Abstract

Prostate brachytherapy, administered by implanting tiny radioactive seeds to treat prostate cancer, currently relies on transrectal ultrasound imaging for intraoperative visualization of the metallic seeds. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has been suggested as a feasible alternative to ultrasound imaging due to its superior sensitivity to metal surrounded by tissue. However, PA images suffer from poor contrast when seeds are distant from the light source. We propose a transperineal light delivery method and investigate the application of a short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) beamformer to enhance low-contrast photoacoustic signals that are distant from this type of light source. Performance is compared to a conventional delay-and-sum beamformer. A pure gelatin phantom was implanted with black ink-coated brachytherapy seeds and the mean contrast was improved by 3–25 dB with the SLSC beamformer for fiber-seed distances ranging 0.6–6.3 cm, when approximately 10% of the receive aperture elements were included in the short-lag sum. For fiber-seed distances greater than 3–4 cm, the mean contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was approximately doubled with the SLSC beamformer, while mean signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were mostly similar with both beamformers. Lateral resolution was decreased by 2 mm, but improved with larger short-lag values at the expense of poorer CNR and SNR. Similar contrast and CNR improvements were achieved with an uncoated brachytherapy seed implanted in ex vivo tissue. Results indicate that the SLSC beamformer has potential to enhance the visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds that are distant from the light source.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. S. Langley and R. Laing, “Prostate brachytherapy has come of age: a review of the technique and results,” Brit. J. Urol.89, 241–249 (2002).
  2. N. Kuo, H. J. Kang, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “Real-time photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds using a clinical ultrasound system,” J. Biomed. Opt.17, 0660051–0660057 (2012).
  3. T. Harrison and R. J. Zemp, “Coregistered photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging applied to brachytherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 080502–080502 (2011).
  4. J. L. Su, R. R. Bouchard, A. B. Karpiouk, J. D. Hazle, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds,” Biomed. Opt. Express2, 2243 (2011).
  5. A. G. Bell, “On the production and reproduction of sound by light”, Am. J. Sci.118, 305–324 (1880).
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  15. J. J. Dahl, D. Hyun, M. A. Lediju, and G. E. Trahey, “Lesion detectability in diagnostic ultrasound with short-lag spatial coherence imaging.” Ultrasonic Imaging33, 119 (2011).
  16. M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, and G. E. Trahey, “Clutter reduction in echocardiography with short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging(IEEE, 2012), pp. 1116–1119.
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    [CrossRef]
  18. M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, J. J. Dahl, and G. E. Trahey, “Improved visualization of endocardial borders with short-lag spatial coherence imaging of fundamental and harmonic ultrasound data,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2129–2132.
  19. M. Jakovljevic, G. E. Trahey, R. C. Nelson, and J. J. Dahl, “In Vivo application of short-lag spatial coherence imaging in human liver,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.39, 534–542 (2013).
  20. B. Pourebrahimi, S. Yoon, D. Dopsa, and M. C. Kolios, “Improving the quality of photoacoustic images using the short-lag spatial coherence imaging technique,” Proc. SPIE85813Y (2013)
  21. C. G. Roehrborn, C. J. Girman, T. Rhodes, K. A. Hanson, G. N. Collins, S. M. Sech, S. J. Jacobsen, W. M. Garraway, and M. M. Lieber, “Correlation between prostate size estimated by digital rectal examination and measured by transrectal ultrasound,” Urology49, 548–557 (1997).
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  24. J. L. Karagiannes, Z. Zhang, B. Grossweiner, and L. I. Grossweiner, “Applications of the 1-D diffusion approximation to the optics of tissues and tissue phantoms,” Appl. Optics28, 2311–2317 (1989).
  25. W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect.26, 2166–2185 (1990).
  26. R. J. Fedewa, K. D. Wallace, M. R. Holland, J. R. Jago, G. C. Ng, M. R. Rielly, B. S. Robinson, and J. G. Miller, “Spatial coherence of the nonlinearly generated second harmonic portion of backscatter for a clinical imaging system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.50, 1010–1022 (2003).
  27. R. Mallart and M. Fink, “The van Cittert–Zernike theorem in pulse echo measurements,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.90, 2718 (1991).

2013

T. Mitcham, K. Homan, W. Frey, Y.-S. Chen, S. Emelianov, J. Hazle, and R. Bouchard, “Modulation of photoacoustic signal generation from metallic surfaces,” J. Biomed. Opt.18, 056008 (2013).

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, J. A. Kisslo, J. J. Dahl, and G. E. Trahey, “Short-lag spatial coherence imaging of cardiac ultrasound data: Initial clinical results,” Ultrasound Med. Biol., 39(10), 1861–1874 (2013) (DOI:).
[CrossRef]

M. Jakovljevic, G. E. Trahey, R. C. Nelson, and J. J. Dahl, “In Vivo application of short-lag spatial coherence imaging in human liver,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.39, 534–542 (2013).

B. Pourebrahimi, S. Yoon, D. Dopsa, and M. C. Kolios, “Improving the quality of photoacoustic images using the short-lag spatial coherence imaging technique,” Proc. SPIE85813Y (2013)

2012

N. Kuo, H. J. Kang, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “Real-time photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds using a clinical ultrasound system,” J. Biomed. Opt.17, 0660051–0660057 (2012).

2011

T. Harrison and R. J. Zemp, “Coregistered photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging applied to brachytherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 080502–080502 (2011).

N. Kuo, H. J. Kang, T. DeJournett, J. Spicer, and E. Boctor, “Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds in ex vivo prostate,” Proc. SPIE796409 (2011).

M. A. Lediju, G. E. Trahey, B. C. Byram, and J. J. Dahl, “Short-lag spatial coherence of backscattered echoes: Imaging characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.58, 1337 (2011).

J. J. Dahl, D. Hyun, M. A. Lediju, and G. E. Trahey, “Lesion detectability in diagnostic ultrasound with short-lag spatial coherence imaging.” Ultrasonic Imaging33, 119 (2011).

J. L. Su, R. R. Bouchard, A. B. Karpiouk, J. D. Hazle, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds,” Biomed. Opt. Express2, 2243 (2011).

2010

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt.15, 021314 (2010).

2008

2007

M. Jaeger, S. Schüpbach, A. Gertsch, M. Kitz, and M. Frenz, “Fourier reconstruction in optoacoustic imaging using truncated regularized inverse k-space interpolation,” Inverse Probl.23, S51 (2007).

2006

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 041101–041101 (2006).

2003

R. J. Fedewa, K. D. Wallace, M. R. Holland, J. R. Jago, G. C. Ng, M. R. Rielly, B. S. Robinson, and J. G. Miller, “Spatial coherence of the nonlinearly generated second harmonic portion of backscatter for a clinical imaging system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.50, 1010–1022 (2003).

2002

S. Langley and R. Laing, “Prostate brachytherapy has come of age: a review of the technique and results,” Brit. J. Urol.89, 241–249 (2002).

1999

W. H. Nau, R. J. Roselli, and D. F. Milam, “Measurement of thermal effects on the optical properties of prostate tissue at wavelengths of 1,064 and 633 nm,” Laser. Surg. Med.24, 38–47 (1999).

1997

C. G. Roehrborn, C. J. Girman, T. Rhodes, K. A. Hanson, G. N. Collins, S. M. Sech, S. J. Jacobsen, W. M. Garraway, and M. M. Lieber, “Correlation between prostate size estimated by digital rectal examination and measured by transrectal ultrasound,” Urology49, 548–557 (1997).

1991

R. Mallart and M. Fink, “The van Cittert–Zernike theorem in pulse echo measurements,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.90, 2718 (1991).

1990

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect.26, 2166–2185 (1990).

1989

J. L. Karagiannes, Z. Zhang, B. Grossweiner, and L. I. Grossweiner, “Applications of the 1-D diffusion approximation to the optics of tissues and tissue phantoms,” Appl. Optics28, 2311–2317 (1989).

1880

A. G. Bell, “On the production and reproduction of sound by light”, Am. J. Sci.118, 305–324 (1880).

Abolmaesumi, P.

L. Pan, A. Baghani, R. Rohling, P. Abolmaesumi, S. Salcudean, and S. Tang, “Improving photoacoustic imaging contrast of brachytherapy seeds,” Proc. SPIE85814B (2013).

Aglyamov, S. R.

Baghani, A.

L. Pan, A. Baghani, R. Rohling, P. Abolmaesumi, S. Salcudean, and S. Tang, “Improving photoacoustic imaging contrast of brachytherapy seeds,” Proc. SPIE85814B (2013).

Bell, A. G.

A. G. Bell, “On the production and reproduction of sound by light”, Am. J. Sci.118, 305–324 (1880).

Boctor, E.

N. Kuo, H. J. Kang, T. DeJournett, J. Spicer, and E. Boctor, “Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds in ex vivo prostate,” Proc. SPIE796409 (2011).

Boctor, E. M.

N. Kuo, H. J. Kang, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “Real-time photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds using a clinical ultrasound system,” J. Biomed. Opt.17, 0660051–0660057 (2012).

E. M. Boctor, “Prostate brachytherapy seed localization using combined photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging,” presented at SPIE Ultrasonic Imaging, Tomography and Therapy, San Diego, California, 14 Feb. 2010.

Bouchard, R.

T. Mitcham, K. Homan, W. Frey, Y.-S. Chen, S. Emelianov, J. Hazle, and R. Bouchard, “Modulation of photoacoustic signal generation from metallic surfaces,” J. Biomed. Opt.18, 056008 (2013).

Bouchard, R. R.

Byram, B. C.

M. A. Lediju, G. E. Trahey, B. C. Byram, and J. J. Dahl, “Short-lag spatial coherence of backscattered echoes: Imaging characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.58, 1337 (2011).

Chen, Y.-S.

T. Mitcham, K. Homan, W. Frey, Y.-S. Chen, S. Emelianov, J. Hazle, and R. Bouchard, “Modulation of photoacoustic signal generation from metallic surfaces,” J. Biomed. Opt.18, 056008 (2013).

Cheong, W.-F.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect.26, 2166–2185 (1990).

Collins, G. N.

C. G. Roehrborn, C. J. Girman, T. Rhodes, K. A. Hanson, G. N. Collins, S. M. Sech, S. J. Jacobsen, W. M. Garraway, and M. M. Lieber, “Correlation between prostate size estimated by digital rectal examination and measured by transrectal ultrasound,” Urology49, 548–557 (1997).

Cox, B. T.

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt.15, 021314 (2010).

Dahl, J. J.

M. Jakovljevic, G. E. Trahey, R. C. Nelson, and J. J. Dahl, “In Vivo application of short-lag spatial coherence imaging in human liver,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.39, 534–542 (2013).

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, J. A. Kisslo, J. J. Dahl, and G. E. Trahey, “Short-lag spatial coherence imaging of cardiac ultrasound data: Initial clinical results,” Ultrasound Med. Biol., 39(10), 1861–1874 (2013) (DOI:).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lediju, G. E. Trahey, B. C. Byram, and J. J. Dahl, “Short-lag spatial coherence of backscattered echoes: Imaging characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.58, 1337 (2011).

J. J. Dahl, D. Hyun, M. A. Lediju, and G. E. Trahey, “Lesion detectability in diagnostic ultrasound with short-lag spatial coherence imaging.” Ultrasonic Imaging33, 119 (2011).

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, J. J. Dahl, and G. E. Trahey, “Improved visualization of endocardial borders with short-lag spatial coherence imaging of fundamental and harmonic ultrasound data,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2129–2132.

DeJournett, T.

N. Kuo, H. J. Kang, T. DeJournett, J. Spicer, and E. Boctor, “Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds in ex vivo prostate,” Proc. SPIE796409 (2011).

Dopsa, D.

B. Pourebrahimi, S. Yoon, D. Dopsa, and M. C. Kolios, “Improving the quality of photoacoustic images using the short-lag spatial coherence imaging technique,” Proc. SPIE85813Y (2013)

Emelianov, S.

T. Mitcham, K. Homan, W. Frey, Y.-S. Chen, S. Emelianov, J. Hazle, and R. Bouchard, “Modulation of photoacoustic signal generation from metallic surfaces,” J. Biomed. Opt.18, 056008 (2013).

Emelianov, S. Y.

Fedewa, R. J.

R. J. Fedewa, K. D. Wallace, M. R. Holland, J. R. Jago, G. C. Ng, M. R. Rielly, B. S. Robinson, and J. G. Miller, “Spatial coherence of the nonlinearly generated second harmonic portion of backscatter for a clinical imaging system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.50, 1010–1022 (2003).

Fink, M.

R. Mallart and M. Fink, “The van Cittert–Zernike theorem in pulse echo measurements,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.90, 2718 (1991).

Frenz, M.

M. Jaeger, S. Schüpbach, A. Gertsch, M. Kitz, and M. Frenz, “Fourier reconstruction in optoacoustic imaging using truncated regularized inverse k-space interpolation,” Inverse Probl.23, S51 (2007).

Frey, W.

T. Mitcham, K. Homan, W. Frey, Y.-S. Chen, S. Emelianov, J. Hazle, and R. Bouchard, “Modulation of photoacoustic signal generation from metallic surfaces,” J. Biomed. Opt.18, 056008 (2013).

Garraway, W. M.

C. G. Roehrborn, C. J. Girman, T. Rhodes, K. A. Hanson, G. N. Collins, S. M. Sech, S. J. Jacobsen, W. M. Garraway, and M. M. Lieber, “Correlation between prostate size estimated by digital rectal examination and measured by transrectal ultrasound,” Urology49, 548–557 (1997).

Gertsch, A.

M. Jaeger, S. Schüpbach, A. Gertsch, M. Kitz, and M. Frenz, “Fourier reconstruction in optoacoustic imaging using truncated regularized inverse k-space interpolation,” Inverse Probl.23, S51 (2007).

Girman, C. J.

C. G. Roehrborn, C. J. Girman, T. Rhodes, K. A. Hanson, G. N. Collins, S. M. Sech, S. J. Jacobsen, W. M. Garraway, and M. M. Lieber, “Correlation between prostate size estimated by digital rectal examination and measured by transrectal ultrasound,” Urology49, 548–557 (1997).

Goswami, R.

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, J. A. Kisslo, J. J. Dahl, and G. E. Trahey, “Short-lag spatial coherence imaging of cardiac ultrasound data: Initial clinical results,” Ultrasound Med. Biol., 39(10), 1861–1874 (2013) (DOI:).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, and G. E. Trahey, “Clutter reduction in echocardiography with short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging(IEEE, 2012), pp. 1116–1119.

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, J. J. Dahl, and G. E. Trahey, “Improved visualization of endocardial borders with short-lag spatial coherence imaging of fundamental and harmonic ultrasound data,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2129–2132.

Grossweiner, B.

J. L. Karagiannes, Z. Zhang, B. Grossweiner, and L. I. Grossweiner, “Applications of the 1-D diffusion approximation to the optics of tissues and tissue phantoms,” Appl. Optics28, 2311–2317 (1989).

Grossweiner, L. I.

J. L. Karagiannes, Z. Zhang, B. Grossweiner, and L. I. Grossweiner, “Applications of the 1-D diffusion approximation to the optics of tissues and tissue phantoms,” Appl. Optics28, 2311–2317 (1989).

Hanson, K. A.

C. G. Roehrborn, C. J. Girman, T. Rhodes, K. A. Hanson, G. N. Collins, S. M. Sech, S. J. Jacobsen, W. M. Garraway, and M. M. Lieber, “Correlation between prostate size estimated by digital rectal examination and measured by transrectal ultrasound,” Urology49, 548–557 (1997).

Harrison, T.

T. Harrison and R. J. Zemp, “Coregistered photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging applied to brachytherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 080502–080502 (2011).

Hazle, J.

T. Mitcham, K. Homan, W. Frey, Y.-S. Chen, S. Emelianov, J. Hazle, and R. Bouchard, “Modulation of photoacoustic signal generation from metallic surfaces,” J. Biomed. Opt.18, 056008 (2013).

Hazle, J. D.

Holland, M. R.

R. J. Fedewa, K. D. Wallace, M. R. Holland, J. R. Jago, G. C. Ng, M. R. Rielly, B. S. Robinson, and J. G. Miller, “Spatial coherence of the nonlinearly generated second harmonic portion of backscatter for a clinical imaging system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.50, 1010–1022 (2003).

Homan, K.

T. Mitcham, K. Homan, W. Frey, Y.-S. Chen, S. Emelianov, J. Hazle, and R. Bouchard, “Modulation of photoacoustic signal generation from metallic surfaces,” J. Biomed. Opt.18, 056008 (2013).

Hyun, D.

J. J. Dahl, D. Hyun, M. A. Lediju, and G. E. Trahey, “Lesion detectability in diagnostic ultrasound with short-lag spatial coherence imaging.” Ultrasonic Imaging33, 119 (2011).

Jacobsen, S. J.

C. G. Roehrborn, C. J. Girman, T. Rhodes, K. A. Hanson, G. N. Collins, S. M. Sech, S. J. Jacobsen, W. M. Garraway, and M. M. Lieber, “Correlation between prostate size estimated by digital rectal examination and measured by transrectal ultrasound,” Urology49, 548–557 (1997).

Jaeger, M.

M. Jaeger, S. Schüpbach, A. Gertsch, M. Kitz, and M. Frenz, “Fourier reconstruction in optoacoustic imaging using truncated regularized inverse k-space interpolation,” Inverse Probl.23, S51 (2007).

Jago, J. R.

R. J. Fedewa, K. D. Wallace, M. R. Holland, J. R. Jago, G. C. Ng, M. R. Rielly, B. S. Robinson, and J. G. Miller, “Spatial coherence of the nonlinearly generated second harmonic portion of backscatter for a clinical imaging system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.50, 1010–1022 (2003).

Jakovljevic, M.

M. Jakovljevic, G. E. Trahey, R. C. Nelson, and J. J. Dahl, “In Vivo application of short-lag spatial coherence imaging in human liver,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.39, 534–542 (2013).

Kang, H. J.

N. Kuo, H. J. Kang, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “Real-time photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds using a clinical ultrasound system,” J. Biomed. Opt.17, 0660051–0660057 (2012).

N. Kuo, H. J. Kang, T. DeJournett, J. Spicer, and E. Boctor, “Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds in ex vivo prostate,” Proc. SPIE796409 (2011).

Kang, J. U.

N. Kuo, H. J. Kang, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “Real-time photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds using a clinical ultrasound system,” J. Biomed. Opt.17, 0660051–0660057 (2012).

Karagiannes, J. L.

J. L. Karagiannes, Z. Zhang, B. Grossweiner, and L. I. Grossweiner, “Applications of the 1-D diffusion approximation to the optics of tissues and tissue phantoms,” Appl. Optics28, 2311–2317 (1989).

Karpiouk, A. B.

Kisslo, J. A.

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, J. A. Kisslo, J. J. Dahl, and G. E. Trahey, “Short-lag spatial coherence imaging of cardiac ultrasound data: Initial clinical results,” Ultrasound Med. Biol., 39(10), 1861–1874 (2013) (DOI:).
[CrossRef]

Kitz, M.

M. Jaeger, S. Schüpbach, A. Gertsch, M. Kitz, and M. Frenz, “Fourier reconstruction in optoacoustic imaging using truncated regularized inverse k-space interpolation,” Inverse Probl.23, S51 (2007).

Kolios, M. C.

B. Pourebrahimi, S. Yoon, D. Dopsa, and M. C. Kolios, “Improving the quality of photoacoustic images using the short-lag spatial coherence imaging technique,” Proc. SPIE85813Y (2013)

Kuo, N.

N. Kuo, H. J. Kang, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “Real-time photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds using a clinical ultrasound system,” J. Biomed. Opt.17, 0660051–0660057 (2012).

N. Kuo, H. J. Kang, T. DeJournett, J. Spicer, and E. Boctor, “Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds in ex vivo prostate,” Proc. SPIE796409 (2011).

Laing, R.

S. Langley and R. Laing, “Prostate brachytherapy has come of age: a review of the technique and results,” Brit. J. Urol.89, 241–249 (2002).

Langley, S.

S. Langley and R. Laing, “Prostate brachytherapy has come of age: a review of the technique and results,” Brit. J. Urol.89, 241–249 (2002).

Lediju, M. A.

J. J. Dahl, D. Hyun, M. A. Lediju, and G. E. Trahey, “Lesion detectability in diagnostic ultrasound with short-lag spatial coherence imaging.” Ultrasonic Imaging33, 119 (2011).

M. A. Lediju, G. E. Trahey, B. C. Byram, and J. J. Dahl, “Short-lag spatial coherence of backscattered echoes: Imaging characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.58, 1337 (2011).

Lediju Bell, M. A.

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, J. A. Kisslo, J. J. Dahl, and G. E. Trahey, “Short-lag spatial coherence imaging of cardiac ultrasound data: Initial clinical results,” Ultrasound Med. Biol., 39(10), 1861–1874 (2013) (DOI:).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, and G. E. Trahey, “Clutter reduction in echocardiography with short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging(IEEE, 2012), pp. 1116–1119.

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, J. J. Dahl, and G. E. Trahey, “Improved visualization of endocardial borders with short-lag spatial coherence imaging of fundamental and harmonic ultrasound data,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2129–2132.

Lieber, M. M.

C. G. Roehrborn, C. J. Girman, T. Rhodes, K. A. Hanson, G. N. Collins, S. M. Sech, S. J. Jacobsen, W. M. Garraway, and M. M. Lieber, “Correlation between prostate size estimated by digital rectal examination and measured by transrectal ultrasound,” Urology49, 548–557 (1997).

Mallart, R.

R. Mallart and M. Fink, “The van Cittert–Zernike theorem in pulse echo measurements,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.90, 2718 (1991).

Milam, D. F.

W. H. Nau, R. J. Roselli, and D. F. Milam, “Measurement of thermal effects on the optical properties of prostate tissue at wavelengths of 1,064 and 633 nm,” Laser. Surg. Med.24, 38–47 (1999).

Miller, J. G.

R. J. Fedewa, K. D. Wallace, M. R. Holland, J. R. Jago, G. C. Ng, M. R. Rielly, B. S. Robinson, and J. G. Miller, “Spatial coherence of the nonlinearly generated second harmonic portion of backscatter for a clinical imaging system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.50, 1010–1022 (2003).

Mitcham, T.

T. Mitcham, K. Homan, W. Frey, Y.-S. Chen, S. Emelianov, J. Hazle, and R. Bouchard, “Modulation of photoacoustic signal generation from metallic surfaces,” J. Biomed. Opt.18, 056008 (2013).

Nau, W. H.

W. H. Nau, R. J. Roselli, and D. F. Milam, “Measurement of thermal effects on the optical properties of prostate tissue at wavelengths of 1,064 and 633 nm,” Laser. Surg. Med.24, 38–47 (1999).

Nelson, R. C.

M. Jakovljevic, G. E. Trahey, R. C. Nelson, and J. J. Dahl, “In Vivo application of short-lag spatial coherence imaging in human liver,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.39, 534–542 (2013).

Ng, G. C.

R. J. Fedewa, K. D. Wallace, M. R. Holland, J. R. Jago, G. C. Ng, M. R. Rielly, B. S. Robinson, and J. G. Miller, “Spatial coherence of the nonlinearly generated second harmonic portion of backscatter for a clinical imaging system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.50, 1010–1022 (2003).

Pan, L.

L. Pan, A. Baghani, R. Rohling, P. Abolmaesumi, S. Salcudean, and S. Tang, “Improving photoacoustic imaging contrast of brachytherapy seeds,” Proc. SPIE85814B (2013).

Park, S.

Pourebrahimi, B.

B. Pourebrahimi, S. Yoon, D. Dopsa, and M. C. Kolios, “Improving the quality of photoacoustic images using the short-lag spatial coherence imaging technique,” Proc. SPIE85813Y (2013)

Prahl, S. A.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect.26, 2166–2185 (1990).

Rhodes, T.

C. G. Roehrborn, C. J. Girman, T. Rhodes, K. A. Hanson, G. N. Collins, S. M. Sech, S. J. Jacobsen, W. M. Garraway, and M. M. Lieber, “Correlation between prostate size estimated by digital rectal examination and measured by transrectal ultrasound,” Urology49, 548–557 (1997).

Rielly, M. R.

R. J. Fedewa, K. D. Wallace, M. R. Holland, J. R. Jago, G. C. Ng, M. R. Rielly, B. S. Robinson, and J. G. Miller, “Spatial coherence of the nonlinearly generated second harmonic portion of backscatter for a clinical imaging system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.50, 1010–1022 (2003).

Robinson, B. S.

R. J. Fedewa, K. D. Wallace, M. R. Holland, J. R. Jago, G. C. Ng, M. R. Rielly, B. S. Robinson, and J. G. Miller, “Spatial coherence of the nonlinearly generated second harmonic portion of backscatter for a clinical imaging system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.50, 1010–1022 (2003).

Roehrborn, C. G.

C. G. Roehrborn, C. J. Girman, T. Rhodes, K. A. Hanson, G. N. Collins, S. M. Sech, S. J. Jacobsen, W. M. Garraway, and M. M. Lieber, “Correlation between prostate size estimated by digital rectal examination and measured by transrectal ultrasound,” Urology49, 548–557 (1997).

Rohling, R.

L. Pan, A. Baghani, R. Rohling, P. Abolmaesumi, S. Salcudean, and S. Tang, “Improving photoacoustic imaging contrast of brachytherapy seeds,” Proc. SPIE85814B (2013).

Roselli, R. J.

W. H. Nau, R. J. Roselli, and D. F. Milam, “Measurement of thermal effects on the optical properties of prostate tissue at wavelengths of 1,064 and 633 nm,” Laser. Surg. Med.24, 38–47 (1999).

Salcudean, S.

L. Pan, A. Baghani, R. Rohling, P. Abolmaesumi, S. Salcudean, and S. Tang, “Improving photoacoustic imaging contrast of brachytherapy seeds,” Proc. SPIE85814B (2013).

Schüpbach, S.

M. Jaeger, S. Schüpbach, A. Gertsch, M. Kitz, and M. Frenz, “Fourier reconstruction in optoacoustic imaging using truncated regularized inverse k-space interpolation,” Inverse Probl.23, S51 (2007).

Sech, S. M.

C. G. Roehrborn, C. J. Girman, T. Rhodes, K. A. Hanson, G. N. Collins, S. M. Sech, S. J. Jacobsen, W. M. Garraway, and M. M. Lieber, “Correlation between prostate size estimated by digital rectal examination and measured by transrectal ultrasound,” Urology49, 548–557 (1997).

Song, D. Y.

N. Kuo, H. J. Kang, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “Real-time photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds using a clinical ultrasound system,” J. Biomed. Opt.17, 0660051–0660057 (2012).

Spicer, J.

N. Kuo, H. J. Kang, T. DeJournett, J. Spicer, and E. Boctor, “Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds in ex vivo prostate,” Proc. SPIE796409 (2011).

Standard, A.

A. Standard, “Z136. 1. American national standard for the safe use of lasers. American National Standards Institute,” Inc., New York (1993).

Su, J. L.

Tang, S.

L. Pan, A. Baghani, R. Rohling, P. Abolmaesumi, S. Salcudean, and S. Tang, “Improving photoacoustic imaging contrast of brachytherapy seeds,” Proc. SPIE85814B (2013).

Trahey, G. E.

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, J. A. Kisslo, J. J. Dahl, and G. E. Trahey, “Short-lag spatial coherence imaging of cardiac ultrasound data: Initial clinical results,” Ultrasound Med. Biol., 39(10), 1861–1874 (2013) (DOI:).
[CrossRef]

M. Jakovljevic, G. E. Trahey, R. C. Nelson, and J. J. Dahl, “In Vivo application of short-lag spatial coherence imaging in human liver,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.39, 534–542 (2013).

J. J. Dahl, D. Hyun, M. A. Lediju, and G. E. Trahey, “Lesion detectability in diagnostic ultrasound with short-lag spatial coherence imaging.” Ultrasonic Imaging33, 119 (2011).

M. A. Lediju, G. E. Trahey, B. C. Byram, and J. J. Dahl, “Short-lag spatial coherence of backscattered echoes: Imaging characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.58, 1337 (2011).

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, J. J. Dahl, and G. E. Trahey, “Improved visualization of endocardial borders with short-lag spatial coherence imaging of fundamental and harmonic ultrasound data,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2129–2132.

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, and G. E. Trahey, “Clutter reduction in echocardiography with short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging(IEEE, 2012), pp. 1116–1119.

Treeby, B. E.

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt.15, 021314 (2010).

Wallace, K. D.

R. J. Fedewa, K. D. Wallace, M. R. Holland, J. R. Jago, G. C. Ng, M. R. Rielly, B. S. Robinson, and J. G. Miller, “Spatial coherence of the nonlinearly generated second harmonic portion of backscatter for a clinical imaging system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.50, 1010–1022 (2003).

Wang, L. V.

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 041101–041101 (2006).

Welch, A. J.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect.26, 2166–2185 (1990).

Xu, M.

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 041101–041101 (2006).

Yoon, S.

B. Pourebrahimi, S. Yoon, D. Dopsa, and M. C. Kolios, “Improving the quality of photoacoustic images using the short-lag spatial coherence imaging technique,” Proc. SPIE85813Y (2013)

Zemp, R. J.

T. Harrison and R. J. Zemp, “Coregistered photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging applied to brachytherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 080502–080502 (2011).

Zhang, Z.

J. L. Karagiannes, Z. Zhang, B. Grossweiner, and L. I. Grossweiner, “Applications of the 1-D diffusion approximation to the optics of tissues and tissue phantoms,” Appl. Optics28, 2311–2317 (1989).

Am. J. Sci.

A. G. Bell, “On the production and reproduction of sound by light”, Am. J. Sci.118, 305–324 (1880).

Appl. Optics

J. L. Karagiannes, Z. Zhang, B. Grossweiner, and L. I. Grossweiner, “Applications of the 1-D diffusion approximation to the optics of tissues and tissue phantoms,” Appl. Optics28, 2311–2317 (1989).

Biomed. Opt. Express

Brit. J. Urol.

S. Langley and R. Laing, “Prostate brachytherapy has come of age: a review of the technique and results,” Brit. J. Urol.89, 241–249 (2002).

IEEE J. Quantum Elect.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect.26, 2166–2185 (1990).

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.

R. J. Fedewa, K. D. Wallace, M. R. Holland, J. R. Jago, G. C. Ng, M. R. Rielly, B. S. Robinson, and J. G. Miller, “Spatial coherence of the nonlinearly generated second harmonic portion of backscatter for a clinical imaging system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.50, 1010–1022 (2003).

M. A. Lediju, G. E. Trahey, B. C. Byram, and J. J. Dahl, “Short-lag spatial coherence of backscattered echoes: Imaging characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferr. Freq. Contr.58, 1337 (2011).

Inverse Probl.

M. Jaeger, S. Schüpbach, A. Gertsch, M. Kitz, and M. Frenz, “Fourier reconstruction in optoacoustic imaging using truncated regularized inverse k-space interpolation,” Inverse Probl.23, S51 (2007).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

R. Mallart and M. Fink, “The van Cittert–Zernike theorem in pulse echo measurements,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.90, 2718 (1991).

J. Biomed. Opt.

T. Mitcham, K. Homan, W. Frey, Y.-S. Chen, S. Emelianov, J. Hazle, and R. Bouchard, “Modulation of photoacoustic signal generation from metallic surfaces,” J. Biomed. Opt.18, 056008 (2013).

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt.15, 021314 (2010).

N. Kuo, H. J. Kang, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “Real-time photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds using a clinical ultrasound system,” J. Biomed. Opt.17, 0660051–0660057 (2012).

T. Harrison and R. J. Zemp, “Coregistered photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging applied to brachytherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 080502–080502 (2011).

Laser. Surg. Med.

W. H. Nau, R. J. Roselli, and D. F. Milam, “Measurement of thermal effects on the optical properties of prostate tissue at wavelengths of 1,064 and 633 nm,” Laser. Surg. Med.24, 38–47 (1999).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

B. Pourebrahimi, S. Yoon, D. Dopsa, and M. C. Kolios, “Improving the quality of photoacoustic images using the short-lag spatial coherence imaging technique,” Proc. SPIE85813Y (2013)

N. Kuo, H. J. Kang, T. DeJournett, J. Spicer, and E. Boctor, “Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds in ex vivo prostate,” Proc. SPIE796409 (2011).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 041101–041101 (2006).

Ultrasonic Imaging

J. J. Dahl, D. Hyun, M. A. Lediju, and G. E. Trahey, “Lesion detectability in diagnostic ultrasound with short-lag spatial coherence imaging.” Ultrasonic Imaging33, 119 (2011).

Ultrasound Med. Biol.

M. Jakovljevic, G. E. Trahey, R. C. Nelson, and J. J. Dahl, “In Vivo application of short-lag spatial coherence imaging in human liver,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.39, 534–542 (2013).

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, J. A. Kisslo, J. J. Dahl, and G. E. Trahey, “Short-lag spatial coherence imaging of cardiac ultrasound data: Initial clinical results,” Ultrasound Med. Biol., 39(10), 1861–1874 (2013) (DOI:).
[CrossRef]

Urology

C. G. Roehrborn, C. J. Girman, T. Rhodes, K. A. Hanson, G. N. Collins, S. M. Sech, S. J. Jacobsen, W. M. Garraway, and M. M. Lieber, “Correlation between prostate size estimated by digital rectal examination and measured by transrectal ultrasound,” Urology49, 548–557 (1997).

Other

A. Standard, “Z136. 1. American national standard for the safe use of lasers. American National Standards Institute,” Inc., New York (1993).

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, J. J. Dahl, and G. E. Trahey, “Improved visualization of endocardial borders with short-lag spatial coherence imaging of fundamental and harmonic ultrasound data,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2129–2132.

M. A. Lediju Bell, R. Goswami, and G. E. Trahey, “Clutter reduction in echocardiography with short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging(IEEE, 2012), pp. 1116–1119.

E. M. Boctor, “Prostate brachytherapy seed localization using combined photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging,” presented at SPIE Ultrasonic Imaging, Tomography and Therapy, San Diego, California, 14 Feb. 2010.

L. Pan, A. Baghani, R. Rohling, P. Abolmaesumi, S. Salcudean, and S. Tang, “Improving photoacoustic imaging contrast of brachytherapy seeds,” Proc. SPIE85814B (2013).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A gelatin phantom was implanted with coated brachytherapy seeds separated by 5 mm in the z direction. An optical fiber was inserted into a light diffusing sheath and placed approximately 6 mm below the y–z plane of the seeds. The fiber-sheath tip distance, indicated by the green double arrow, was varied from 0 cm to 5 cm. The 2-D cross-section view shows the orientation of the seeds relative to the fiber, with seed # 1 being closest to the probe and farthest from the fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

An ex vivo bovine liver was embedded in gelatin and implanted with one non-radioactive, uncoated brachytherapy seed. The 2D cross-section view shows the orientation of the transrectal probe relative to the optical fiber and light diffusing sheath. The linear array is parallel to the y axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

B-mode ultrasound images acquired with (a) curvilinear and (b) linear arrays of the transrectal ultrasound probe. Yellow arrows point to the three implanted seeds, and the red arrow shows the location of the fiber. Seed #1 is the uppermost seed in each image. (c,d) Corresponding photoacoustic images over-laid on the B-mode images in a yellow-red color scale. The dynamic range of the B-mode images and the linear and curvilinear PA images was adjusted to 50, 35, and 20 dB, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Examples of the spatial coherence of time-delayed, photoacoustic wave-fields originating from seed and noise regions, acquired with the curvilinear ultra-sound array. Coherence curves like these were used to form SLSC photoacoustic images, as described by Eqs. (1) and (2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

DAS and SLSC photoacoustic images overlaid on B-mode images. The seeds were increasingly difficult to visualize with the DAS beamformer as distance from the light source increased. They were more easily visualized with the SLSC beamformer at the larger distances. Images are shown with 25 dB dynamic range. SLSC images were calculated with a short-lag value of M=4. The white bars, each 5 mm in length, denote the image scale. Seed #1 is the uppermost seed in each image.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Contrast and (b) SNR as a function of distance between the seeds and optical fiber. Contrast is relatively constant with the SLSC beamformer, compared to the DAS beamformer. However, SNR with the SLSC beamformer ranges from similar to worse than SNR with the DAS beamformer. Error bars indicate ± one standard deviation of five image frames. SLSC performance metrics were calculated with a short-lag value of M=4.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

CNR of seeds #1–3 as a function of distance between the seed and fiber. The SLSC beamformer generally has better CNR for larger fiber-seed distances. Error bars indicate ± one standard deviation of five image frames. SLSC performance metrics were calculated with a short-lag value of M=4.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transverse (top) and longitudinal (bottom) scans of the three brachytherapy seeds created with the DAS and SLSC beamformers. Short-lag values with the SLSC beamformer are shown for values of M ranging 2–10. The distance between the fiber and sheath tips is 0 cm for the transverse scans and 3 cm for the longitudinal scans. The dynamic range of all PA images is 25 dB. The white bars, each 5 mm in length, denote the image scale. Seed #1 is the uppermost seed in each image.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Contrast, (b) CNR, and (c) SNR as a function of the short-lag value, M, calculated at a fiber-sheath tip distance of 3 cm. (d) Lateral resolution in DAS and SLSC photoacoustic images was measured using seed #3 and the curvilinear probe. Error bars indicate ± one standard deviation of five image frames.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) B-mode image of the ex vivo bovine liver implanted with an uncoated brachytherapy seed, acquired with the linear array of transrectal probe. Photoacoustic (PA) images created with (b) DAS and (c) SLSC beamformers were overlaid on the ultrasound image and shown with 10 dB dynamic range.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R ^ ( m ) = 1 N m i = 1 N m n = n 1 n 2 s i ( n ) s i + m ( n ) n = n 1 n 2 s i 2 ( n ) n = n 1 n 2 s i + m 2 ( n )
R sl = m = 1 M R ^ ( m )
C = 20 log 10 ( S i S o )
CNR = | S i S o | σ o
SNR = S i σ o

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