X. Chen, D. Yang, X. Qu, H. Hu, J. Liang, X. Gao, and J. Tian, “Comparisons of hybrid radiosity-diffusion model and diffusion equation for bioluminescence tomography in cavity cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066015 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Gorpas and S. Andersson-Engels, “Evaluation of a radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation hybrid forward solver for fluorescence molecular imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(12), 126010 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. Y. Soloviev, G. Zacharakis, G. Spiliopoulos, R. Favicchio, T. Correia, S. R. Arridge, and J. Ripoll, “Tomographic imaging with polarized light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A29(6), 980–988 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Peng, X. Gao, X. Qu, N. Ren, X. Chen, X. He, X. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, “Graphics processing unit parallel accelerated solution of the discrete ordinates for photon transport in biological tissues,” Appl. Opt.50(21), 3808–3823 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. Surya Mohan, T. Tarvainen, M. Schweiger, A. Pulkkinen, and S. R. Arridge, “Variable order spherical harmonic expansion scheme for the radiative transport equation using finite elements,” J. Comput. Phys.230(19), 7364–7383 (2011).

[CrossRef]

A. D. Klose, “The forward and inverse problem in tissue optics based on the radiative transfer equation: A brief review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.111(11), 1852–1853 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Ren, J. Liang, X. Qu, J. Li, B. Lu, and J. Tian, “GPU-based Monte Carlo simulation for light propagation in complex heterogeneous tissues,” Opt. Express18(7), 6811–6823 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, X. Yang, Q. Gao, and D. Han, “Evaluation of the simplified spherical harmonics approximation in bioluminescence tomography through heterogeneous mouse models,” Opt. Express18(20), 20988–21002 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, H. B. Machado, A. Douraghy, D. Stout, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Experimental bioluminescence tomography with fully parallel radiative-transfer-based reconstruction framework,” Opt. Express17(19), 16681–16695 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, A. Douraghy, H. B. Machado, D. Stout, J. Tian, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography with the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(21), 6477–6493 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Z. Yuan, X.-H. Hu, and H. Jiang, “A higher order diffusion model for three-dimensional photon migration and image reconstruction in optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(1), 67–88 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge and J. C. Schotland, “Optical tomography: forward and inverse problems,” Inverse Probl.25(12), 123010 (2009).

[CrossRef]

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.27(5), 48–57 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov.7(7), 591–607 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Wright, M. Schweiger, and S. R. Arridge, “Reconstruction in optical tomography using the PN approximations,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(1), 247–260 (2007).

[CrossRef]

W. Cong, A. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Liu, and G. Wang, “Flux vector formulation for photon propagation in the biological tissue,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2837–2839 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

B. Dogdas, D. Stout, A. F. Chatziioannou, and R. M. Leahy, “Digimouse: a 3D whole body mouse atlas from CT and cryosection data,” Phys. Med. Biol.52(3), 577–587 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express14(18), 8211–8223 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, “Light transport in biological tissue based on the simplified spherical harmonics equations,” J. Comput. Phys.220(1), 441–470 (2006).

[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(3), 313–320 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, and J. P. Kaipio, “Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(20), 4913–4930 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(4), R1–R43 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. D. Klose, V. Ntziachristos, and A. H. Hielscher, “The inverse source problem based on the radiative transfer equation in optical molecular imaging,” J. Comput. Phys.202(1), 323–345 (2005).

[CrossRef]

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, and J. P. Kaipio, “Hybrid radiative-transfer-diffusion model for optical tomography,” Appl. Opt.44(6), 876–886 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. X. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express13(18), 6756–6771 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. P. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol.11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. H. Lee, S. Kim, and Y. T. Kim, “Modeling of diffuse-diffuse photon coupling via a nonscattering region: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt.43(18), 3640–3655 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Hayashi, Y. Kashio, and E. Okada, “Hybrid Monte Carlo-diffusion method for light propagation in tissue with a low-scattering region,” Appl. Opt.42(16), 2888–2896 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(10), 103901 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, “Inverse scattering for the diffusion equation with general boundary conditions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(3), 035601 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: A direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys.27(1), 252–264 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A17(9), 1659–1670 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Riley, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. Ripoll, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “3D optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” Opt. Express7(13), 462–467 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, “Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol.44(12), 2897–2906 (1999).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.41(4), 767–783 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Gorpas and S. Andersson-Engels, “Evaluation of a radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation hybrid forward solver for fluorescence molecular imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(12), 126010 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. Y. Soloviev, G. Zacharakis, G. Spiliopoulos, R. Favicchio, T. Correia, S. R. Arridge, and J. Ripoll, “Tomographic imaging with polarized light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A29(6), 980–988 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. Surya Mohan, T. Tarvainen, M. Schweiger, A. Pulkkinen, and S. R. Arridge, “Variable order spherical harmonic expansion scheme for the radiative transport equation using finite elements,” J. Comput. Phys.230(19), 7364–7383 (2011).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge and J. C. Schotland, “Optical tomography: forward and inverse problems,” Inverse Probl.25(12), 123010 (2009).

[CrossRef]

S. Wright, M. Schweiger, and S. R. Arridge, “Reconstruction in optical tomography using the PN approximations,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(1), 247–260 (2007).

[CrossRef]

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, and J. P. Kaipio, “Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(20), 4913–4930 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(4), R1–R43 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Riley, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. Ripoll, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “3D optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” Opt. Express7(13), 462–467 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A17(9), 1659–1670 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: A direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys.27(1), 252–264 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, “Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol.44(12), 2897–2906 (1999).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.41(4), 767–783 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.27(5), 48–57 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.27(5), 48–57 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, A. Douraghy, H. B. Machado, D. Stout, J. Tian, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography with the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(21), 6477–6493 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, H. B. Machado, A. Douraghy, D. Stout, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Experimental bioluminescence tomography with fully parallel radiative-transfer-based reconstruction framework,” Opt. Express17(19), 16681–16695 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

B. Dogdas, D. Stout, A. F. Chatziioannou, and R. M. Leahy, “Digimouse: a 3D whole body mouse atlas from CT and cryosection data,” Phys. Med. Biol.52(3), 577–587 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Yang, X. Chen, S. Ren, X. Qu, J. Tian, and J. Liang, “Influence investigation of a void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium,” Appl. Opt.52(3), 400–408 (2013).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

X. Chen, D. Yang, X. Qu, H. Hu, J. Liang, X. Gao, and J. Tian, “Comparisons of hybrid radiosity-diffusion model and diffusion equation for bioluminescence tomography in cavity cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066015 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Peng, X. Gao, X. Qu, N. Ren, X. Chen, X. He, X. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, “Graphics processing unit parallel accelerated solution of the discrete ordinates for photon transport in biological tissues,” Appl. Opt.50(21), 3808–3823 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. Cong, A. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Liu, and G. Wang, “Flux vector formulation for photon propagation in the biological tissue,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2837–2839 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. X. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express13(18), 6756–6771 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. Cong, A. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Liu, and G. Wang, “Flux vector formulation for photon propagation in the biological tissue,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2837–2839 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express14(18), 8211–8223 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. X. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express13(18), 6756–6771 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. P. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol.11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Riley, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. Ripoll, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “3D optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” Opt. Express7(13), 462–467 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: A direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys.27(1), 252–264 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A17(9), 1659–1670 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, “Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol.44(12), 2897–2906 (1999).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A17(9), 1659–1670 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, “Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol.44(12), 2897–2906 (1999).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.41(4), 767–783 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov.7(7), 591–607 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

B. Dogdas, D. Stout, A. F. Chatziioannou, and R. M. Leahy, “Digimouse: a 3D whole body mouse atlas from CT and cryosection data,” Phys. Med. Biol.52(3), 577–587 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, A. Douraghy, H. B. Machado, D. Stout, J. Tian, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography with the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(21), 6477–6493 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, H. B. Machado, A. Douraghy, D. Stout, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Experimental bioluminescence tomography with fully parallel radiative-transfer-based reconstruction framework,” Opt. Express17(19), 16681–16695 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.41(4), 767–783 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov.7(7), 591–607 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, X. Yang, Q. Gao, and D. Han, “Evaluation of the simplified spherical harmonics approximation in bioluminescence tomography through heterogeneous mouse models,” Opt. Express18(20), 20988–21002 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

X. Chen, D. Yang, X. Qu, H. Hu, J. Liang, X. Gao, and J. Tian, “Comparisons of hybrid radiosity-diffusion model and diffusion equation for bioluminescence tomography in cavity cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066015 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Peng, X. Gao, X. Qu, N. Ren, X. Chen, X. He, X. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, “Graphics processing unit parallel accelerated solution of the discrete ordinates for photon transport in biological tissues,” Appl. Opt.50(21), 3808–3823 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(4), R1–R43 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Gorpas and S. Andersson-Engels, “Evaluation of a radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation hybrid forward solver for fluorescence molecular imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(12), 126010 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, X. Yang, Q. Gao, and D. Han, “Evaluation of the simplified spherical harmonics approximation in bioluminescence tomography through heterogeneous mouse models,” Opt. Express18(20), 20988–21002 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Peng, X. Gao, X. Qu, N. Ren, X. Chen, X. He, X. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, “Graphics processing unit parallel accelerated solution of the discrete ordinates for photon transport in biological tissues,” Appl. Opt.50(21), 3808–3823 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(4), R1–R43 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, H. B. Machado, A. Douraghy, D. Stout, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Experimental bioluminescence tomography with fully parallel radiative-transfer-based reconstruction framework,” Opt. Express17(19), 16681–16695 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, A. Douraghy, H. B. Machado, D. Stout, J. Tian, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography with the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(21), 6477–6493 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. D. Klose, V. Ntziachristos, and A. H. Hielscher, “The inverse source problem based on the radiative transfer equation in optical molecular imaging,” J. Comput. Phys.202(1), 323–345 (2005).

[CrossRef]

W. X. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express13(18), 6756–6771 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. P. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol.11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

X. Chen, D. Yang, X. Qu, H. Hu, J. Liang, X. Gao, and J. Tian, “Comparisons of hybrid radiosity-diffusion model and diffusion equation for bioluminescence tomography in cavity cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066015 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Z. Yuan, X.-H. Hu, and H. Jiang, “A higher order diffusion model for three-dimensional photon migration and image reconstruction in optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(1), 67–88 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Z. Yuan, X.-H. Hu, and H. Jiang, “A higher order diffusion model for three-dimensional photon migration and image reconstruction in optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(1), 67–88 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. X. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express13(18), 6756–6771 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, and J. P. Kaipio, “Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(20), 4913–4930 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, and J. P. Kaipio, “Hybrid radiative-transfer-diffusion model for optical tomography,” Appl. Opt.44(6), 876–886 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. D. Klose, “The forward and inverse problem in tissue optics based on the radiative transfer equation: A brief review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.111(11), 1852–1853 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, “Light transport in biological tissue based on the simplified spherical harmonics equations,” J. Comput. Phys.220(1), 441–470 (2006).

[CrossRef]

A. D. Klose, V. Ntziachristos, and A. H. Hielscher, “The inverse source problem based on the radiative transfer equation in optical molecular imaging,” J. Comput. Phys.202(1), 323–345 (2005).

[CrossRef]

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, and J. P. Kaipio, “Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(20), 4913–4930 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, and J. P. Kaipio, “Hybrid radiative-transfer-diffusion model for optical tomography,” Appl. Opt.44(6), 876–886 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. X. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express13(18), 6756–6771 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, “Light transport in biological tissue based on the simplified spherical harmonics equations,” J. Comput. Phys.220(1), 441–470 (2006).

[CrossRef]

B. Dogdas, D. Stout, A. F. Chatziioannou, and R. M. Leahy, “Digimouse: a 3D whole body mouse atlas from CT and cryosection data,” Phys. Med. Biol.52(3), 577–587 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express14(18), 8211–8223 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. P. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol.11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.27(5), 48–57 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Yang, X. Chen, S. Ren, X. Qu, J. Tian, and J. Liang, “Influence investigation of a void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium,” Appl. Opt.52(3), 400–408 (2013).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

X. Chen, D. Yang, X. Qu, H. Hu, J. Liang, X. Gao, and J. Tian, “Comparisons of hybrid radiosity-diffusion model and diffusion equation for bioluminescence tomography in cavity cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066015 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Peng, X. Gao, X. Qu, N. Ren, X. Chen, X. He, X. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, “Graphics processing unit parallel accelerated solution of the discrete ordinates for photon transport in biological tissues,” Appl. Opt.50(21), 3808–3823 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Ren, J. Liang, X. Qu, J. Li, B. Lu, and J. Tian, “GPU-based Monte Carlo simulation for light propagation in complex heterogeneous tissues,” Opt. Express18(7), 6811–6823 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.27(5), 48–57 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, X. Yang, Q. Gao, and D. Han, “Evaluation of the simplified spherical harmonics approximation in bioluminescence tomography through heterogeneous mouse models,” Opt. Express18(20), 20988–21002 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. Cong, A. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Liu, and G. Wang, “Flux vector formulation for photon propagation in the biological tissue,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2837–2839 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. X. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express13(18), 6756–6771 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, X. Yang, Q. Gao, and D. Han, “Evaluation of the simplified spherical harmonics approximation in bioluminescence tomography through heterogeneous mouse models,” Opt. Express18(20), 20988–21002 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, A. Douraghy, H. B. Machado, D. Stout, J. Tian, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography with the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(21), 6477–6493 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, H. B. Machado, A. Douraghy, D. Stout, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Experimental bioluminescence tomography with fully parallel radiative-transfer-based reconstruction framework,” Opt. Express17(19), 16681–16695 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, H. B. Machado, A. Douraghy, D. Stout, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Experimental bioluminescence tomography with fully parallel radiative-transfer-based reconstruction framework,” Opt. Express17(19), 16681–16695 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, A. Douraghy, H. B. Machado, D. Stout, J. Tian, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography with the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(21), 6477–6493 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, “Inverse scattering for the diffusion equation with general boundary conditions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(3), 035601 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. X. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express13(18), 6756–6771 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. X. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express13(18), 6756–6771 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. D. Klose, V. Ntziachristos, and A. H. Hielscher, “The inverse source problem based on the radiative transfer equation in optical molecular imaging,” J. Comput. Phys.202(1), 323–345 (2005).

[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(3), 313–320 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(10), 103901 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Hayashi, Y. Kashio, and E. Okada, “Hybrid Monte Carlo-diffusion method for light propagation in tissue with a low-scattering region,” Appl. Opt.42(16), 2888–2896 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: A direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys.27(1), 252–264 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Peng, X. Gao, X. Qu, N. Ren, X. Chen, X. He, X. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, “Graphics processing unit parallel accelerated solution of the discrete ordinates for photon transport in biological tissues,” Appl. Opt.50(21), 3808–3823 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. Surya Mohan, T. Tarvainen, M. Schweiger, A. Pulkkinen, and S. R. Arridge, “Variable order spherical harmonic expansion scheme for the radiative transport equation using finite elements,” J. Comput. Phys.230(19), 7364–7383 (2011).

[CrossRef]

K. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, X. Yang, Q. Gao, and D. Han, “Evaluation of the simplified spherical harmonics approximation in bioluminescence tomography through heterogeneous mouse models,” Opt. Express18(20), 20988–21002 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Yang, X. Chen, S. Ren, X. Qu, J. Tian, and J. Liang, “Influence investigation of a void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium,” Appl. Opt.52(3), 400–408 (2013).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

X. Chen, D. Yang, X. Qu, H. Hu, J. Liang, X. Gao, and J. Tian, “Comparisons of hybrid radiosity-diffusion model and diffusion equation for bioluminescence tomography in cavity cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066015 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Peng, X. Gao, X. Qu, N. Ren, X. Chen, X. He, X. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, “Graphics processing unit parallel accelerated solution of the discrete ordinates for photon transport in biological tissues,” Appl. Opt.50(21), 3808–3823 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Ren, J. Liang, X. Qu, J. Li, B. Lu, and J. Tian, “GPU-based Monte Carlo simulation for light propagation in complex heterogeneous tissues,” Opt. Express18(7), 6811–6823 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Peng, X. Gao, X. Qu, N. Ren, X. Chen, X. He, X. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, “Graphics processing unit parallel accelerated solution of the discrete ordinates for photon transport in biological tissues,” Appl. Opt.50(21), 3808–3823 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Ren, J. Liang, X. Qu, J. Li, B. Lu, and J. Tian, “GPU-based Monte Carlo simulation for light propagation in complex heterogeneous tissues,” Opt. Express18(7), 6811–6823 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. Y. Soloviev, G. Zacharakis, G. Spiliopoulos, R. Favicchio, T. Correia, S. R. Arridge, and J. Ripoll, “Tomographic imaging with polarized light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A29(6), 980–988 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(3), 313–320 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(10), 103901 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Riley, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. Ripoll, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “3D optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” Opt. Express7(13), 462–467 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge and J. C. Schotland, “Optical tomography: forward and inverse problems,” Inverse Probl.25(12), 123010 (2009).

[CrossRef]

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, “Inverse scattering for the diffusion equation with general boundary conditions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(3), 035601 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(10), 103901 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. Surya Mohan, T. Tarvainen, M. Schweiger, A. Pulkkinen, and S. R. Arridge, “Variable order spherical harmonic expansion scheme for the radiative transport equation using finite elements,” J. Comput. Phys.230(19), 7364–7383 (2011).

[CrossRef]

S. Wright, M. Schweiger, and S. R. Arridge, “Reconstruction in optical tomography using the PN approximations,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(1), 247–260 (2007).

[CrossRef]

J. Riley, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. Ripoll, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “3D optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” Opt. Express7(13), 462–467 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: A direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys.27(1), 252–264 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A17(9), 1659–1670 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.41(4), 767–783 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, H. B. Machado, A. Douraghy, D. Stout, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Experimental bioluminescence tomography with fully parallel radiative-transfer-based reconstruction framework,” Opt. Express17(19), 16681–16695 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, A. Douraghy, H. B. Machado, D. Stout, J. Tian, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography with the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(21), 6477–6493 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

B. Dogdas, D. Stout, A. F. Chatziioannou, and R. M. Leahy, “Digimouse: a 3D whole body mouse atlas from CT and cryosection data,” Phys. Med. Biol.52(3), 577–587 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. Surya Mohan, T. Tarvainen, M. Schweiger, A. Pulkkinen, and S. R. Arridge, “Variable order spherical harmonic expansion scheme for the radiative transport equation using finite elements,” J. Comput. Phys.230(19), 7364–7383 (2011).

[CrossRef]

P. Surya Mohan, T. Tarvainen, M. Schweiger, A. Pulkkinen, and S. R. Arridge, “Variable order spherical harmonic expansion scheme for the radiative transport equation using finite elements,” J. Comput. Phys.230(19), 7364–7383 (2011).

[CrossRef]

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, and J. P. Kaipio, “Hybrid radiative-transfer-diffusion model for optical tomography,” Appl. Opt.44(6), 876–886 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, and J. P. Kaipio, “Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(20), 4913–4930 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Yang, X. Chen, S. Ren, X. Qu, J. Tian, and J. Liang, “Influence investigation of a void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium,” Appl. Opt.52(3), 400–408 (2013).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

X. Chen, D. Yang, X. Qu, H. Hu, J. Liang, X. Gao, and J. Tian, “Comparisons of hybrid radiosity-diffusion model and diffusion equation for bioluminescence tomography in cavity cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066015 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Peng, X. Gao, X. Qu, N. Ren, X. Chen, X. He, X. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, “Graphics processing unit parallel accelerated solution of the discrete ordinates for photon transport in biological tissues,” Appl. Opt.50(21), 3808–3823 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Ren, J. Liang, X. Qu, J. Li, B. Lu, and J. Tian, “GPU-based Monte Carlo simulation for light propagation in complex heterogeneous tissues,” Opt. Express18(7), 6811–6823 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, X. Yang, Q. Gao, and D. Han, “Evaluation of the simplified spherical harmonics approximation in bioluminescence tomography through heterogeneous mouse models,” Opt. Express18(20), 20988–21002 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, A. Douraghy, H. B. Machado, D. Stout, J. Tian, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography with the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(21), 6477–6493 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.27(5), 48–57 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express14(18), 8211–8223 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. P. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol.11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov.7(7), 591–607 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, and J. P. Kaipio, “Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(20), 4913–4930 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, and J. P. Kaipio, “Hybrid radiative-transfer-diffusion model for optical tomography,” Appl. Opt.44(6), 876–886 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. Cong, A. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Liu, and G. Wang, “Flux vector formulation for photon propagation in the biological tissue,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2837–2839 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express14(18), 8211–8223 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. X. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express13(18), 6756–6771 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. P. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol.11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. X. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express13(18), 6756–6771 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(3), 313–320 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. P. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol.11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Peng, X. Gao, X. Qu, N. Ren, X. Chen, X. He, X. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, “Graphics processing unit parallel accelerated solution of the discrete ordinates for photon transport in biological tissues,” Appl. Opt.50(21), 3808–3823 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(3), 313–320 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov.7(7), 591–607 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Wright, M. Schweiger, and S. R. Arridge, “Reconstruction in optical tomography using the PN approximations,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(1), 247–260 (2007).

[CrossRef]

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.27(5), 48–57 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Yang, X. Chen, S. Ren, X. Qu, J. Tian, and J. Liang, “Influence investigation of a void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium,” Appl. Opt.52(3), 400–408 (2013).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

X. Chen, D. Yang, X. Qu, H. Hu, J. Liang, X. Gao, and J. Tian, “Comparisons of hybrid radiosity-diffusion model and diffusion equation for bioluminescence tomography in cavity cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066015 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, X. Yang, Q. Gao, and D. Han, “Evaluation of the simplified spherical harmonics approximation in bioluminescence tomography through heterogeneous mouse models,” Opt. Express18(20), 20988–21002 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, X. Yang, Q. Gao, and D. Han, “Evaluation of the simplified spherical harmonics approximation in bioluminescence tomography through heterogeneous mouse models,” Opt. Express18(20), 20988–21002 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.27(5), 48–57 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Z. Yuan, X.-H. Hu, and H. Jiang, “A higher order diffusion model for three-dimensional photon migration and image reconstruction in optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(1), 67–88 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. X. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express13(18), 6756–6771 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. P. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol.11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, X. Yang, Q. Gao, and D. Han, “Evaluation of the simplified spherical harmonics approximation in bioluminescence tomography through heterogeneous mouse models,” Opt. Express18(20), 20988–21002 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. P. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol.11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Hayashi, Y. Kashio, and E. Okada, “Hybrid Monte Carlo-diffusion method for light propagation in tissue with a low-scattering region,” Appl. Opt.42(16), 2888–2896 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Yang, X. Chen, S. Ren, X. Qu, J. Tian, and J. Liang, “Influence investigation of a void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium,” Appl. Opt.52(3), 400–408 (2013).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. H. Lee, S. Kim, and Y. T. Kim, “Modeling of diffuse-diffuse photon coupling via a nonscattering region: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt.43(18), 3640–3655 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, and J. P. Kaipio, “Hybrid radiative-transfer-diffusion model for optical tomography,” Appl. Opt.44(6), 876–886 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Peng, X. Gao, X. Qu, N. Ren, X. Chen, X. He, X. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, “Graphics processing unit parallel accelerated solution of the discrete ordinates for photon transport in biological tissues,” Appl. Opt.50(21), 3808–3823 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.27(5), 48–57 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge and J. C. Schotland, “Optical tomography: forward and inverse problems,” Inverse Probl.25(12), 123010 (2009).

[CrossRef]

D. Gorpas and S. Andersson-Engels, “Evaluation of a radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation hybrid forward solver for fluorescence molecular imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(12), 126010 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

X. Chen, D. Yang, X. Qu, H. Hu, J. Liang, X. Gao, and J. Tian, “Comparisons of hybrid radiosity-diffusion model and diffusion equation for bioluminescence tomography in cavity cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066015 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. D. Klose, V. Ntziachristos, and A. H. Hielscher, “The inverse source problem based on the radiative transfer equation in optical molecular imaging,” J. Comput. Phys.202(1), 323–345 (2005).

[CrossRef]

P. Surya Mohan, T. Tarvainen, M. Schweiger, A. Pulkkinen, and S. R. Arridge, “Variable order spherical harmonic expansion scheme for the radiative transport equation using finite elements,” J. Comput. Phys.230(19), 7364–7383 (2011).

[CrossRef]

A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, “Light transport in biological tissue based on the simplified spherical harmonics equations,” J. Comput. Phys.220(1), 441–470 (2006).

[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A17(9), 1659–1670 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. Y. Soloviev, G. Zacharakis, G. Spiliopoulos, R. Favicchio, T. Correia, S. R. Arridge, and J. Ripoll, “Tomographic imaging with polarized light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A29(6), 980–988 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. D. Klose, “The forward and inverse problem in tissue optics based on the radiative transfer equation: A brief review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.111(11), 1852–1853 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Wright, M. Schweiger, and S. R. Arridge, “Reconstruction in optical tomography using the PN approximations,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(1), 247–260 (2007).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: A direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys.27(1), 252–264 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(3), 313–320 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov.7(7), 591–607 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. X. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express13(18), 6756–6771 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express14(18), 8211–8223 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, X. Yang, Q. Gao, and D. Han, “Evaluation of the simplified spherical harmonics approximation in bioluminescence tomography through heterogeneous mouse models,” Opt. Express18(20), 20988–21002 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Ren, J. Liang, X. Qu, J. Li, B. Lu, and J. Tian, “GPU-based Monte Carlo simulation for light propagation in complex heterogeneous tissues,” Opt. Express18(7), 6811–6823 (2010).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, H. B. Machado, A. Douraghy, D. Stout, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Experimental bioluminescence tomography with fully parallel radiative-transfer-based reconstruction framework,” Opt. Express17(19), 16681–16695 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Riley, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. Ripoll, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “3D optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” Opt. Express7(13), 462–467 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, A. Douraghy, H. B. Machado, D. Stout, J. Tian, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography with the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(21), 6477–6493 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, “Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol.44(12), 2897–2906 (1999).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(4), R1–R43 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Z. Yuan, X.-H. Hu, and H. Jiang, “A higher order diffusion model for three-dimensional photon migration and image reconstruction in optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(1), 67–88 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.41(4), 767–783 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, and J. P. Kaipio, “Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(20), 4913–4930 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

B. Dogdas, D. Stout, A. F. Chatziioannou, and R. M. Leahy, “Digimouse: a 3D whole body mouse atlas from CT and cryosection data,” Phys. Med. Biol.52(3), 577–587 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, “Inverse scattering for the diffusion equation with general boundary conditions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(3), 035601 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(10), 103901 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]