Abstract

We have designed a compact dual wavelength (687 nm, 826 nm) multi-channel (16 sources, 8 detectors) medical device for muscle and brain imaging based on time domain functional near infrared spectroscopy. The system employs the wavelength space multiplexing approach to reduce wavelength cross-talk and increase signal-to-noise ratio. System performances have been tested on homogeneous and heterogeneous tissue phantoms following specifically designed protocols for photon migration instruments. Preliminary in vivo measurements have been performed to validate the instrument capability to monitor hemodynamic parameters changes in the arm muscle during arterial occlusion and in the adult head during a motor task experiment.

© 2013 OSA

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2013

J. Selb, B. B. Zimmermann, M. Martino, T. M. Ogden, and D. A. Boas, “Functional brain imaging with a supercontinuum time-domain NIRS system,” Proc. SPIE8578, 857807 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 066014 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, M. Caffini, R. Re, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Review: Brain and muscle near infrared spectroscopy/imaging techniques,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.20(1), 15–27 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Macdonald, and J. Steinbrink, “Separation of indocyanine green boluses in the human brain and scalp based on time-resolved in-vivo fluorescence measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 057003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, D. Milej, M. Kacprzak, W. Weigl, M. Botwicz, J. Mączewska, K. Fronczewska, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, L. Królicki, and R. Maniewski, “Assessment of inflow and washout of indocyanine green in the adult human brain by monitoring of diffuse reflectance at large source-detector separation,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 046011 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

R. Re, D. Contini, M. Caffini, R. Cubeddu, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “A compact time-resolved system for near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061708 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of the nonlinear fitting procedure for time-resolved measurements on diffusive phantoms at NIR wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE7174, 717424, 717424-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: Statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. Time-resolved method,” Opt. Express15(11), 6589–6604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Novel method for depth-resolved brain functional imaging by time-domain NIRS,” Proc. SPIE6629, 662908, 662908-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. Md, Y. S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the preterm brain,” Neuroimage31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, F. Paglia, and R. Cubeddu, “Multi-channel time-resolved system for functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express14(12), 5418–5432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 044008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. Sterenborg, J. M. Tualle, H. L. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, “Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol,” Appl. Opt.44(11), 2104–2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,” Neuroimage24(2), 426–435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H, 58590H-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2001

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arridge, S. R.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, Y. S. R.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. Md, Y. S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the preterm brain,” Neuroimage31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).

Austin, T.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. Md, Y. S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the preterm brain,” Neuroimage31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrillier, S.

Bargigia, I.

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bassi, A.

Boas, D. A.

J. Selb, B. B. Zimmermann, M. Martino, T. M. Ogden, and D. A. Boas, “Functional brain imaging with a supercontinuum time-domain NIRS system,” Proc. SPIE8578, 857807 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 044008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Botwicz, M.

A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, D. Milej, M. Kacprzak, W. Weigl, M. Botwicz, J. Mączewska, K. Fronczewska, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, L. Królicki, and R. Maniewski, “Assessment of inflow and washout of indocyanine green in the adult human brain by monitoring of diffuse reflectance at large source-detector separation,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 046011 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Branco, G.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. Md, Y. S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the preterm brain,” Neuroimage31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).

Brühl, R.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caffini, M.

D. Contini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, M. Caffini, R. Re, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Review: Brain and muscle near infrared spectroscopy/imaging techniques,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.20(1), 15–27 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Re, D. Contini, M. Caffini, R. Cubeddu, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “A compact time-resolved system for near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cignini, F.

Contini, D.

F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 066014 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, M. Caffini, R. Re, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Review: Brain and muscle near infrared spectroscopy/imaging techniques,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.20(1), 15–27 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Re, D. Contini, M. Caffini, R. Cubeddu, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “A compact time-resolved system for near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Novel method for depth-resolved brain functional imaging by time-domain NIRS,” Proc. SPIE6629, 662908, 662908-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, F. Paglia, and R. Cubeddu, “Multi-channel time-resolved system for functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express14(12), 5418–5432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. I. Theory,” Appl. Opt.36(19), 4587–4599 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

D. Contini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, M. Caffini, R. Re, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Review: Brain and muscle near infrared spectroscopy/imaging techniques,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.20(1), 15–27 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Re, D. Contini, M. Caffini, R. Cubeddu, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “A compact time-resolved system for near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of the nonlinear fitting procedure for time-resolved measurements on diffusive phantoms at NIR wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE7174, 717424, 717424-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. Time-resolved method,” Opt. Express15(11), 6589–6604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Novel method for depth-resolved brain functional imaging by time-domain NIRS,” Proc. SPIE6629, 662908, 662908-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, F. Paglia, and R. Cubeddu, “Multi-channel time-resolved system for functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express14(12), 5418–5432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. Sterenborg, J. M. Tualle, H. L. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, “Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol,” Appl. Opt.44(11), 2104–2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Del Bianco, F. Martelli, F. Cignini, G. Zaccanti, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, and R. Cubeddu, “Liquid phantom for investigating light propagation through layered diffusive media,” Opt. Express12(10), 2102–2111 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Del Bianco, S.

Delpy, D. T.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. Md, Y. S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the preterm brain,” Neuroimage31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diop, M.

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dreier, J.

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H, 58590H-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drenckhahn, C.

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H, 58590H-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, J. T.

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, R.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H, 58590H-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Everdell, N.

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everdell, N. L.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farina, A.

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of the nonlinear fitting procedure for time-resolved measurements on diffusive phantoms at NIR wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE7174, 717424, 717424-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. Time-resolved method,” Opt. Express15(11), 6589–6604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, M.

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiebach, J. B.

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061708 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fronczewska, K.

A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, D. Milej, M. Kacprzak, W. Weigl, M. Botwicz, J. Mączewska, K. Fronczewska, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, L. Królicki, and R. Maniewski, “Assessment of inflow and washout of indocyanine green in the adult human brain by monitoring of diffuse reflectance at large source-detector separation,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 046011 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabrusiewicz, A.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, A. P.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. Md, Y. S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the preterm brain,” Neuroimage31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosenick, D.

Gruber, C.

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061708 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. Md, Y. S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the preterm brain,” Neuroimage31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heine, A.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ittermann, B.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, A. M.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, J.

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: Statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, K. E.

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: Statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jelzow, A.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Macdonald, and J. Steinbrink, “Separation of indocyanine green boluses in the human brain and scalp based on time-resolved in-vivo fluorescence measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 057003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061708 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joseph, D. K.

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 044008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, J.

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: Statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kacprzak, M.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, D. Milej, M. Kacprzak, W. Weigl, M. Botwicz, J. Mączewska, K. Fronczewska, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, L. Królicki, and R. Maniewski, “Assessment of inflow and washout of indocyanine green in the adult human brain by monitoring of diffuse reflectance at large source-detector separation,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 046011 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirilina, E.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Królicki, L.

A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, D. Milej, M. Kacprzak, W. Weigl, M. Botwicz, J. Mączewska, K. Fronczewska, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, L. Królicki, and R. Maniewski, “Assessment of inflow and washout of indocyanine green in the adult human brain by monitoring of diffuse reflectance at large source-detector separation,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 046011 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T.-Y.

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liebert, A.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, D. Milej, M. Kacprzak, W. Weigl, M. Botwicz, J. Mączewska, K. Fronczewska, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, L. Królicki, and R. Maniewski, “Assessment of inflow and washout of indocyanine green in the adult human brain by monitoring of diffuse reflectance at large source-detector separation,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 046011 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,” Neuroimage24(2), 426–435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H, 58590H-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macdonald, R.

F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 066014 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Macdonald, and J. Steinbrink, “Separation of indocyanine green boluses in the human brain and scalp based on time-resolved in-vivo fluorescence measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 057003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061708 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,” Neuroimage24(2), 426–435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H, 58590H-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. Sterenborg, J. M. Tualle, H. L. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, “Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol,” Appl. Opt.44(11), 2104–2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maczewska, J.

A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, D. Milej, M. Kacprzak, W. Weigl, M. Botwicz, J. Mączewska, K. Fronczewska, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, L. Królicki, and R. Maniewski, “Assessment of inflow and washout of indocyanine green in the adult human brain by monitoring of diffuse reflectance at large source-detector separation,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 046011 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madycki, G.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maniewski, R.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, D. Milej, M. Kacprzak, W. Weigl, M. Botwicz, J. Mączewska, K. Fronczewska, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, L. Królicki, and R. Maniewski, “Assessment of inflow and washout of indocyanine green in the adult human brain by monitoring of diffuse reflectance at large source-detector separation,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 046011 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martelli, F.

Martino, M.

J. Selb, B. B. Zimmermann, M. Martino, T. M. Ogden, and D. A. Boas, “Functional brain imaging with a supercontinuum time-domain NIRS system,” Proc. SPIE8578, 857807 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mayzner-Zawadzka, E.

A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, D. Milej, M. Kacprzak, W. Weigl, M. Botwicz, J. Mączewska, K. Fronczewska, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, L. Królicki, and R. Maniewski, “Assessment of inflow and washout of indocyanine green in the adult human brain by monitoring of diffuse reflectance at large source-detector separation,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 046011 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazurenka, M.

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Md, R.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. Md, Y. S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the preterm brain,” Neuroimage31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).

Meek, J. H.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. Md, Y. S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the preterm brain,” Neuroimage31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Migueis, M.

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

Milej, D.

A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, D. Milej, M. Kacprzak, W. Weigl, M. Botwicz, J. Mączewska, K. Fronczewska, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, L. Królicki, and R. Maniewski, “Assessment of inflow and washout of indocyanine green in the adult human brain by monitoring of diffuse reflectance at large source-detector separation,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 046011 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moeller, M.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Möller, M.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,” Neuroimage24(2), 426–435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H, 58590H-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. Sterenborg, J. M. Tualle, H. L. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, “Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol,” Appl. Opt.44(11), 2104–2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nghiem, H. L.

Niessing, M.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obrig, H.

A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Macdonald, and J. Steinbrink, “Separation of indocyanine green boluses in the human brain and scalp based on time-resolved in-vivo fluorescence measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 057003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061708 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,” Neuroimage24(2), 426–435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H, 58590H-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogden, T. M.

J. Selb, B. B. Zimmermann, M. Martino, T. M. Ogden, and D. A. Boas, “Functional brain imaging with a supercontinuum time-domain NIRS system,” Proc. SPIE8578, 857807 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Paglia, F.

Pifferi, A.

F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 066014 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, M. Caffini, R. Re, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Review: Brain and muscle near infrared spectroscopy/imaging techniques,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.20(1), 15–27 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of the nonlinear fitting procedure for time-resolved measurements on diffusive phantoms at NIR wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE7174, 717424, 717424-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. Time-resolved method,” Opt. Express15(11), 6589–6604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Novel method for depth-resolved brain functional imaging by time-domain NIRS,” Proc. SPIE6629, 662908, 662908-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, F. Paglia, and R. Cubeddu, “Multi-channel time-resolved system for functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express14(12), 5418–5432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. Sterenborg, J. M. Tualle, H. L. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, “Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol,” Appl. Opt.44(11), 2104–2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Del Bianco, F. Martelli, F. Cignini, G. Zaccanti, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, and R. Cubeddu, “Liquid phantom for investigating light propagation through layered diffusive media,” Opt. Express12(10), 2102–2111 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quaresima, V.

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raitza, O.

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H, 58590H-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Re, R.

D. Contini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, M. Caffini, R. Re, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Review: Brain and muscle near infrared spectroscopy/imaging techniques,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.20(1), 15–27 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Re, D. Contini, M. Caffini, R. Cubeddu, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “A compact time-resolved system for near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,” Neuroimage24(2), 426–435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sassaroli, A.

F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 066014 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sawosz, P.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, D. Milej, M. Kacprzak, W. Weigl, M. Botwicz, J. Mączewska, K. Fronczewska, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, L. Królicki, and R. Maniewski, “Assessment of inflow and washout of indocyanine green in the adult human brain by monitoring of diffuse reflectance at large source-detector separation,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 046011 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selb, J.

J. Selb, B. B. Zimmermann, M. Martino, T. M. Ogden, and D. A. Boas, “Functional brain imaging with a supercontinuum time-domain NIRS system,” Proc. SPIE8578, 857807 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 044008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorensen, A. G.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinelli, L.

F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 066014 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, M. Caffini, R. Re, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Review: Brain and muscle near infrared spectroscopy/imaging techniques,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.20(1), 15–27 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Re, D. Contini, M. Caffini, R. Cubeddu, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “A compact time-resolved system for near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of the nonlinear fitting procedure for time-resolved measurements on diffusive phantoms at NIR wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE7174, 717424, 717424-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. Time-resolved method,” Opt. Express15(11), 6589–6604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Novel method for depth-resolved brain functional imaging by time-domain NIRS,” Proc. SPIE6629, 662908, 662908-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, F. Paglia, and R. Cubeddu, “Multi-channel time-resolved system for functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express14(12), 5418–5432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

St. Lawrence, K.

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stamm, H.

Staszkiewicz, W.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbrink, J.

A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Macdonald, and J. Steinbrink, “Separation of indocyanine green boluses in the human brain and scalp based on time-resolved in-vivo fluorescence measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 057003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061708 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,” Neuroimage24(2), 426–435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H, 58590H-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinkellner, O.

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061708 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

Stott, J. J.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svensson, T.

Swartling, J.

Tachtsidis, I.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tak, S.

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: Statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

Taubert, D. R.

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tichauer, K. M.

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torricelli, A.

F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 066014 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, M. Caffini, R. Re, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Review: Brain and muscle near infrared spectroscopy/imaging techniques,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.20(1), 15–27 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Re, D. Contini, M. Caffini, R. Cubeddu, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “A compact time-resolved system for near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of the nonlinear fitting procedure for time-resolved measurements on diffusive phantoms at NIR wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE7174, 717424, 717424-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. Time-resolved method,” Opt. Express15(11), 6589–6604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Novel method for depth-resolved brain functional imaging by time-domain NIRS,” Proc. SPIE6629, 662908, 662908-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, F. Paglia, and R. Cubeddu, “Multi-channel time-resolved system for functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express14(12), 5418–5432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. Sterenborg, J. M. Tualle, H. L. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, “Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol,” Appl. Opt.44(11), 2104–2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Del Bianco, F. Martelli, F. Cignini, G. Zaccanti, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, and R. Cubeddu, “Liquid phantom for investigating light propagation through layered diffusive media,” Opt. Express12(10), 2102–2111 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tualle, J. M.

van Veen, R. L. P.

Villringer, A.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,” Neuroimage24(2), 426–435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 066014 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Macdonald, and J. Steinbrink, “Separation of indocyanine green boluses in the human brain and scalp based on time-resolved in-vivo fluorescence measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 057003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061708 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,” Neuroimage24(2), 426–435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H, 58590H-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. Sterenborg, J. M. Tualle, H. L. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, “Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol,” Appl. Opt.44(11), 2104–2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walter, A.

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H, 58590H-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weigl, W.

A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, D. Milej, M. Kacprzak, W. Weigl, M. Botwicz, J. Mączewska, K. Fronczewska, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, L. Królicki, and R. Maniewski, “Assessment of inflow and washout of indocyanine green in the adult human brain by monitoring of diffuse reflectance at large source-detector separation,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 046011 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whelan, M.

Wolf, M.

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. Md, Y. S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the preterm brain,” Neuroimage31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J. C.

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: Statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yusof, R. M.

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

Zimmermann, B. B.

J. Selb, B. B. Zimmermann, M. Martino, T. M. Ogden, and D. A. Boas, “Functional brain imaging with a supercontinuum time-domain NIRS system,” Proc. SPIE8578, 857807 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zolek, N.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zucchelli, L.

D. Contini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, M. Caffini, R. Re, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Review: Brain and muscle near infrared spectroscopy/imaging techniques,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.20(1), 15–27 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 044008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061708 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Macdonald, and J. Steinbrink, “Separation of indocyanine green boluses in the human brain and scalp based on time-resolved in-vivo fluorescence measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 057003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, D. Milej, M. Kacprzak, W. Weigl, M. Botwicz, J. Mączewska, K. Fronczewska, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, L. Królicki, and R. Maniewski, “Assessment of inflow and washout of indocyanine green in the adult human brain by monitoring of diffuse reflectance at large source-detector separation,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 046011 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 066014 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.

D. Contini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, M. Caffini, R. Re, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Review: Brain and muscle near infrared spectroscopy/imaging techniques,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.20(1), 15–27 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neuroimage

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain,” Neuroimage31(2), 600–608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,” Neuroimage24(2), 426–435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. Md, Y. S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the preterm brain,” Neuroimage31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: Statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Med. Biol.

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H, 58590H-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Novel method for depth-resolved brain functional imaging by time-domain NIRS,” Proc. SPIE6629, 662908, 662908-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of the nonlinear fitting procedure for time-resolved measurements on diffusive phantoms at NIR wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE7174, 717424, 717424-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Selb, B. B. Zimmermann, M. Martino, T. M. Ogden, and D. A. Boas, “Functional brain imaging with a supercontinuum time-domain NIRS system,” Proc. SPIE8578, 857807 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Wabnitz, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. R. Taubert, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, A. Jelzow, A. Farina, I. Bargigia, D. Contini, M. Caffini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, R. Macdonald, and R. Cubeddu, “Assessment of basic instrumental performance of time-domain optical brain imagers,” Proc. SPIE7896, 789602, 789602-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

R. Re, D. Contini, M. Caffini, R. Cubeddu, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “A compact time-resolved system for near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. Selb and D. A. Boas, “A Second Generation Time-Domain Imaging System from MGH,” presented at nEUROPt Workshop, Non-invasive imaging of brain function and disease by pulsed near infrared light, Milan, 12–13 March 2012.

J. C. Hebden, S. Magazov, N. Everdell, and M. Varela, “A time-domain system for optical tomography of the newborn infant brain,” presented at nEUROPt Workshop, Non-invasive imaging of brain function and disease by pulsed near infrared light, Milan, 12–13 March 2012.

J. C. Hebden, M. Varela, S. Magazov, N. Everdell, A. Gibson, J. Meek, and T. Austin, “Diffuse optical imaging of the newborn infant brain,” in Proceeding. of 9th IEEE International Symposium onBiomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro, Barcelona, 2–5 May 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, J. Kaethner, J. Selbeck, A. Franceschini, P. Rozzi, and M. Zude, “Non-destructive optical assessment of photon path lengths in fruit during ripening: implications on design of continuous-wave sensors,” International Conference Of Agricultural Engineering, CIGR-AgEng2012,Valencia 8–12 July 2012, Papers Book, ISBN-10 84–615–9928–4.

W. Louisell, Quantum Statistical Properties of Radiation (Wiley, New York, 1973).

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: The neuropt protocol,” In Biomedical Optics, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper BSu2A.4.

International Elettrotechnical Commision, IEC 60825–1:2007, Edition 2. Safety of Laser Products - Part 1: Equipment Classification and Requirements (2007).

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage (Available online 5 June 2013).

http://bisp.kaist.ac.kr/NIRS-SPM.html .

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Complete scheme of the system. AE: Attenuation-Equalization stage; S: injection fiber; B: collection bundle; HPM: hybrid photomultiplier tube; A: amplifier; TCSPC: time correlated single photon counting board; μchip: microcontroller unit; Sync: synchronization signal. (b) Photo of the medical device with modules description.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a): an example of IRF. RED = 687nm, IR = 826nm. (b): stability test for the counts and the photon mean time-of-flight of the IRF at 687 nm for one detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Linearity for the absorption (a) and reduced scattering (b) coefficients at 687 nm. Results are average values over detectors and repeated measurements. The lines represent the linear fit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Accuracy for the absorption (a) and reduced scattering (b) coefficients at 687 nm. Results are average values over detectors and repeated measurements. The lines link the conventional values.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CV for the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficient at 687 nm. Lines: best fit with a power function. DET: Detector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Contrast plotted against the inclusion depth at different time gates and in the CW case. (b) Contrast plotted against the photon time-of-flight for different inclusion depths.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Contrast as a function of the absorption coefficient variations occurring in the only upper (a) or deeper (b) layer of a two-layered medium for different time gates (500, 2000, 4000ps and 4000ps obtained with the correction proposed by Contini et al. [7].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Hemodynamic changes during an arterial cuff occlusion of the right arm. First column: right arm. Second column left arm. The bars represent the standard deviation over the four measurement points

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optodes positions on the head: 5 injections (red circles) and 4 detections (green squares) optical fibers, around left and right motor cortex points (C3 and C4).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Contrast for the intensity at 687 nm (red) and 826 nm (pink) integrated in different time-windows with fixed width (250 ps) and variable delay (panel 1 to 10: from 0 ps to 2250 ps) for a channel placed in the left hemisphere.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Contrast for the intensity at 687 nm (red) and 826 nm (pink) integrated in different time-windows with fixed width (250 ps) and variable delay (panel 1 to 10: from 0 ps to 2250 ps) for a channel placed in the right hemisphere.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Time courses (units: µs) of O2Hb (red) and HHb (blue) concentration changes (units: µM) during the experiment for the right and left hemisphere.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Time courses (units: µs) of O2Hb (red) and HHb (blue) concentration changes (units: µM) during the experiment (folding average of the 6 blocks) for the right and left hemisphere.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

SPM maps of the cortical activations for O2Hb (left) and HHb (right). p<0.001, uncorrected. The color bars represent the p-value.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Source characterization. λ = center wavelength, Δλ = spectrum width, frep = laser repetition rate, Pav,out = laser output power, Psource = laser power delivered to the sample at the source optode, Asource = illuminated area on the surface of the sample

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