput. Cardiol. 37, art. 5738123, 915–918 (2010).

Ambrosi, C. M.

C. M. Ambrosi, V. V. Fedorov, R. B. Schuessler, A. M. Rollins, I. R. Efimov, “Quantification of fiber orientation in the canine atrial pacemaker complex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 071309 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baruffi, S.

B. Taccardi, E. Macchi, R. L. Lux, P. R. Ershler, S. Spaggiari, S. Baruffi, Y. Vyhmeister, “Effect of myocardial fiber direction on epicardial potentials,” Circulation 90(6), 3076–3090 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassett, D. L.

D. D. Streeter, D. L. Bassett, “An engineering analysis of myocardial fiber orientation in pig’s left ventricle in systole,” Anat. Rec. 155(4), 503–511 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Blankesteijn, W. M.

G. J. Strijkers, A. Bouts, W. M. Blankesteijn, T. H. J. M. Peeters, A. Vilanova, M. C. van Prooijen, H. M. H. F. Sanders, E. Heijman, K. Nicolay, “Diffusion tensor imaging of left ventricular remodeling in response to myocardial infarction in the mouse,” NMR Biomed. 22(2), 182–190 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloor, R.

R. H. Clayton, S. Abdalhamid, R. Bloor, G. Kyprianou, K. Kotagiri, J. Lee, A. Mane, R. White, “Transmural changes in fibre helix angle in normal and failing canine ventricles,” Comput. Cardiol. 37, art. 5738123, 915–918 (2010).

Bouts, A.

G. J. Strijkers, A. Bouts, W. M. Blankesteijn, T. H. J. M. Peeters, A. Vilanova, M. C. van Prooijen, H. M. H. F. Sanders, E. Heijman, K. Nicolay, “Diffusion tensor imaging of left ventricular remodeling in response to myocardial infarction in the mouse,” NMR Biomed. 22(2), 182–190 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chai, L. Z.

I. J. LeGrice, B. H. Smaill, L. Z. Chai, S. G. Edgar, J. B. Gavin, P. J. Hunter, “Laminar structure of the heart: ventricular myocyte arrangement and connective tissue architecture in the dog,” Am. J. Physiol.-Heart. C. 269(2 38–2), H571–H582 (1995).

Chen, H. H.

C. Mekkaoui, S. Huang, H. H. Chen, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, W. J. Kostis, A. Thiagalingam, P. Maurovich-Horvat, J. N. Ruskin, U. Hoffmann, M. P. Jackowski, D. E. Sosnovik, “Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 14(1), 70 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clayton, R. H.

R. H. Clayton, S. Abdalhamid, R. Bloor, G. Kyprianou, K. Kotagiri, J. Lee, A. Mane, R. White, “Transmural changes in fibre helix angle in normal and failing canine ventricles,” Comput. Cardiol. 37, art. 5738123, 915–918 (2010).

Covell, J. W.

W. J. Karlon, J. W. Covell, A. D. McCulloch, J. J. Hunter, J. H. Omens, “Automated measurement of myofiber disarray in transgenic mice with ventricular expression of ras,” Anat. Rec. 252(4), 612–625 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. LeGrice, Y. Takayama, J. W. Covell, “Transverse shear along myocardial cleavage planes provides a mechanism for normal systolic wall thickening,” Circ. Res. 77(1), 182–193 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, G.

C. Mekkaoui, S. Huang, H. H. Chen, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, W. J. Kostis, A. Thiagalingam, P. Maurovich-Horvat, J. N. Ruskin, U. Hoffmann, M. P. Jackowski, D. E. Sosnovik, “Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 14(1), 70 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Sosnovik, R. Wang, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, V. J. Wedeen, “Diffusion MR tractography of the heart,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11(1), 47–61 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edgar, S. G.

I. J. LeGrice, B. H. Smaill, L. Z. Chai, S. G. Edgar, J. B. Gavin, P. J. Hunter, “Laminar structure of the heart: ventricular myocyte arrangement and connective tissue architecture in the dog,” Am. J. Physiol.-Heart. C. 269(2 38–2), H571–H582 (1995).

Efimov, I. R.

C. M. Ambrosi, V. V. Fedorov, R. B. Schuessler, A. M. Rollins, I. R. Efimov, “Quantification of fiber orientation in the canine atrial pacemaker complex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 071309 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Fleming, C. M. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, A. M. Rollins, “Quantification of cardiac fiber orientation using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ershler, P. R.

B. Taccardi, E. Macchi, R. L. Lux, P. R. Ershler, S. Spaggiari, S. Baruffi, Y. Vyhmeister, “Effect of myocardial fiber direction on epicardial potentials,” Circulation 90(6), 3076–3090 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, C.

Fedorov, V. V.

C. M. Ambrosi, V. V. Fedorov, R. B. Schuessler, A. M. Rollins, I. R. Efimov, “Quantification of fiber orientation in the canine atrial pacemaker complex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 071309 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, C. P.

C. P. Fleming, C. M. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, A. M. Rollins, “Quantification of cardiac fiber orientation using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gavin, J. B.

I. J. LeGrice, B. H. Smaill, L. Z. Chai, S. G. Edgar, J. B. Gavin, P. J. Hunter, “Laminar structure of the heart: ventricular myocyte arrangement and connective tissue architecture in the dog,” Am. J. Physiol.-Heart. C. 269(2 38–2), H571–H582 (1995).

Goergen, C. J.

Healy, L. J.

L. J. Healy, Y. Jiang, E. W. Hsu, “Quantitative comparison of myocardial fiber structure between mice, rabbit, and sheep using diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 13(1), 74 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heijman, E.

G. J. Strijkers, A. Bouts, W. M. Blankesteijn, T. H. J. M. Peeters, A. Vilanova, M. C. van Prooijen, H. M. H. F. Sanders, E. Heijman, K. Nicolay, “Diffusion tensor imaging of left ventricular remodeling in response to myocardial infarction in the mouse,” NMR Biomed. 22(2), 182–190 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, U.

C. Mekkaoui, S. Huang, H. H. Chen, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, W. J. Kostis, A. Thiagalingam, P. Maurovich-Horvat, J. N. Ruskin, U. Hoffmann, M. P. Jackowski, D. E. Sosnovik, “Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 14(1), 70 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, E. W.

L. J. Healy, Y. Jiang, E. W. Hsu, “Quantitative comparison of myocardial fiber structure between mice, rabbit, and sheep using diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 13(1), 74 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jiang, K. Pandya, O. Smithies, E. W. Hsu, “Three-dimensional diffusion tensor microscopy of fixed mouse hearts,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52(3), 453–460 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

C. Mekkaoui, S. Huang, H. H. Chen, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, W. J. Kostis, A. Thiagalingam, P. Maurovich-Horvat, J. N. Ruskin, U. Hoffmann, M. P. Jackowski, D. E. Sosnovik, “Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 14(1), 70 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, J. J.

W. J. Karlon, J. W. Covell, A. D. McCulloch, J. J. Hunter, J. H. Omens, “Automated measurement of myofiber disarray in transgenic mice with ventricular expression of ras,” Anat. Rec. 252(4), 612–625 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, P. J.

I. J. LeGrice, B. H. Smaill, L. Z. Chai, S. G. Edgar, J. B. Gavin, P. J. Hunter, “Laminar structure of the heart: ventricular myocyte arrangement and connective tissue architecture in the dog,” Am. J. Physiol.-Heart. C. 269(2 38–2), H571–H582 (1995).

Jackowski, M. P.

C. Mekkaoui, S. Huang, H. H. Chen, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, W. J. Kostis, A. Thiagalingam, P. Maurovich-Horvat, J. N. Ruskin, U. Hoffmann, M. P. Jackowski, D. E. Sosnovik, “Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 14(1), 70 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Y.

L. J. Healy, Y. Jiang, E. W. Hsu, “Quantitative comparison of myocardial fiber structure between mice, rabbit, and sheep using diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 13(1), 74 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jiang, K. Pandya, O. Smithies, E. W. Hsu, “Three-dimensional diffusion tensor microscopy of fixed mouse hearts,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52(3), 453–460 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karlon, W. J.

W. J. Karlon, J. W. Covell, A. D. McCulloch, J. J. Hunter, J. H. Omens, “Automated measurement of myofiber disarray in transgenic mice with ventricular expression of ras,” Anat. Rec. 252(4), 612–625 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kostis, W. J.

C. Mekkaoui, S. Huang, H. H. Chen, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, W. J. Kostis, A. Thiagalingam, P. Maurovich-Horvat, J. N. Ruskin, U. Hoffmann, M. P. Jackowski, D. E. Sosnovik, “Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 14(1), 70 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotagiri, K.

R. H. Clayton, S. Abdalhamid, R. Bloor, G. Kyprianou, K. Kotagiri, J. Lee, A. Mane, R. White, “Transmural changes in fibre helix angle in normal and failing canine ventricles,” Comput. Cardiol. 37, art. 5738123, 915–918 (2010).

Kyprianou, G.

R. H. Clayton, S. Abdalhamid, R. Bloor, G. Kyprianou, K. Kotagiri, J. Lee, A. Mane, R. White, “Transmural changes in fibre helix angle in normal and failing canine ventricles,” Comput. Cardiol. 37, art. 5738123, 915–918 (2010).

Lee, J.

R. H. Clayton, S. Abdalhamid, R. Bloor, G. Kyprianou, K. Kotagiri, J. Lee, A. Mane, R. White, “Transmural changes in fibre helix angle in normal and failing canine ventricles,” Comput. Cardiol. 37, art. 5738123, 915–918 (2010).

LeGrice, I. J.

I. J. LeGrice, B. H. Smaill, L. Z. Chai, S. G. Edgar, J. B. Gavin, P. J. Hunter, “Laminar structure of the heart: ventricular myocyte arrangement and connective tissue architecture in the dog,” Am. J. Physiol.-Heart. C. 269(2 38–2), H571–H582 (1995).

I. J. LeGrice, Y. Takayama, J. W. Covell, “Transverse shear along myocardial cleavage planes provides a mechanism for normal systolic wall thickening,” Circ. Res. 77(1), 182–193 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, E. H.

Lux, R. L.

B. Taccardi, E. Macchi, R. L. Lux, P. R. Ershler, S. Spaggiari, S. Baruffi, Y. Vyhmeister, “Effect of myocardial fiber direction on epicardial potentials,” Circulation 90(6), 3076–3090 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macchi, E.

B. Taccardi, E. Macchi, R. L. Lux, P. R. Ershler, S. Spaggiari, S. Baruffi, Y. Vyhmeister, “Effect of myocardial fiber direction on epicardial potentials,” Circulation 90(6), 3076–3090 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandeville, E. T.

Mane, A.

R. H. Clayton, S. Abdalhamid, R. Bloor, G. Kyprianou, K. Kotagiri, J. Lee, A. Mane, R. White, “Transmural changes in fibre helix angle in normal and failing canine ventricles,” Comput. Cardiol. 37, art. 5738123, 915–918 (2010).

Maurovich-Horvat, P.

C. Mekkaoui, S. Huang, H. H. Chen, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, W. J. Kostis, A. Thiagalingam, P. Maurovich-Horvat, J. N. Ruskin, U. Hoffmann, M. P. Jackowski, D. E. Sosnovik, “Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 14(1), 70 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCulloch, A. D.

W. J. Karlon, J. W. Covell, A. D. McCulloch, J. J. Hunter, J. H. Omens, “Automated measurement of myofiber disarray in transgenic mice with ventricular expression of ras,” Anat. Rec. 252(4), 612–625 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mekkaoui, C.

C. Mekkaoui, S. Huang, H. H. Chen, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, W. J. Kostis, A. Thiagalingam, P. Maurovich-Horvat, J. N. Ruskin, U. Hoffmann, M. P. Jackowski, D. E. Sosnovik, “Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 14(1), 70 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolay, K.

G. J. Strijkers, A. Bouts, W. M. Blankesteijn, T. H. J. M. Peeters, A. Vilanova, M. C. van Prooijen, H. M. H. F. Sanders, E. Heijman, K. Nicolay, “Diffusion tensor imaging of left ventricular remodeling in response to myocardial infarction in the mouse,” NMR Biomed. 22(2), 182–190 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omens, J. H.

W. J. Karlon, J. W. Covell, A. D. McCulloch, J. J. Hunter, J. H. Omens, “Automated measurement of myofiber disarray in transgenic mice with ventricular expression of ras,” Anat. Rec. 252(4), 612–625 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pandya, K.

Y. Jiang, K. Pandya, O. Smithies, E. W. Hsu, “Three-dimensional diffusion tensor microscopy of fixed mouse hearts,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52(3), 453–460 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, D. P.

D. D. Streeter, H. M. Spotnitz, D. P. Patel, J. Ross, E. H. Sonnenblick, “Fiber orientation in the canine left ventricle during diastole and systole,” Circ. Res. 24(3), 339–347 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peeters, T. H. J. M.

G. J. Strijkers, A. Bouts, W. M. Blankesteijn, T. H. J. M. Peeters, A. Vilanova, M. C. van Prooijen, H. M. H. F. Sanders, E. Heijman, K. Nicolay, “Diffusion tensor imaging of left ventricular remodeling in response to myocardial infarction in the mouse,” NMR Biomed. 22(2), 182–190 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radhakrishnan, H.

Reese, T. G.

C. Mekkaoui, S. Huang, H. H. Chen, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, W. J. Kostis, A. Thiagalingam, P. Maurovich-Horvat, J. N. Ruskin, U. Hoffmann, M. P. Jackowski, D. E. Sosnovik, “Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 14(1), 70 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Sosnovik, R. Wang, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, V. J. Wedeen, “Diffusion MR tractography of the heart,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11(1), 47–61 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripplinger, C. M.

C. P. Fleming, C. M. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, A. M. Rollins, “Quantification of cardiac fiber orientation using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

C. M. Ambrosi, V. V. Fedorov, R. B. Schuessler, A. M. Rollins, I. R. Efimov, “Quantification of fiber orientation in the canine atrial pacemaker complex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 071309 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Fleming, C. M. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, A. M. Rollins, “Quantification of cardiac fiber orientation using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, J.

D. D. Streeter, H. M. Spotnitz, D. P. Patel, J. Ross, E. H. Sonnenblick, “Fiber orientation in the canine left ventricle during diastole and systole,” Circ. Res. 24(3), 339–347 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruskin, J. N.

C. Mekkaoui, S. Huang, H. H. Chen, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, W. J. Kostis, A. Thiagalingam, P. Maurovich-Horvat, J. N. Ruskin, U. Hoffmann, M. P. Jackowski, D. E. Sosnovik, “Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 14(1), 70 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakadžic, S.

Sanders, H. M. H. F.

G. J. Strijkers, A. Bouts, W. M. Blankesteijn, T. H. J. M. Peeters, A. Vilanova, M. C. van Prooijen, H. M. H. F. Sanders, E. Heijman, K. Nicolay, “Diffusion tensor imaging of left ventricular remodeling in response to myocardial infarction in the mouse,” NMR Biomed. 22(2), 182–190 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuessler, R. B.

C. M. Ambrosi, V. V. Fedorov, R. B. Schuessler, A. M. Rollins, I. R. Efimov, “Quantification of fiber orientation in the canine atrial pacemaker complex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 071309 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smaill, B. H.

I. J. LeGrice, B. H. Smaill, L. Z. Chai, S. G. Edgar, J. B. Gavin, P. J. Hunter, “Laminar structure of the heart: ventricular myocyte arrangement and connective tissue architecture in the dog,” Am. J. Physiol.-Heart. C. 269(2 38–2), H571–H582 (1995).

Smithies, O.

Y. Jiang, K. Pandya, O. Smithies, E. W. Hsu, “Three-dimensional diffusion tensor microscopy of fixed mouse hearts,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52(3), 453–460 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnenblick, E. H.

D. D. Streeter, H. M. Spotnitz, D. P. Patel, J. Ross, E. H. Sonnenblick, “Fiber orientation in the canine left ventricle during diastole and systole,” Circ. Res. 24(3), 339–347 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sosnovik, D. E.

C. J. Goergen, H. Radhakrishnan, S. Sakadžić, E. T. Mandeville, E. H. Lo, D. E. Sosnovik, V. J. Srinivasan, “Optical coherence tractography using intrinsic contrast,” Opt. Lett. 37(18), 3882–3884 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mekkaoui, S. Huang, H. H. Chen, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, W. J. Kostis, A. Thiagalingam, P. Maurovich-Horvat, J. N. Ruskin, U. Hoffmann, M. P. Jackowski, D. E. Sosnovik, “Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 14(1), 70 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Sosnovik, R. Wang, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, V. J. Wedeen, “Diffusion MR tractography of the heart,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11(1), 47–61 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spaggiari, S.

B. Taccardi, E. Macchi, R. L. Lux, P. R. Ershler, S. Spaggiari, S. Baruffi, Y. Vyhmeister, “Effect of myocardial fiber direction on epicardial potentials,” Circulation 90(6), 3076–3090 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spotnitz, H. M.

D. D. Streeter, H. M. Spotnitz, D. P. Patel, J. Ross, E. H. Sonnenblick, “Fiber orientation in the canine left ventricle during diastole and systole,” Circ. Res. 24(3), 339–347 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Streeter, D. D.

D. D. Streeter, H. M. Spotnitz, D. P. Patel, J. Ross, E. H. Sonnenblick, “Fiber orientation in the canine left ventricle during diastole and systole,” Circ. Res. 24(3), 339–347 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Streeter, D. L. Bassett, “An engineering analysis of myocardial fiber orientation in pig’s left ventricle in systole,” Anat. Rec. 155(4), 503–511 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Strijkers, G. J.

G. J. Strijkers, A. Bouts, W. M. Blankesteijn, T. H. J. M. Peeters, A. Vilanova, M. C. van Prooijen, H. M. H. F. Sanders, E. Heijman, K. Nicolay, “Diffusion tensor imaging of left ventricular remodeling in response to myocardial infarction in the mouse,” NMR Biomed. 22(2), 182–190 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taccardi, B.

B. Taccardi, E. Macchi, R. L. Lux, P. R. Ershler, S. Spaggiari, S. Baruffi, Y. Vyhmeister, “Effect of myocardial fiber direction on epicardial potentials,” Circulation 90(6), 3076–3090 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takayama, Y.

I. J. LeGrice, Y. Takayama, J. W. Covell, “Transverse shear along myocardial cleavage planes provides a mechanism for normal systolic wall thickening,” Circ. Res. 77(1), 182–193 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiagalingam, A.

C. Mekkaoui, S. Huang, H. H. Chen, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, W. J. Kostis, A. Thiagalingam, P. Maurovich-Horvat, J. N. Ruskin, U. Hoffmann, M. P. Jackowski, D. E. Sosnovik, “Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 14(1), 70 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Prooijen, M. C.

G. J. Strijkers, A. Bouts, W. M. Blankesteijn, T. H. J. M. Peeters, A. Vilanova, M. C. van Prooijen, H. M. H. F. Sanders, E. Heijman, K. Nicolay, “Diffusion tensor imaging of left ventricular remodeling in response to myocardial infarction in the mouse,” NMR Biomed. 22(2), 182–190 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vilanova, A.

G. J. Strijkers, A. Bouts, W. M. Blankesteijn, T. H. J. M. Peeters, A. Vilanova, M. C. van Prooijen, H. M. H. F. Sanders, E. Heijman, K. Nicolay, “Diffusion tensor imaging of left ventricular remodeling in response to myocardial infarction in the mouse,” NMR Biomed. 22(2), 182–190 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vyhmeister, Y.

B. Taccardi, E. Macchi, R. L. Lux, P. R. Ershler, S. Spaggiari, S. Baruffi, Y. Vyhmeister, “Effect of myocardial fiber direction on epicardial potentials,” Circulation 90(6), 3076–3090 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

D. E. Sosnovik, R. Wang, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, V. J. Wedeen, “Diffusion MR tractography of the heart,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11(1), 47–61 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, B.

C. P. Fleming, C. M. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, A. M. Rollins, “Quantification of cardiac fiber orientation using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wedeen, V. J.

D. E. Sosnovik, R. Wang, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, V. J. Wedeen, “Diffusion MR tractography of the heart,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11(1), 47–61 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, R.

R. H. Clayton, S. Abdalhamid, R. Bloor, G. Kyprianou, K. Kotagiri, J. Lee, A. Mane, R. White, “Transmural changes in fibre helix angle in normal and failing canine ventricles,” Comput. Cardiol. 37, art. 5738123, 915–918 (2010).

Yao, G.

Am. J. Physiol.-Heart. C. (1)

I. J. LeGrice, B. H. Smaill, L. Z. Chai, S. G. Edgar, J. B. Gavin, P. J. Hunter, “Laminar structure of the heart: ventricular myocyte arrangement and connective tissue architecture in the dog,” Am. J. Physiol.-Heart. C. 269(2 38–2), H571–H582 (1995).

Anat. Rec. (2)

D. D. Streeter, D. L. Bassett, “An engineering analysis of myocardial fiber orientation in pig’s left ventricle in systole,” Anat. Rec. 155(4), 503–511 (1966).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Karlon, J. W. Covell, A. D. McCulloch, J. J. Hunter, J. H. Omens, “Automated measurement of myofiber disarray in transgenic mice with ventricular expression of ras,” Anat. Rec. 252(4), 612–625 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Circ. Res. (2)

I. J. LeGrice, Y. Takayama, J. W. Covell, “Transverse shear along myocardial cleavage planes provides a mechanism for normal systolic wall thickening,” Circ. Res. 77(1), 182–193 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Streeter, H. M. Spotnitz, D. P. Patel, J. Ross, E. H. Sonnenblick, “Fiber orientation in the canine left ventricle during diastole and systole,” Circ. Res. 24(3), 339–347 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circulation (1)

B. Taccardi, E. Macchi, R. L. Lux, P. R. Ershler, S. Spaggiari, S. Baruffi, Y. Vyhmeister, “Effect of myocardial fiber direction on epicardial potentials,” Circulation 90(6), 3076–3090 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Cardiol. (1)

R. H. Clayton, S. Abdalhamid, R. Bloor, G. Kyprianou, K. Kotagiri, J. Lee, A. Mane, R. White, “Transmural changes in fibre helix angle in normal and failing canine ventricles,” Comput. Cardiol. 37, art. 5738123, 915–918 (2010).

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

C. P. Fleming, C. M. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, A. M. Rollins, “Quantification of cardiac fiber orientation using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Ambrosi, V. V. Fedorov, R. B. Schuessler, A. M. Rollins, I. R. Efimov, “Quantification of fiber orientation in the canine atrial pacemaker complex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 071309 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fan, G. Yao, “Mapping local optical axis in birefringent samples using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. (3)

D. E. Sosnovik, R. Wang, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, V. J. Wedeen, “Diffusion MR tractography of the heart,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11(1), 47–61 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Healy, Y. Jiang, E. W. Hsu, “Quantitative comparison of myocardial fiber structure between mice, rabbit, and sheep using diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 13(1), 74 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mekkaoui, S. Huang, H. H. Chen, G. Dai, T. G. Reese, W. J. Kostis, A. Thiagalingam, P. Maurovich-Horvat, J. N. Ruskin, U. Hoffmann, M. P. Jackowski, D. E. Sosnovik, “Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation,” J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 14(1), 70 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magn. Reson. Med. (1)

Y. Jiang, K. Pandya, O. Smithies, E. W. Hsu, “Three-dimensional diffusion tensor microscopy of fixed mouse hearts,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52(3), 453–460 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

NMR Biomed. (1)

G. J. Strijkers, A. Bouts, W. M. Blankesteijn, T. H. J. M. Peeters, A. Vilanova, M. C. van Prooijen, H. M. H. F. Sanders, E. Heijman, K. Nicolay, “Diffusion tensor imaging of left ventricular remodeling in response to myocardial infarction in the mouse,” NMR Biomed. 22(2), 182–190 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

An illustration of the imaging geometry. The incident light (A-scan) was aligned with the z-axis; the B-scan was along the axis of rotation (y-axis); and the heart sample was rotated for C-scan.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

An illustration of the procedure for reconstructing the tractography in a mouse heart. (a) Extracting an en face image at a given transmural depth. The planar presentation of the extracted en face images of (b) intensity, (c) local retardance, and (d) local fiber orientation; (e) the streamline presentation of fiber tract overlaying on the intensity image; (f) the reconstructed 3D tractographic representation of the fiber tracts in (e).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The 3D structure image of the mouse heart; (b) the corresponding 3D tractographic visualization. The B-scan images of structure, local retardance and optical axis acquired along the dashed line in (a) are shown in (c)-(e). Also shown are the en face images of the (f) structure, (g) local retardance, (h) local optical axis, and (i) cardiac fiber tract of a small region of interest (ROI) extracted at transmural depths from 0.11 mm to 0.91 mm. As shown in (a), the ROI was extracted from the lateral side of the left ventricle wall and had a size of 1.57 mm × 20° rotation (B × C-scan). The size bars in (c) and (f) are 1 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Four ROIs were extracted from different locations of the mouse heart. ROI-A, ROI-B, and ROI-C were located around the mid-heart of the left ventricle; while ROI-D was close to the apex of the heart. These ROIs had a size of 0.95 mm × 12° (B-scan by C-scan). (b) 3D color-coded tractography of the four ROIs. (c) The average fiber orientation as a function of transmural distance from the heart surface. Error bars shown represent standard deviations.

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