Abstract

Effective treatment of patients with malignant brain tumors requires surgical resection of a high percentage of the bulk tumor. Surgeons require a method that enables delineation of tumor margins, which are not visually distinct by eye. In this study, the feasibility of using gold nanorods (GNRs) for this purpose is evaluated. Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (anti-EGFR) conjugated GNRs are used to label human xenograft glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors embedded within slices of brain tissues from healthy nude mice. The anti-EGFR GNRs exhibit enhanced absorption at red to near-infrared wavelengths, often referred to as the tissue optical window, where absorption from blood is minimal. To enable definition of molecular specificity and spatial accuracy of the label, the GNR absorption is compared with GFP fluorescence which is expressed by the GBM cells used here. This work demonstrates a simple but highly translational technique to classify normal and malignant brain tissue regions in open surgery applications using immunolabeled GNR contrast agents.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

N. R. Smoll, K. Schaller, O. P. Gautschi, “Long-term survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM),” J. Clin. Neurosci. 20(5), 670–675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

K. Seekell, H. Price, S. Marinakos, A. Wax, “Optimization of immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles for cell surface receptor analysis,” Methods 56(2), 310–316 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Puvanakrishnan, P. Diagaradjane, S. M. S. Kazmi, A. K. Dunn, S. Krishnan, J. W. Tunnell, “Narrow band imaging of squamous cell carcinoma tumors using topically delivered anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanorods,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(4), 310–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Larson, P. P. Joshi, K. Sokolov, “Preventing protein adsorption and macrophage uptake of gold nanoparticles via a hydrophobic shield,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9182–9190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

K. Seekell, M. J. Crow, S. Marinakos, J. Ostrander, A. Chilkoti, A. Wax, “Hyperspectral molecular imaging of multiple receptors using immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Crow, K. Seekell, J. H. Ostrander, A. Wax, “Monitoring of receptor dimerization using plasmonic coupling of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8532–8540 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Schmalz, M. Shen, J. Park, “Treatment resistance mechanisms of malignant glioma tumor stem cells,” Cancers 3(4), 621–635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Crow, K. Seekell, A. Wax, “Polarization mapping of nanoparticle plasmonic coupling,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 757–759 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. M. Peereboom, D. R. Shepard, M. S. Ahluwalia, C. J. Brewer, N. Agarwal, G. H. J. Stevens, J. H. Suh, S. A. Toms, M. A. Vogelbaum, R. J. Weil, P. Elson, G. H. Barnett, “Phase II trial of erlotinib with temozolomide and radiation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Neurooncol. 98(1), 93–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

M. J. Crow, G. Grant, J. M. Provenzale, A. Wax, “Molecular imaging and quantitative measurement of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in live cancer cells using immunolabeled gold nanoparticles,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 192(4), 1021–1028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Gan, A. H. Kaye, R. B. Luwor, “The EGFRvIII variant in glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Clin. Neurosci. 16(6), 748–754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Bing, G. P. Howles, Y. Qi, M. L. Palmeri, K. R. Nightingale, “Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption using a diagnostic ultrasound scanner and definity in mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35(8), 1298–1308 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, K. Sokolov, “Molecular imaging and darkfield microspectroscopy of live cells using gold plasmonic nanoparticles,” Laser Photon. Rev 3(1-2), 146–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

S. Kumar, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, “Directional conjugation of antibodies to nanoparticles for synthesis of multiplexed optical contrast agents with both delivery and targeting moieties,” Nat. Protoc. 3(2), 314–320 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Murphy, A. M. Gole, J. W. Stone, P. N. Sisco, A. M. Alkilany, E. C. Goldsmith, S. C. Baxter, “Gold nanoparticles in biology: beyond toxicity to cellular imaging,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1721–1730 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. De Jong, W. I. Hagens, P. Krystek, M. C. Burger, A. J. A. M. Sips, R. E. Geertsma, “Particle size-dependent organ distribution of gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1912–1919 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Sperling, P. Rivera Gil, F. Zhang, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, “Biological applications of gold nanoparticles,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(9), 1896–1908 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cells assemble and align gold nanorods conjugated to antibodies to produce highly enhanced, sharp, and polarized surface Raman spectra: a potential cancer diagnostic marker,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1591–1597 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

A. J. Viera, J. M. Garrett, “Understanding interobserver agreement: the kappa statistic,” Fam. Med. 37(5), 360–363 (2005).
[PubMed]

K. Hynynen, N. McDannold, N. A. Sheikov, F. A. Jolesz, N. Vykhodtseva, “Local and reversible blood-brain barrier disruption by noninvasive focused ultrasound at frequencies suitable for trans-skull sonications,” Neuroimage 24(1), 12–20 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small 1(3), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Curry, G. Nusz, A. Chilkoti, A. Wax, “Substrate effect on refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance for individual silver nanoparticles observed using darkfield microspectroscopy,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2668–2677 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. D. Marmor, K. B. Skaria, Y. Yarden, “Signal transduction and oncogenesis by ErbB/HER receptors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 58(3), 903–913 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

N. J. Ullrich, S. L. Pomeroy, “Pediatric brain tumors,” Neurol. Clin. 21(4), 897–913 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Nikoobakht, M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and growth mechanism of gold nanorods (NRs) using seed-mediated growth method,” Chem. Mater. 15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. I. Nicholson, J. M. Gee, M. E. Harper, “EGFR and cancer prognosis,” Eur. J. Cancer 37(Suppl 4), S9–S15 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

G. E. Keles, B. Anderson, M. S. Berger, “The effect of extent of resection on time to tumor progression and survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme of the cerebral hemisphere,” Surg. Neurol. 52(4), 371–379 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aaron, J.

S. Kumar, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, “Directional conjugation of antibodies to nanoparticles for synthesis of multiplexed optical contrast agents with both delivery and targeting moieties,” Nat. Protoc. 3(2), 314–320 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Agarwal, N.

D. M. Peereboom, D. R. Shepard, M. S. Ahluwalia, C. J. Brewer, N. Agarwal, G. H. J. Stevens, J. H. Suh, S. A. Toms, M. A. Vogelbaum, R. J. Weil, P. Elson, G. H. Barnett, “Phase II trial of erlotinib with temozolomide and radiation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Neurooncol. 98(1), 93–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahluwalia, M. S.

D. M. Peereboom, D. R. Shepard, M. S. Ahluwalia, C. J. Brewer, N. Agarwal, G. H. J. Stevens, J. H. Suh, S. A. Toms, M. A. Vogelbaum, R. J. Weil, P. Elson, G. H. Barnett, “Phase II trial of erlotinib with temozolomide and radiation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Neurooncol. 98(1), 93–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akin, D.

M.-R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alkilany, A. M.

C. J. Murphy, A. M. Gole, J. W. Stone, P. N. Sisco, A. M. Alkilany, E. C. Goldsmith, S. C. Baxter, “Gold nanoparticles in biology: beyond toxicity to cellular imaging,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1721–1730 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, B.

G. E. Keles, B. Anderson, M. S. Berger, “The effect of extent of resection on time to tumor progression and survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme of the cerebral hemisphere,” Surg. Neurol. 52(4), 371–379 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badve, S.

M.-R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

M.-R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, G. H.

D. M. Peereboom, D. R. Shepard, M. S. Ahluwalia, C. J. Brewer, N. Agarwal, G. H. J. Stevens, J. H. Suh, S. A. Toms, M. A. Vogelbaum, R. J. Weil, P. Elson, G. H. Barnett, “Phase II trial of erlotinib with temozolomide and radiation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Neurooncol. 98(1), 93–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashir, R.

M.-R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baxter, S. C.

C. J. Murphy, A. M. Gole, J. W. Stone, P. N. Sisco, A. M. Alkilany, E. C. Goldsmith, S. C. Baxter, “Gold nanoparticles in biology: beyond toxicity to cellular imaging,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1721–1730 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, M. S.

G. E. Keles, B. Anderson, M. S. Berger, “The effect of extent of resection on time to tumor progression and survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme of the cerebral hemisphere,” Surg. Neurol. 52(4), 371–379 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bing, K. F.

K. F. Bing, G. P. Howles, Y. Qi, M. L. Palmeri, K. R. Nightingale, “Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption using a diagnostic ultrasound scanner and definity in mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35(8), 1298–1308 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewer, C. J.

D. M. Peereboom, D. R. Shepard, M. S. Ahluwalia, C. J. Brewer, N. Agarwal, G. H. J. Stevens, J. H. Suh, S. A. Toms, M. A. Vogelbaum, R. J. Weil, P. Elson, G. H. Barnett, “Phase II trial of erlotinib with temozolomide and radiation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Neurooncol. 98(1), 93–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burger, M. C.

W. H. De Jong, W. I. Hagens, P. Krystek, M. C. Burger, A. J. A. M. Sips, R. E. Geertsma, “Particle size-dependent organ distribution of gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1912–1919 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burger, P. C.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavenee, W. K.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chilkoti, A.

K. Seekell, M. J. Crow, S. Marinakos, J. Ostrander, A. Chilkoti, A. Wax, “Hyperspectral molecular imaging of multiple receptors using immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Curry, G. Nusz, A. Chilkoti, A. Wax, “Substrate effect on refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance for individual silver nanoparticles observed using darkfield microspectroscopy,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2668–2677 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, M.-R.

M.-R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clare, S. E.

M.-R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connor, E. E.

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small 1(3), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crow, M. J.

K. Seekell, M. J. Crow, S. Marinakos, J. Ostrander, A. Chilkoti, A. Wax, “Hyperspectral molecular imaging of multiple receptors using immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Crow, K. Seekell, J. H. Ostrander, A. Wax, “Monitoring of receptor dimerization using plasmonic coupling of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8532–8540 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Crow, K. Seekell, A. Wax, “Polarization mapping of nanoparticle plasmonic coupling,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 757–759 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Crow, G. Grant, J. M. Provenzale, A. Wax, “Molecular imaging and quantitative measurement of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in live cancer cells using immunolabeled gold nanoparticles,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 192(4), 1021–1028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curry, A.

De Jong, W. H.

W. H. De Jong, W. I. Hagens, P. Krystek, M. C. Burger, A. J. A. M. Sips, R. E. Geertsma, “Particle size-dependent organ distribution of gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1912–1919 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diagaradjane, P.

P. Puvanakrishnan, P. Diagaradjane, S. M. S. Kazmi, A. K. Dunn, S. Krishnan, J. W. Tunnell, “Narrow band imaging of squamous cell carcinoma tumors using topically delivered anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanorods,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(4), 310–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

P. Puvanakrishnan, P. Diagaradjane, S. M. S. Kazmi, A. K. Dunn, S. Krishnan, J. W. Tunnell, “Narrow band imaging of squamous cell carcinoma tumors using topically delivered anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanorods,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(4), 310–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, I. H.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cells assemble and align gold nanorods conjugated to antibodies to produce highly enhanced, sharp, and polarized surface Raman spectra: a potential cancer diagnostic marker,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1591–1597 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cells assemble and align gold nanorods conjugated to antibodies to produce highly enhanced, sharp, and polarized surface Raman spectra: a potential cancer diagnostic marker,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1591–1597 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Nikoobakht, M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and growth mechanism of gold nanorods (NRs) using seed-mediated growth method,” Chem. Mater. 15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elson, P.

D. M. Peereboom, D. R. Shepard, M. S. Ahluwalia, C. J. Brewer, N. Agarwal, G. H. J. Stevens, J. H. Suh, S. A. Toms, M. A. Vogelbaum, R. J. Weil, P. Elson, G. H. Barnett, “Phase II trial of erlotinib with temozolomide and radiation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Neurooncol. 98(1), 93–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Gan, H. K.

H. K. Gan, A. H. Kaye, R. B. Luwor, “The EGFRvIII variant in glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Clin. Neurosci. 16(6), 748–754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garrett, J. M.

A. J. Viera, J. M. Garrett, “Understanding interobserver agreement: the kappa statistic,” Fam. Med. 37(5), 360–363 (2005).
[PubMed]

Gautschi, O. P.

N. R. Smoll, K. Schaller, O. P. Gautschi, “Long-term survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM),” J. Clin. Neurosci. 20(5), 670–675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gee, J. M.

R. I. Nicholson, J. M. Gee, M. E. Harper, “EGFR and cancer prognosis,” Eur. J. Cancer 37(Suppl 4), S9–S15 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geertsma, R. E.

W. H. De Jong, W. I. Hagens, P. Krystek, M. C. Burger, A. J. A. M. Sips, R. E. Geertsma, “Particle size-dependent organ distribution of gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1912–1919 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldsmith, E. C.

C. J. Murphy, A. M. Gole, J. W. Stone, P. N. Sisco, A. M. Alkilany, E. C. Goldsmith, S. C. Baxter, “Gold nanoparticles in biology: beyond toxicity to cellular imaging,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1721–1730 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gole, A.

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small 1(3), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gole, A. M.

C. J. Murphy, A. M. Gole, J. W. Stone, P. N. Sisco, A. M. Alkilany, E. C. Goldsmith, S. C. Baxter, “Gold nanoparticles in biology: beyond toxicity to cellular imaging,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1721–1730 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gourisankar, S.

A. K. Murthy, R. J. Stover, W. G. Hardin, R. Schramm, G. D. Nie, S. Gourisankar, T. M. Truskett, K. V. Sokolov, K. P. Johnston, “Charged gold nanoparticles with essentially zero serum protein adsorption in undiluted fetal bovine serum,” JACS135(21), 7799–7802 (2013).

Grant, G.

M. J. Crow, G. Grant, J. M. Provenzale, A. Wax, “Molecular imaging and quantitative measurement of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in live cancer cells using immunolabeled gold nanoparticles,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 192(4), 1021–1028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagens, W. I.

W. H. De Jong, W. I. Hagens, P. Krystek, M. C. Burger, A. J. A. M. Sips, R. E. Geertsma, “Particle size-dependent organ distribution of gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1912–1919 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

M.-R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardin, W. G.

A. K. Murthy, R. J. Stover, W. G. Hardin, R. Schramm, G. D. Nie, S. Gourisankar, T. M. Truskett, K. V. Sokolov, K. P. Johnston, “Charged gold nanoparticles with essentially zero serum protein adsorption in undiluted fetal bovine serum,” JACS135(21), 7799–7802 (2013).

Harper, M. E.

R. I. Nicholson, J. M. Gee, M. E. Harper, “EGFR and cancer prognosis,” Eur. J. Cancer 37(Suppl 4), S9–S15 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howles, G. P.

K. F. Bing, G. P. Howles, Y. Qi, M. L. Palmeri, K. R. Nightingale, “Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption using a diagnostic ultrasound scanner and definity in mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35(8), 1298–1308 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cells assemble and align gold nanorods conjugated to antibodies to produce highly enhanced, sharp, and polarized surface Raman spectra: a potential cancer diagnostic marker,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1591–1597 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hynynen, K.

K. Hynynen, N. McDannold, N. A. Sheikov, F. A. Jolesz, N. Vykhodtseva, “Local and reversible blood-brain barrier disruption by noninvasive focused ultrasound at frequencies suitable for trans-skull sonications,” Neuroimage 24(1), 12–20 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, P. K.

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnston, K. P.

A. K. Murthy, R. J. Stover, W. G. Hardin, R. Schramm, G. D. Nie, S. Gourisankar, T. M. Truskett, K. V. Sokolov, K. P. Johnston, “Charged gold nanoparticles with essentially zero serum protein adsorption in undiluted fetal bovine serum,” JACS135(21), 7799–7802 (2013).

Jolesz, F. A.

K. Hynynen, N. McDannold, N. A. Sheikov, F. A. Jolesz, N. Vykhodtseva, “Local and reversible blood-brain barrier disruption by noninvasive focused ultrasound at frequencies suitable for trans-skull sonications,” Neuroimage 24(1), 12–20 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, P. P.

T. A. Larson, P. P. Joshi, K. Sokolov, “Preventing protein adsorption and macrophage uptake of gold nanoparticles via a hydrophobic shield,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9182–9190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jouvet, A.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaye, A. H.

H. K. Gan, A. H. Kaye, R. B. Luwor, “The EGFRvIII variant in glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Clin. Neurosci. 16(6), 748–754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazmi, S. M. S.

P. Puvanakrishnan, P. Diagaradjane, S. M. S. Kazmi, A. K. Dunn, S. Krishnan, J. W. Tunnell, “Narrow band imaging of squamous cell carcinoma tumors using topically delivered anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanorods,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(4), 310–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keles, G. E.

G. E. Keles, B. Anderson, M. S. Berger, “The effect of extent of resection on time to tumor progression and survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme of the cerebral hemisphere,” Surg. Neurol. 52(4), 371–379 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kleihues, P.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnan, S.

P. Puvanakrishnan, P. Diagaradjane, S. M. S. Kazmi, A. K. Dunn, S. Krishnan, J. W. Tunnell, “Narrow band imaging of squamous cell carcinoma tumors using topically delivered anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanorods,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(4), 310–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krystek, P.

W. H. De Jong, W. I. Hagens, P. Krystek, M. C. Burger, A. J. A. M. Sips, R. E. Geertsma, “Particle size-dependent organ distribution of gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1912–1919 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, “Directional conjugation of antibodies to nanoparticles for synthesis of multiplexed optical contrast agents with both delivery and targeting moieties,” Nat. Protoc. 3(2), 314–320 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, T. A.

T. A. Larson, P. P. Joshi, K. Sokolov, “Preventing protein adsorption and macrophage uptake of gold nanoparticles via a hydrophobic shield,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9182–9190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. S.

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levin, C. S.

M.-R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotan, R.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Louis, D. N.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luwor, R. B.

H. K. Gan, A. H. Kaye, R. B. Luwor, “The EGFRvIII variant in glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Clin. Neurosci. 16(6), 748–754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Marinakos, S.

K. Seekell, H. Price, S. Marinakos, A. Wax, “Optimization of immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles for cell surface receptor analysis,” Methods 56(2), 310–316 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Seekell, M. J. Crow, S. Marinakos, J. Ostrander, A. Chilkoti, A. Wax, “Hyperspectral molecular imaging of multiple receptors using immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marmor, M. D.

M. D. Marmor, K. B. Skaria, Y. Yarden, “Signal transduction and oncogenesis by ErbB/HER receptors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 58(3), 903–913 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDannold, N.

K. Hynynen, N. McDannold, N. A. Sheikov, F. A. Jolesz, N. Vykhodtseva, “Local and reversible blood-brain barrier disruption by noninvasive focused ultrasound at frequencies suitable for trans-skull sonications,” Neuroimage 24(1), 12–20 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, C. J.

C. J. Murphy, A. M. Gole, J. W. Stone, P. N. Sisco, A. M. Alkilany, E. C. Goldsmith, S. C. Baxter, “Gold nanoparticles in biology: beyond toxicity to cellular imaging,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1721–1730 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small 1(3), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murthy, A. K.

A. K. Murthy, R. J. Stover, W. G. Hardin, R. Schramm, G. D. Nie, S. Gourisankar, T. M. Truskett, K. V. Sokolov, K. P. Johnston, “Charged gold nanoparticles with essentially zero serum protein adsorption in undiluted fetal bovine serum,” JACS135(21), 7799–7802 (2013).

Mwamuka, J.

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small 1(3), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicholson, R. I.

R. I. Nicholson, J. M. Gee, M. E. Harper, “EGFR and cancer prognosis,” Eur. J. Cancer 37(Suppl 4), S9–S15 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, G. D.

A. K. Murthy, R. J. Stover, W. G. Hardin, R. Schramm, G. D. Nie, S. Gourisankar, T. M. Truskett, K. V. Sokolov, K. P. Johnston, “Charged gold nanoparticles with essentially zero serum protein adsorption in undiluted fetal bovine serum,” JACS135(21), 7799–7802 (2013).

Nightingale, K. R.

K. F. Bing, G. P. Howles, Y. Qi, M. L. Palmeri, K. R. Nightingale, “Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption using a diagnostic ultrasound scanner and definity in mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35(8), 1298–1308 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikoobakht, B.

B. Nikoobakht, M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and growth mechanism of gold nanorods (NRs) using seed-mediated growth method,” Chem. Mater. 15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nusz, G.

Ohgaki, H.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ostrander, J.

K. Seekell, M. J. Crow, S. Marinakos, J. Ostrander, A. Chilkoti, A. Wax, “Hyperspectral molecular imaging of multiple receptors using immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ostrander, J. H.

M. J. Crow, K. Seekell, J. H. Ostrander, A. Wax, “Monitoring of receptor dimerization using plasmonic coupling of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8532–8540 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmeri, M. L.

K. F. Bing, G. P. Howles, Y. Qi, M. L. Palmeri, K. R. Nightingale, “Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption using a diagnostic ultrasound scanner and definity in mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35(8), 1298–1308 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parak, W. J.

R. A. Sperling, P. Rivera Gil, F. Zhang, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, “Biological applications of gold nanoparticles,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(9), 1896–1908 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

P. Schmalz, M. Shen, J. Park, “Treatment resistance mechanisms of malignant glioma tumor stem cells,” Cancers 3(4), 621–635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pavlova, I.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Peereboom, D. M.

D. M. Peereboom, D. R. Shepard, M. S. Ahluwalia, C. J. Brewer, N. Agarwal, G. H. J. Stevens, J. H. Suh, S. A. Toms, M. A. Vogelbaum, R. J. Weil, P. Elson, G. H. Barnett, “Phase II trial of erlotinib with temozolomide and radiation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Neurooncol. 98(1), 93–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pomeroy, S. L.

N. J. Ullrich, S. L. Pomeroy, “Pediatric brain tumors,” Neurol. Clin. 21(4), 897–913 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, H.

K. Seekell, H. Price, S. Marinakos, A. Wax, “Optimization of immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles for cell surface receptor analysis,” Methods 56(2), 310–316 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Provenzale, J. M.

M. J. Crow, G. Grant, J. M. Provenzale, A. Wax, “Molecular imaging and quantitative measurement of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in live cancer cells using immunolabeled gold nanoparticles,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 192(4), 1021–1028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puvanakrishnan, P.

P. Puvanakrishnan, P. Diagaradjane, S. M. S. Kazmi, A. K. Dunn, S. Krishnan, J. W. Tunnell, “Narrow band imaging of squamous cell carcinoma tumors using topically delivered anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanorods,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(4), 310–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, Y.

K. F. Bing, G. P. Howles, Y. Qi, M. L. Palmeri, K. R. Nightingale, “Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption using a diagnostic ultrasound scanner and definity in mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35(8), 1298–1308 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cells assemble and align gold nanorods conjugated to antibodies to produce highly enhanced, sharp, and polarized surface Raman spectra: a potential cancer diagnostic marker,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1591–1597 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Rivera Gil, P.

R. A. Sperling, P. Rivera Gil, F. Zhang, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, “Biological applications of gold nanoparticles,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(9), 1896–1908 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. P.

M.-R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaller, K.

N. R. Smoll, K. Schaller, O. P. Gautschi, “Long-term survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM),” J. Clin. Neurosci. 20(5), 670–675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scheithauer, B. W.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmalz, P.

P. Schmalz, M. Shen, J. Park, “Treatment resistance mechanisms of malignant glioma tumor stem cells,” Cancers 3(4), 621–635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schramm, R.

A. K. Murthy, R. J. Stover, W. G. Hardin, R. Schramm, G. D. Nie, S. Gourisankar, T. M. Truskett, K. V. Sokolov, K. P. Johnston, “Charged gold nanoparticles with essentially zero serum protein adsorption in undiluted fetal bovine serum,” JACS135(21), 7799–7802 (2013).

Seekell, K.

K. Seekell, H. Price, S. Marinakos, A. Wax, “Optimization of immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles for cell surface receptor analysis,” Methods 56(2), 310–316 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Seekell, M. J. Crow, S. Marinakos, J. Ostrander, A. Chilkoti, A. Wax, “Hyperspectral molecular imaging of multiple receptors using immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Crow, K. Seekell, J. H. Ostrander, A. Wax, “Monitoring of receptor dimerization using plasmonic coupling of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8532–8540 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Crow, K. Seekell, A. Wax, “Polarization mapping of nanoparticle plasmonic coupling,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 757–759 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheikov, N. A.

K. Hynynen, N. McDannold, N. A. Sheikov, F. A. Jolesz, N. Vykhodtseva, “Local and reversible blood-brain barrier disruption by noninvasive focused ultrasound at frequencies suitable for trans-skull sonications,” Neuroimage 24(1), 12–20 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, M.

P. Schmalz, M. Shen, J. Park, “Treatment resistance mechanisms of malignant glioma tumor stem cells,” Cancers 3(4), 621–635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shepard, D. R.

D. M. Peereboom, D. R. Shepard, M. S. Ahluwalia, C. J. Brewer, N. Agarwal, G. H. J. Stevens, J. H. Suh, S. A. Toms, M. A. Vogelbaum, R. J. Weil, P. Elson, G. H. Barnett, “Phase II trial of erlotinib with temozolomide and radiation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Neurooncol. 98(1), 93–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sips, A. J. A. M.

W. H. De Jong, W. I. Hagens, P. Krystek, M. C. Burger, A. J. A. M. Sips, R. E. Geertsma, “Particle size-dependent organ distribution of gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1912–1919 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sisco, P. N.

C. J. Murphy, A. M. Gole, J. W. Stone, P. N. Sisco, A. M. Alkilany, E. C. Goldsmith, S. C. Baxter, “Gold nanoparticles in biology: beyond toxicity to cellular imaging,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1721–1730 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skaria, K. B.

M. D. Marmor, K. B. Skaria, Y. Yarden, “Signal transduction and oncogenesis by ErbB/HER receptors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 58(3), 903–913 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smoll, N. R.

N. R. Smoll, K. Schaller, O. P. Gautschi, “Long-term survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM),” J. Clin. Neurosci. 20(5), 670–675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

T. A. Larson, P. P. Joshi, K. Sokolov, “Preventing protein adsorption and macrophage uptake of gold nanoparticles via a hydrophobic shield,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9182–9190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, K. Sokolov, “Molecular imaging and darkfield microspectroscopy of live cells using gold plasmonic nanoparticles,” Laser Photon. Rev 3(1-2), 146–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, “Directional conjugation of antibodies to nanoparticles for synthesis of multiplexed optical contrast agents with both delivery and targeting moieties,” Nat. Protoc. 3(2), 314–320 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sokolov, K. V.

A. K. Murthy, R. J. Stover, W. G. Hardin, R. Schramm, G. D. Nie, S. Gourisankar, T. M. Truskett, K. V. Sokolov, K. P. Johnston, “Charged gold nanoparticles with essentially zero serum protein adsorption in undiluted fetal bovine serum,” JACS135(21), 7799–7802 (2013).

Sperling, R. A.

R. A. Sperling, P. Rivera Gil, F. Zhang, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, “Biological applications of gold nanoparticles,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(9), 1896–1908 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanley, J. K.

M.-R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanton-Maxey, K. J.

M.-R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevens, G. H. J.

D. M. Peereboom, D. R. Shepard, M. S. Ahluwalia, C. J. Brewer, N. Agarwal, G. H. J. Stevens, J. H. Suh, S. A. Toms, M. A. Vogelbaum, R. J. Weil, P. Elson, G. H. Barnett, “Phase II trial of erlotinib with temozolomide and radiation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Neurooncol. 98(1), 93–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, J. W.

C. J. Murphy, A. M. Gole, J. W. Stone, P. N. Sisco, A. M. Alkilany, E. C. Goldsmith, S. C. Baxter, “Gold nanoparticles in biology: beyond toxicity to cellular imaging,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1721–1730 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stover, R. J.

A. K. Murthy, R. J. Stover, W. G. Hardin, R. Schramm, G. D. Nie, S. Gourisankar, T. M. Truskett, K. V. Sokolov, K. P. Johnston, “Charged gold nanoparticles with essentially zero serum protein adsorption in undiluted fetal bovine serum,” JACS135(21), 7799–7802 (2013).

Sturgis, J.

M.-R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, J. H.

D. M. Peereboom, D. R. Shepard, M. S. Ahluwalia, C. J. Brewer, N. Agarwal, G. H. J. Stevens, J. H. Suh, S. A. Toms, M. A. Vogelbaum, R. J. Weil, P. Elson, G. H. Barnett, “Phase II trial of erlotinib with temozolomide and radiation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Neurooncol. 98(1), 93–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toms, S. A.

D. M. Peereboom, D. R. Shepard, M. S. Ahluwalia, C. J. Brewer, N. Agarwal, G. H. J. Stevens, J. H. Suh, S. A. Toms, M. A. Vogelbaum, R. J. Weil, P. Elson, G. H. Barnett, “Phase II trial of erlotinib with temozolomide and radiation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Neurooncol. 98(1), 93–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Truskett, T. M.

A. K. Murthy, R. J. Stover, W. G. Hardin, R. Schramm, G. D. Nie, S. Gourisankar, T. M. Truskett, K. V. Sokolov, K. P. Johnston, “Charged gold nanoparticles with essentially zero serum protein adsorption in undiluted fetal bovine serum,” JACS135(21), 7799–7802 (2013).

Tunnell, J. W.

P. Puvanakrishnan, P. Diagaradjane, S. M. S. Kazmi, A. K. Dunn, S. Krishnan, J. W. Tunnell, “Narrow band imaging of squamous cell carcinoma tumors using topically delivered anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanorods,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(4), 310–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullrich, N. J.

N. J. Ullrich, S. L. Pomeroy, “Pediatric brain tumors,” Neurol. Clin. 21(4), 897–913 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viera, A. J.

A. J. Viera, J. M. Garrett, “Understanding interobserver agreement: the kappa statistic,” Fam. Med. 37(5), 360–363 (2005).
[PubMed]

Vogelbaum, M. A.

D. M. Peereboom, D. R. Shepard, M. S. Ahluwalia, C. J. Brewer, N. Agarwal, G. H. J. Stevens, J. H. Suh, S. A. Toms, M. A. Vogelbaum, R. J. Weil, P. Elson, G. H. Barnett, “Phase II trial of erlotinib with temozolomide and radiation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Neurooncol. 98(1), 93–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vykhodtseva, N.

K. Hynynen, N. McDannold, N. A. Sheikov, F. A. Jolesz, N. Vykhodtseva, “Local and reversible blood-brain barrier disruption by noninvasive focused ultrasound at frequencies suitable for trans-skull sonications,” Neuroimage 24(1), 12–20 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

K. Seekell, H. Price, S. Marinakos, A. Wax, “Optimization of immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles for cell surface receptor analysis,” Methods 56(2), 310–316 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Crow, K. Seekell, J. H. Ostrander, A. Wax, “Monitoring of receptor dimerization using plasmonic coupling of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8532–8540 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Seekell, M. J. Crow, S. Marinakos, J. Ostrander, A. Chilkoti, A. Wax, “Hyperspectral molecular imaging of multiple receptors using immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Crow, K. Seekell, A. Wax, “Polarization mapping of nanoparticle plasmonic coupling,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 757–759 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, K. Sokolov, “Molecular imaging and darkfield microspectroscopy of live cells using gold plasmonic nanoparticles,” Laser Photon. Rev 3(1-2), 146–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Crow, G. Grant, J. M. Provenzale, A. Wax, “Molecular imaging and quantitative measurement of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in live cancer cells using immunolabeled gold nanoparticles,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 192(4), 1021–1028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Curry, G. Nusz, A. Chilkoti, A. Wax, “Substrate effect on refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance for individual silver nanoparticles observed using darkfield microspectroscopy,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2668–2677 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weil, R. J.

D. M. Peereboom, D. R. Shepard, M. S. Ahluwalia, C. J. Brewer, N. Agarwal, G. H. J. Stevens, J. H. Suh, S. A. Toms, M. A. Vogelbaum, R. J. Weil, P. Elson, G. H. Barnett, “Phase II trial of erlotinib with temozolomide and radiation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Neurooncol. 98(1), 93–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiestler, O. D.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, M. D.

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small 1(3), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yarden, Y.

M. D. Marmor, K. B. Skaria, Y. Yarden, “Signal transduction and oncogenesis by ErbB/HER receptors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 58(3), 903–913 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zanella, M.

R. A. Sperling, P. Rivera Gil, F. Zhang, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, “Biological applications of gold nanoparticles,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(9), 1896–1908 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

R. A. Sperling, P. Rivera Gil, F. Zhang, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, “Biological applications of gold nanoparticles,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(9), 1896–1908 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

C. J. Murphy, A. M. Gole, J. W. Stone, P. N. Sisco, A. M. Alkilany, E. C. Goldsmith, S. C. Baxter, “Gold nanoparticles in biology: beyond toxicity to cellular imaging,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1721–1730 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

M. J. Crow, K. Seekell, J. H. Ostrander, A. Wax, “Monitoring of receptor dimerization using plasmonic coupling of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8532–8540 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Larson, P. P. Joshi, K. Sokolov, “Preventing protein adsorption and macrophage uptake of gold nanoparticles via a hydrophobic shield,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9182–9190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Neuropathol. (1)

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Roentgenol. (1)

M. J. Crow, G. Grant, J. M. Provenzale, A. Wax, “Molecular imaging and quantitative measurement of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in live cancer cells using immunolabeled gold nanoparticles,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 192(4), 1021–1028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomaterials (1)

W. H. De Jong, W. I. Hagens, P. Krystek, M. C. Burger, A. J. A. M. Sips, R. E. Geertsma, “Particle size-dependent organ distribution of gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1912–1919 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Cancers (1)

P. Schmalz, M. Shen, J. Park, “Treatment resistance mechanisms of malignant glioma tumor stem cells,” Cancers 3(4), 621–635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

B. Nikoobakht, M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and growth mechanism of gold nanorods (NRs) using seed-mediated growth method,” Chem. Mater. 15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

R. A. Sperling, P. Rivera Gil, F. Zhang, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, “Biological applications of gold nanoparticles,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(9), 1896–1908 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Cancer (1)

R. I. Nicholson, J. M. Gee, M. E. Harper, “EGFR and cancer prognosis,” Eur. J. Cancer 37(Suppl 4), S9–S15 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fam. Med. (1)

A. J. Viera, J. M. Garrett, “Understanding interobserver agreement: the kappa statistic,” Fam. Med. 37(5), 360–363 (2005).
[PubMed]

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1)

M. D. Marmor, K. B. Skaria, Y. Yarden, “Signal transduction and oncogenesis by ErbB/HER receptors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 58(3), 903–913 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Seekell, M. J. Crow, S. Marinakos, J. Ostrander, A. Chilkoti, A. Wax, “Hyperspectral molecular imaging of multiple receptors using immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Neurosci. (2)

H. K. Gan, A. H. Kaye, R. B. Luwor, “The EGFRvIII variant in glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Clin. Neurosci. 16(6), 748–754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Smoll, K. Schaller, O. P. Gautschi, “Long-term survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM),” J. Clin. Neurosci. 20(5), 670–675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurooncol. (1)

D. M. Peereboom, D. R. Shepard, M. S. Ahluwalia, C. J. Brewer, N. Agarwal, G. H. J. Stevens, J. H. Suh, S. A. Toms, M. A. Vogelbaum, R. J. Weil, P. Elson, G. H. Barnett, “Phase II trial of erlotinib with temozolomide and radiation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme,” J. Neurooncol. 98(1), 93–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev (1)

A. Wax, K. Sokolov, “Molecular imaging and darkfield microspectroscopy of live cells using gold plasmonic nanoparticles,” Laser Photon. Rev 3(1-2), 146–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

P. Puvanakrishnan, P. Diagaradjane, S. M. S. Kazmi, A. K. Dunn, S. Krishnan, J. W. Tunnell, “Narrow band imaging of squamous cell carcinoma tumors using topically delivered anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanorods,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(4), 310–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Methods (1)

K. Seekell, H. Price, S. Marinakos, A. Wax, “Optimization of immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles for cell surface receptor analysis,” Methods 56(2), 310–316 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (2)

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cells assemble and align gold nanorods conjugated to antibodies to produce highly enhanced, sharp, and polarized surface Raman spectra: a potential cancer diagnostic marker,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1591–1597 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-R. Choi, K. J. Stanton-Maxey, J. K. Stanley, C. S. Levin, R. Bardhan, D. Akin, S. Badve, J. Sturgis, J. P. Robinson, R. Bashir, N. J. Halas, S. E. Clare, “A cellular Trojan Horse for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles into tumors,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3759–3765 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

S. Kumar, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, “Directional conjugation of antibodies to nanoparticles for synthesis of multiplexed optical contrast agents with both delivery and targeting moieties,” Nat. Protoc. 3(2), 314–320 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (1)

K. Hynynen, N. McDannold, N. A. Sheikov, F. A. Jolesz, N. Vykhodtseva, “Local and reversible blood-brain barrier disruption by noninvasive focused ultrasound at frequencies suitable for trans-skull sonications,” Neuroimage 24(1), 12–20 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurol. Clin. (1)

N. J. Ullrich, S. L. Pomeroy, “Pediatric brain tumors,” Neurol. Clin. 21(4), 897–913 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Small (1)

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small 1(3), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surg. Neurol. (1)

G. E. Keles, B. Anderson, M. S. Berger, “The effect of extent of resection on time to tumor progression and survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme of the cerebral hemisphere,” Surg. Neurol. 52(4), 371–379 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

K. F. Bing, G. P. Howles, Y. Qi, M. L. Palmeri, K. R. Nightingale, “Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption using a diagnostic ultrasound scanner and definity in mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35(8), 1298–1308 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

A. K. Murthy, R. J. Stover, W. G. Hardin, R. Schramm, G. D. Nie, S. Gourisankar, T. M. Truskett, K. V. Sokolov, K. P. Johnston, “Charged gold nanoparticles with essentially zero serum protein adsorption in undiluted fetal bovine serum,” JACS135(21), 7799–7802 (2013).

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (2007).

S. K. Ray, ed., Glioblastoma (Springer New York, 2010).

Cancer - United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) Data - 2009 Cancer Types Grouped by Race and Et,” http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/uscs/cancersbyraceandethnicity.aspx .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) TEM images of GNRs. The average nanoparticle size is 35.0 x 17.5 nm (aspect ratio = 2). Scale bar = 100nm. (b) Absorption spectra from GNR solution. The Gaussian fit to the spectra has a peak wavelength at 603nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Brain slice containing GBM270 tumor. (b) The same brain slice covered with anti-EGFR GNR laden gel foam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the hyperspectral darkfield/fluorescence microscope. Dashed components are only in place during fluorescence imaging.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Darkfield Images of normal and malignant tissues taken at 550nm and 620nm. (+/−) signs indicate the presence of significant absorption signal from blood or gold nanorods. Scale bar = 250 μm

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images displaying the image processing methods used to classify tissue regions as malignant ( + ) or normal (-). Average fluorescence intensities determine the true state of the region. Predictions are determined based on the area fraction of nanoparticles in the binary map. Scale bar = 250μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of the kappa statistic comparing GFP and GNR classifications as a function of GNR area fraction threshold.

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