Abstract

High-resolution microendoscopy (HRME) uses epi-fluorescence imaging with a coherent fiber-optic bundle to enable in vivo examination of cellular morphology. While the HRME platform has recently gained popularity as a simple alternative to confocal endomicroscopy, the axial response of HRME in thick, scattering tissue has yet to be described quantitatively. These details are important because when analyzing images collected by HRME, out-of-focus light may affect the accuracy of quantitative parameters such as nuclear-to-cytoplasm ratio, which has been proposed as a diagnostic indicator of dysplasia or cancer. In this study we investigated the imaging properties of the HRME system by using phantoms simulating scattering tissue with fluorescently labeled nuclei. We directly compared HRME imaging with confocal endomicroscopy in phantoms and in vivo human tissue. HRME images defocused (deep) objects with apparent diameters and intensity levels that are in agreement with a simple geometric model. Out-of-focus nuclei contribute a relatively low, uniform background level to images which neither leads to the erroneous appearance of large nuclei from deep layers, nor prevents accurate imaging of superficial nuclei with high contrast.

© 2013 OSA

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2013

S. El Hallani, C. F. Poh, C. E. Macaulay, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, and P. Lane, “Ex vivo confocal imaging with contrast agents for the detection of oral potentially malignant lesions,” Oral Oncol.49(6), 582–590 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Göbel, D. Brucker, Y. Kienast, A. Johansson, G. Kniebühler, A. Rühm, S. Eigenbrod, S. Fischer, M. Goetz, F.-W. Kreth, A. Ehrhardt, H. Stepp, K.-M. Irion, and J. Herms, “Optical needle endoscope for safe and precise stereotactically guided biopsy sampling in neurosurgery,” Opt. Express20(24), 26117–26126 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Shao, W. Shi, P. Hajireza, and R. J. Zemp, “Integrated micro-endoscopy system for simultaneous fluorescence and optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Wall and J. K. Barton, “Fluorescence-based surface magnifying chromoendoscopy and optical coherence tomography endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. A. Schwarz, V. S. Bhattar, S. Mondrik, M. D. Williams, J. J. Lee, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Accuracy of in vivo multimodal optical imaging for detection of oral neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(6), 801–809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE7(9), e44924 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, D. Roblyer, M. D. Williams, V. M. T. Stepanek, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck34(3), 305–312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

K. J. Rosbach, D. Shin, T. J. Muldoon, M. A. Quraishi, L. P. Middleton, K. K. Hunt, F. Meric-Bernstam, T.-K. Yu, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and W. Yang, “High-resolution fiber optic microscopy with fluorescent contrast enhancement for the identification of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer: a pilot study,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(3), 911–922 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Goetz and R. Kiesslich, “Advances of endomicroscopy for gastrointestinal physiology and diseases,” Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.298(6), G797–G806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, P. Sharma, C. Lightdale, H. Wolfsen, E. Coron, A. Buchner, M. Bajbouj, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, J. Abrams, J. E. Crook, and A. Meining, “Preliminary accuracy and interobserver agreement for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.72(1), 19–24 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhong, J. P. Celli, I. Rizvi, Z. Mai, B. Q. Spring, S. H. Yun, and T. Hasan, “In vivo high-resolution fluorescence microendoscopy for ovarian cancer detection and treatment monitoring,” Br. J. Cancer101(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tan, M. A. Quinn, J. M. Pyman, P. M. Delaney, and W. J. McLaren, “Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy,” BJOG116(12), 1663–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, E. Montgomery, and M. I. Canto, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus and endoscopically inapparent Barrett’s neoplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial,” Gastrointest. Endosc.70(4), 645–654 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Astner, S. Dietterle, N. Otberg, H.-J. Röwert-Huber, E. Stockfleth, and J. Lademann, “Clinical applicability of in vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Wang, R. E. Sampliner, and Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology, “Updated guidelines 2008 for the diagnosis, surveillance and therapy of Barrett’s esophagus,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.103(3), 788–797 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. S.-P. Thong, M. Olivo, K.-W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K.-C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dromard, V. Ravaine, S. Ravaine, J.-L. Lévêque, and N. Sojic, “Remote in vivo imaging of human skin corneocytes by means of an optical fiber bundle,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(5), 053709 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, M. C. Pierce, D. L. Nida, M. D. Williams, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Subcellular-resolution molecular imaging within living tissue by fiber microendoscopy,” Opt. Express15(25), 16413–16423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(23), 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Garofalakis, G. Zacharakis, G. Filippidis, E. Sanidas, D. D. Tsiftsis, V. Ntziachristos, T. G. Papazoglou, and J. Ripoll, “Characterization of the reduced scattering coefficient for optically thin samples: theory and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(7), 725–735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. Subbarao and G. Surya, “Depth from defocus: A spatial domain approach,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.13(3), 271–294 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, J.

M. B. Wallace, P. Sharma, C. Lightdale, H. Wolfsen, E. Coron, A. Buchner, M. Bajbouj, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, J. Abrams, J. E. Crook, and A. Meining, “Preliminary accuracy and interobserver agreement for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.72(1), 19–24 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anandasabapathy, S.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, P. M. Vila, A. D. Polydorides, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Low-cost endomicroscopy in the esophagus and colon,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.106(9), 1722–1724 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. W.

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astner, S.

S. Astner, S. Dietterle, N. Otberg, H.-J. Röwert-Huber, E. Stockfleth, and J. Lademann, “Clinical applicability of in vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bading, J. R.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(23), 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajbouj, M.

M. B. Wallace, P. Sharma, C. Lightdale, H. Wolfsen, E. Coron, A. Buchner, M. Bajbouj, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, J. Abrams, J. E. Crook, and A. Meining, “Preliminary accuracy and interobserver agreement for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.72(1), 19–24 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bansal, A.

M. B. Wallace, P. Sharma, C. Lightdale, H. Wolfsen, E. Coron, A. Buchner, M. Bajbouj, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, J. Abrams, J. E. Crook, and A. Meining, “Preliminary accuracy and interobserver agreement for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.72(1), 19–24 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

R. A. Wall and J. K. Barton, “Fluorescence-based surface magnifying chromoendoscopy and optical coherence tomography endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhattar, V. S.

M. C. Pierce, R. A. Schwarz, V. S. Bhattar, S. Mondrik, M. D. Williams, J. J. Lee, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Accuracy of in vivo multimodal optical imaging for detection of oral neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(6), 801–809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhutani, M. S.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brucker, D.

Bubi, T. C.

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE7(9), e44924 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchner, A.

M. B. Wallace, P. Sharma, C. Lightdale, H. Wolfsen, E. Coron, A. Buchner, M. Bajbouj, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, J. Abrams, J. E. Crook, and A. Meining, “Preliminary accuracy and interobserver agreement for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.72(1), 19–24 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canto, M. I.

K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, E. Montgomery, and M. I. Canto, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus and endoscopically inapparent Barrett’s neoplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial,” Gastrointest. Endosc.70(4), 645–654 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castle, P.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celli, J. P.

W. Zhong, J. P. Celli, I. Rizvi, Z. Mai, B. Q. Spring, S. H. Yun, and T. Hasan, “In vivo high-resolution fluorescence microendoscopy for ovarian cancer detection and treatment monitoring,” Br. J. Cancer101(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaudhari, A. J.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(23), 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cherry, S. R.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(23), 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirillo, J. D.

Coghlan, L. G.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conti, P. S.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(23), 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coron, E.

M. B. Wallace, P. Sharma, C. Lightdale, H. Wolfsen, E. Coron, A. Buchner, M. Bajbouj, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, J. Abrams, J. E. Crook, and A. Meining, “Preliminary accuracy and interobserver agreement for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.72(1), 19–24 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crook, J. E.

M. B. Wallace, P. Sharma, C. Lightdale, H. Wolfsen, E. Coron, A. Buchner, M. Bajbouj, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, J. Abrams, J. E. Crook, and A. Meining, “Preliminary accuracy and interobserver agreement for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.72(1), 19–24 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuccia, D. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darvas, F.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(23), 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaney, P. M.

J. Tan, M. A. Quinn, J. M. Pyman, P. M. Delaney, and W. J. McLaren, “Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy,” BJOG116(12), 1663–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietterle, S.

S. Astner, S. Dietterle, N. Otberg, H.-J. Röwert-Huber, E. Stockfleth, and J. Lademann, “Clinical applicability of in vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dromard, T.

T. Dromard, V. Ravaine, S. Ravaine, J.-L. Lévêque, and N. Sojic, “Remote in vivo imaging of human skin corneocytes by means of an optical fiber bundle,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(5), 053709 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunbar, K. B.

K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, E. Montgomery, and M. I. Canto, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus and endoscopically inapparent Barrett’s neoplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial,” Gastrointest. Endosc.70(4), 645–654 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durkin, A. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehrhardt, A.

Eigenbrod, S.

El Hallani, S.

S. El Hallani, C. F. Poh, C. E. Macaulay, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, and P. Lane, “Ex vivo confocal imaging with contrast agents for the detection of oral potentially malignant lesions,” Oral Oncol.49(6), 582–590 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elahi, S. F.

Filippidis, G.

A. Garofalakis, G. Zacharakis, G. Filippidis, E. Sanidas, D. D. Tsiftsis, V. Ntziachristos, T. G. Papazoglou, and J. Ripoll, “Characterization of the reduced scattering coefficient for optically thin samples: theory and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(7), 725–735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, S.

Follen, M.

S. El Hallani, C. F. Poh, C. E. Macaulay, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, and P. Lane, “Ex vivo confocal imaging with contrast agents for the detection of oral potentially malignant lesions,” Oral Oncol.49(6), 582–590 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garofalakis, A.

A. Garofalakis, G. Zacharakis, G. Filippidis, E. Sanidas, D. D. Tsiftsis, V. Ntziachristos, T. G. Papazoglou, and J. Ripoll, “Characterization of the reduced scattering coefficient for optically thin samples: theory and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(7), 725–735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Genden, E. M.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

Gillenwater, A. M.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, D. Roblyer, M. D. Williams, V. M. T. Stepanek, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck34(3), 305–312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. A. Schwarz, V. S. Bhattar, S. Mondrik, M. D. Williams, J. J. Lee, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Accuracy of in vivo multimodal optical imaging for detection of oral neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(6), 801–809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Göbel, W.

Godbold, J. H.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetz, M.

Goldstein, G. H.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guan, Y. Y.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guillaud, M.

S. El Hallani, C. F. Poh, C. E. Macaulay, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, and P. Lane, “Ex vivo confocal imaging with contrast agents for the detection of oral potentially malignant lesions,” Oral Oncol.49(6), 582–590 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurudutt, V. V.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hajireza, P.

P. Shao, W. Shi, P. Hajireza, and R. J. Zemp, “Integrated micro-endoscopy system for simultaneous fluorescence and optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, M.

P. S.-P. Thong, M. Olivo, K.-W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K.-C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

W. Zhong, J. P. Celli, I. Rizvi, Z. Mai, B. Q. Spring, S. H. Yun, and T. Hasan, “In vivo high-resolution fluorescence microendoscopy for ovarian cancer detection and treatment monitoring,” Br. J. Cancer101(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herms, J.

Hunt, K. K.

Irion, K.-M.

Johansson, A.

Joshi, B.

Kayembe, M. K.

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE7(9), e44924 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kho, K.-W.

P. S.-P. Thong, M. Olivo, K.-W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K.-C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienast, Y.

Kiesslich, R.

M. Goetz and R. Kiesslich, “Advances of endomicroscopy for gastrointestinal physiology and diseases,” Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.298(6), G797–G806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. K.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kniebühler, G.

Kong, Y.

Kreth, F.-W.

Labow, D.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lademann, J.

S. Astner, S. Dietterle, N. Otberg, H.-J. Röwert-Huber, E. Stockfleth, and J. Lademann, “Clinical applicability of in vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lane, P.

S. El Hallani, C. F. Poh, C. E. Macaulay, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, and P. Lane, “Ex vivo confocal imaging with contrast agents for the detection of oral potentially malignant lesions,” Oral Oncol.49(6), 582–590 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lane, P. M.

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leahy, R. M.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(23), 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. J.

M. C. Pierce, R. A. Schwarz, V. S. Bhattar, S. Mondrik, M. D. Williams, J. J. Lee, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Accuracy of in vivo multimodal optical imaging for detection of oral neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(6), 801–809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leriche, J. C.

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lévêque, J.-L.

T. Dromard, V. Ravaine, S. Ravaine, J.-L. Lévêque, and N. Sojic, “Remote in vivo imaging of human skin corneocytes by means of an optical fiber bundle,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(5), 053709 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, L.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lightdale, C.

M. B. Wallace, P. Sharma, C. Lightdale, H. Wolfsen, E. Coron, A. Buchner, M. Bajbouj, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, J. Abrams, J. E. Crook, and A. Meining, “Preliminary accuracy and interobserver agreement for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.72(1), 19–24 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macaulay, C. E.

S. El Hallani, C. F. Poh, C. E. Macaulay, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, and P. Lane, “Ex vivo confocal imaging with contrast agents for the detection of oral potentially malignant lesions,” Oral Oncol.49(6), 582–590 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mai, Z.

W. Zhong, J. P. Celli, I. Rizvi, Z. Mai, B. Q. Spring, S. H. Yun, and T. Hasan, “In vivo high-resolution fluorescence microendoscopy for ovarian cancer detection and treatment monitoring,” Br. J. Cancer101(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maitland, K. C.

Mancer, K.

P. S.-P. Thong, M. Olivo, K.-W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K.-C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maru, D.

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaren, W. J.

J. Tan, M. A. Quinn, J. M. Pyman, P. M. Delaney, and W. J. McLaren, “Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy,” BJOG116(12), 1663–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McWilliams, A.

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meining, A.

M. B. Wallace, P. Sharma, C. Lightdale, H. Wolfsen, E. Coron, A. Buchner, M. Bajbouj, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, J. Abrams, J. E. Crook, and A. Meining, “Preliminary accuracy and interobserver agreement for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.72(1), 19–24 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meric-Bernstam, F.

Middleton, L. P.

Miles, B. A.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, S. J.

Moats, R. A.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(23), 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mondrik, S.

M. C. Pierce, R. A. Schwarz, V. S. Bhattar, S. Mondrik, M. D. Williams, J. J. Lee, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Accuracy of in vivo multimodal optical imaging for detection of oral neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(6), 801–809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montgomery, E.

K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, E. Montgomery, and M. I. Canto, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus and endoscopically inapparent Barrett’s neoplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial,” Gastrointest. Endosc.70(4), 645–654 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mufti, N.

Muldoon, T. J.

Neurath, M. F.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nida, D. L.

Ntziachristos, V.

A. Garofalakis, G. Zacharakis, G. Filippidis, E. Sanidas, D. D. Tsiftsis, V. Ntziachristos, T. G. Papazoglou, and J. Ripoll, “Characterization of the reduced scattering coefficient for optically thin samples: theory and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(7), 725–735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okolo, P.

K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, E. Montgomery, and M. I. Canto, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus and endoscopically inapparent Barrett’s neoplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial,” Gastrointest. Endosc.70(4), 645–654 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivo, M.

P. S.-P. Thong, M. Olivo, K.-W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K.-C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otberg, N.

S. Astner, S. Dietterle, N. Otberg, H.-J. Röwert-Huber, E. Stockfleth, and J. Lademann, “Clinical applicability of in vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papazoglou, T. G.

A. Garofalakis, G. Zacharakis, G. Filippidis, E. Sanidas, D. D. Tsiftsis, V. Ntziachristos, T. G. Papazoglou, and J. Ripoll, “Characterization of the reduced scattering coefficient for optically thin samples: theory and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(7), 725–735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. W.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE7(9), e44924 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. A. Schwarz, V. S. Bhattar, S. Mondrik, M. D. Williams, J. J. Lee, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Accuracy of in vivo multimodal optical imaging for detection of oral neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(6), 801–809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, P. M. Vila, A. D. Polydorides, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Low-cost endomicroscopy in the esophagus and colon,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.106(9), 1722–1724 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, M. C. Pierce, D. L. Nida, M. D. Williams, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Subcellular-resolution molecular imaging within living tissue by fiber microendoscopy,” Opt. Express15(25), 16413–16423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poh, C. F.

S. El Hallani, C. F. Poh, C. E. Macaulay, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, and P. Lane, “Ex vivo confocal imaging with contrast agents for the detection of oral potentially malignant lesions,” Oral Oncol.49(6), 582–590 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polglase, A. L.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polydorides, A. D.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, P. M. Vila, A. D. Polydorides, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Low-cost endomicroscopy in the esophagus and colon,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.106(9), 1722–1724 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pyman, J. M.

J. Tan, M. A. Quinn, J. M. Pyman, P. M. Delaney, and W. J. McLaren, “Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy,” BJOG116(12), 1663–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiao, Y.-L.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quinn, M. A.

J. Tan, M. A. Quinn, J. M. Pyman, P. M. Delaney, and W. J. McLaren, “Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy,” BJOG116(12), 1663–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quinn, M. K.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE7(9), e44924 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quraishi, M. A.

Ramogola-Masire, D.

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE7(9), e44924 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raoufi, M.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rastogi, A.

M. B. Wallace, P. Sharma, C. Lightdale, H. Wolfsen, E. Coron, A. Buchner, M. Bajbouj, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, J. Abrams, J. E. Crook, and A. Meining, “Preliminary accuracy and interobserver agreement for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.72(1), 19–24 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ravaine, S.

T. Dromard, V. Ravaine, S. Ravaine, J.-L. Lévêque, and N. Sojic, “Remote in vivo imaging of human skin corneocytes by means of an optical fiber bundle,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(5), 053709 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ravaine, V.

T. Dromard, V. Ravaine, S. Ravaine, J.-L. Lévêque, and N. Sojic, “Remote in vivo imaging of human skin corneocytes by means of an optical fiber bundle,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(5), 053709 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regunathan, R.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

T. J. Muldoon, D. Roblyer, M. D. Williams, V. M. T. Stepanek, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck34(3), 305–312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE7(9), e44924 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. A. Schwarz, V. S. Bhattar, S. Mondrik, M. D. Williams, J. J. Lee, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Accuracy of in vivo multimodal optical imaging for detection of oral neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(6), 801–809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, P. M. Vila, A. D. Polydorides, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Low-cost endomicroscopy in the esophagus and colon,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.106(9), 1722–1724 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, M. C. Pierce, D. L. Nida, M. D. Williams, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Subcellular-resolution molecular imaging within living tissue by fiber microendoscopy,” Opt. Express15(25), 16413–16423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

Ripoll, J.

A. Garofalakis, G. Zacharakis, G. Filippidis, E. Sanidas, D. D. Tsiftsis, V. Ntziachristos, T. G. Papazoglou, and J. Ripoll, “Characterization of the reduced scattering coefficient for optically thin samples: theory and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(7), 725–735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rizvi, I.

W. Zhong, J. P. Celli, I. Rizvi, Z. Mai, B. Q. Spring, S. H. Yun, and T. Hasan, “In vivo high-resolution fluorescence microendoscopy for ovarian cancer detection and treatment monitoring,” Br. J. Cancer101(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roayaie, S.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roblyer, D.

T. J. Muldoon, D. Roblyer, M. D. Williams, V. M. T. Stepanek, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck34(3), 305–312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosbach, K. J.

Röwert-Huber, H.-J.

S. Astner, S. Dietterle, N. Otberg, H.-J. Röwert-Huber, E. Stockfleth, and J. Lademann, “Clinical applicability of in vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rühm, A.

Sampliner, R. E.

K. K. Wang, R. E. Sampliner, and Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology, “Updated guidelines 2008 for the diagnosis, surveillance and therapy of Barrett’s esophagus,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.103(3), 788–797 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanidas, E.

A. Garofalakis, G. Zacharakis, G. Filippidis, E. Sanidas, D. D. Tsiftsis, V. Ntziachristos, T. G. Papazoglou, and J. Ripoll, “Characterization of the reduced scattering coefficient for optically thin samples: theory and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(7), 725–735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, M.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, R. A.

M. C. Pierce, R. A. Schwarz, V. S. Bhattar, S. Mondrik, M. D. Williams, J. J. Lee, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Accuracy of in vivo multimodal optical imaging for detection of oral neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(6), 801–809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, P.

P. Shao, W. Shi, P. Hajireza, and R. J. Zemp, “Integrated micro-endoscopy system for simultaneous fluorescence and optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, P.

M. B. Wallace, P. Sharma, C. Lightdale, H. Wolfsen, E. Coron, A. Buchner, M. Bajbouj, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, J. Abrams, J. E. Crook, and A. Meining, “Preliminary accuracy and interobserver agreement for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.72(1), 19–24 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, W.

P. Shao, W. Shi, P. Hajireza, and R. J. Zemp, “Integrated micro-endoscopy system for simultaneous fluorescence and optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, D.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Rosbach, D. Shin, T. J. Muldoon, M. A. Quraishi, L. P. Middleton, K. K. Hunt, F. Meric-Bernstam, T.-K. Yu, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and W. Yang, “High-resolution fiber optic microscopy with fluorescent contrast enhancement for the identification of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer: a pilot study,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(3), 911–922 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sikora, A. G.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skinner, S. A.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. J.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(23), 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sojic, N.

T. Dromard, V. Ravaine, S. Ravaine, J.-L. Lévêque, and N. Sojic, “Remote in vivo imaging of human skin corneocytes by means of an optical fiber bundle,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(5), 053709 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soo, K.-C.

P. S.-P. Thong, M. Olivo, K.-W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K.-C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spring, B. Q.

W. Zhong, J. P. Celli, I. Rizvi, Z. Mai, B. Q. Spring, S. H. Yun, and T. Hasan, “In vivo high-resolution fluorescence microendoscopy for ovarian cancer detection and treatment monitoring,” Br. J. Cancer101(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanek, V. M. T.

T. J. Muldoon, D. Roblyer, M. D. Williams, V. M. T. Stepanek, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck34(3), 305–312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepp, H.

Stockfleth, E.

S. Astner, S. Dietterle, N. Otberg, H.-J. Röwert-Huber, E. Stockfleth, and J. Lademann, “Clinical applicability of in vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subbarao, M.

M. Subbarao and G. Surya, “Depth from defocus: A spatial domain approach,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.13(3), 271–294 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Surya, G.

M. Subbarao and G. Surya, “Depth from defocus: A spatial domain approach,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.13(3), 271–294 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, R.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, J.

J. Tan, M. A. Quinn, J. M. Pyman, P. M. Delaney, and W. J. McLaren, “Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy,” BJOG116(12), 1663–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teng, M. S.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thong, P. S.-P.

P. S.-P. Thong, M. Olivo, K.-W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K.-C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsiftsis, D. D.

A. Garofalakis, G. Zacharakis, G. Filippidis, E. Sanidas, D. D. Tsiftsis, V. Ntziachristos, T. G. Papazoglou, and J. Ripoll, “Characterization of the reduced scattering coefficient for optically thin samples: theory and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(7), 725–735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valentini, G.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vila, P. M.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, P. M. Vila, A. D. Polydorides, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Low-cost endomicroscopy in the esophagus and colon,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.106(9), 1722–1724 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wall, R. A.

R. A. Wall and J. K. Barton, “Fluorescence-based surface magnifying chromoendoscopy and optical coherence tomography endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

M. B. Wallace, P. Sharma, C. Lightdale, H. Wolfsen, E. Coron, A. Buchner, M. Bajbouj, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, J. Abrams, J. E. Crook, and A. Meining, “Preliminary accuracy and interobserver agreement for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.72(1), 19–24 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K. K.

K. K. Wang, R. E. Sampliner, and Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology, “Updated guidelines 2008 for the diagnosis, surveillance and therapy of Barrett’s esophagus,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.103(3), 788–797 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

Williams, M. D.

T. J. Muldoon, D. Roblyer, M. D. Williams, V. M. T. Stepanek, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck34(3), 305–312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. A. Schwarz, V. S. Bhattar, S. Mondrik, M. D. Williams, J. J. Lee, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Accuracy of in vivo multimodal optical imaging for detection of oral neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(6), 801–809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, M. C. Pierce, D. L. Nida, M. D. Williams, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Subcellular-resolution molecular imaging within living tissue by fiber microendoscopy,” Opt. Express15(25), 16413–16423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolfsen, H.

M. B. Wallace, P. Sharma, C. Lightdale, H. Wolfsen, E. Coron, A. Buchner, M. Bajbouj, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, J. Abrams, J. E. Crook, and A. Meining, “Preliminary accuracy and interobserver agreement for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.72(1), 19–24 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woo, J.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, W.

Yu, T.-K.

Yun, S. H.

W. Zhong, J. P. Celli, I. Rizvi, Z. Mai, B. Q. Spring, S. H. Yun, and T. Hasan, “In vivo high-resolution fluorescence microendoscopy for ovarian cancer detection and treatment monitoring,” Br. J. Cancer101(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zacharakis, G.

A. Garofalakis, G. Zacharakis, G. Filippidis, E. Sanidas, D. D. Tsiftsis, V. Ntziachristos, T. G. Papazoglou, and J. Ripoll, “Characterization of the reduced scattering coefficient for optically thin samples: theory and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(7), 725–735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zemp, R. J.

P. Shao, W. Shi, P. Hajireza, and R. J. Zemp, “Integrated micro-endoscopy system for simultaneous fluorescence and optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.-H.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, W.

P. S.-P. Thong, M. Olivo, K.-W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K.-C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, W.

W. Zhong, J. P. Celli, I. Rizvi, Z. Mai, B. Q. Spring, S. H. Yun, and T. Hasan, “In vivo high-resolution fluorescence microendoscopy for ovarian cancer detection and treatment monitoring,” Br. J. Cancer101(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Gastroenterol.

K. K. Wang, R. E. Sampliner, and Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology, “Updated guidelines 2008 for the diagnosis, surveillance and therapy of Barrett’s esophagus,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.103(3), 788–797 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, P. M. Vila, A. D. Polydorides, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Low-cost endomicroscopy in the esophagus and colon,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.106(9), 1722–1724 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.

M. Goetz and R. Kiesslich, “Advances of endomicroscopy for gastrointestinal physiology and diseases,” Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.298(6), G797–G806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. Oncol.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express

BJOG

J. Tan, M. A. Quinn, J. M. Pyman, P. M. Delaney, and W. J. McLaren, “Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy,” BJOG116(12), 1663–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer

W. Zhong, J. P. Celli, I. Rizvi, Z. Mai, B. Q. Spring, S. H. Yun, and T. Hasan, “In vivo high-resolution fluorescence microendoscopy for ovarian cancer detection and treatment monitoring,” Br. J. Cancer101(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)

M. C. Pierce, R. A. Schwarz, V. S. Bhattar, S. Mondrik, M. D. Williams, J. J. Lee, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Accuracy of in vivo multimodal optical imaging for detection of oral neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(6), 801–809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, E. Montgomery, and M. I. Canto, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus and endoscopically inapparent Barrett’s neoplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial,” Gastrointest. Endosc.70(4), 645–654 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, P. Sharma, C. Lightdale, H. Wolfsen, E. Coron, A. Buchner, M. Bajbouj, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, J. Abrams, J. E. Crook, and A. Meining, “Preliminary accuracy and interobserver agreement for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.72(1), 19–24 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Head Neck

T. J. Muldoon, D. Roblyer, M. D. Williams, V. M. T. Stepanek, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck34(3), 305–312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Comput. Vis.

M. Subbarao and G. Surya, “Depth from defocus: A spatial domain approach,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.13(3), 271–294 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Shao, W. Shi, P. Hajireza, and R. J. Zemp, “Integrated micro-endoscopy system for simultaneous fluorescence and optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Wall and J. K. Barton, “Fluorescence-based surface magnifying chromoendoscopy and optical coherence tomography endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S.-P. Thong, M. Olivo, K.-W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K.-C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Astner, S. Dietterle, N. Otberg, H.-J. Röwert-Huber, E. Stockfleth, and J. Lademann, “Clinical applicability of in vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

A. Garofalakis, G. Zacharakis, G. Filippidis, E. Sanidas, D. D. Tsiftsis, V. Ntziachristos, T. G. Papazoglou, and J. Ripoll, “Characterization of the reduced scattering coefficient for optically thin samples: theory and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(7), 725–735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Oral Oncol.

S. El Hallani, C. F. Poh, C. E. Macaulay, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, and P. Lane, “Ex vivo confocal imaging with contrast agents for the detection of oral potentially malignant lesions,” Oral Oncol.49(6), 582–590 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(23), 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE7(9), e44924 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

T. Dromard, V. Ravaine, S. Ravaine, J.-L. Lévêque, and N. Sojic, “Remote in vivo imaging of human skin corneocytes by means of an optical fiber bundle,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(5), 053709 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. C. Pierce, D. Yu, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution fiber-optic microendoscopy for in situ cellular imaging,” JOVE 47; http://www.jove.com/index/Details.stp?ID=2306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, A. R. Rouse, K. D. Hatch, A. F. Gmitro, “In vivo imaging of ovarian tissue using a novel confocal microlaparoscope,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 202, 90.e1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the optical setup. For microendoscopy, one end of a fiber-optic bundle is placed at the working distance of the objective lens. (a) Confocal and HRME beam paths are combined with a flip mirror. L1-4: lenses, Ex: excitation filter, Em: emission filter, Obj: Objective lens. (b) Ray diagram for the geometric model used to examine HRME imaging with defocus. An object located at distance u from the objective lens (defocus of ufobj) will form a focused image at v, and a blurred image of radius R on the camera at s = ftube. The objective lens and tube lens have diameters D1 and D2 respectively, and are separated by distance d.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

HRME (a-d) and confocal microendoscopy (e-h) imaging of a monolayer of 14.8 μm diameter beads as a function of defocus (distance from the monolayer to the fiber bundle’s distal tip). All images are 720 μm in diameter. (i) Measured (dots) and theoretical prediction (line) for bead diameter as a function of defocus. (j) Measured (dots) and theoretical prediction (line) for the mean bead intensity as a function of defocus.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a,b,c) Apparent diameter of 14.8 μm fluorescent beads in NS, LS, and HS phantoms as a function of bead depth beneath the phantom surface. (d,e,f) Normalized mean intensity of imaged fluorescent beads as a function of depth beneath the phantom surface in NS, LS, and HS samples. Circles: experimental data, line: predicted values from model.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a-f) Comparison between images of 3-D phantoms taken without (a-c) and with the fiber bundle (d-f) in NS (a,d), LS (b,e), and HS (c,f) samples. Scale bar = 100 μm. (g-i) Apparent diameter at surface of 14.8 μm fluorescent beads in NS, LS, and HS phantoms. (j-l) Normalized intensity at phantom surface in NS, LS, and HS samples. (Squares: data from fiber optic images, circles: data from non-fiber-optic images, solid line: expected values from model).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In vivo imaging of human oral mucosa with HRME (a) and confocal microendoscope systems (b).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R= D 1 2 ( 1dG )( dG f tube dG 1 )  for   f obj D 1 d D 1 d+ f obj ( D 1 + D 2 ) u f obj D 1 d D 1 d f obj ( D 1 + D 2 ) R= D 2 2 ( dG f tube dG 1 ) otherwise, where G= u f obj u f obj
AR=| R M |= f obj f tube | R |
AD=2( r+ f obj f tube | R | )
F= I ¯ 0 A 0 = I ¯ blur A blur
I ¯ blur = I ¯ 0 r 2 ( r+ f obj f tube | R | ) 2

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