Abstract

Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a form of reflectance confocal microscopy that can achieve high imaging speeds using relatively simple probe optics. Previously, the feasibility of conducting large-area SECM imaging of the esophagus in bench top setups has been demonstrated. Challenges remain, however, in translating SECM into a clinically-useable device; the tissue imaging performance should be improved, and the probe size needs to be significantly reduced so that it can fit into luminal organs of interest. In this paper, we report the development of new SECM endoscopic probe optics that addresses these challenges. A custom water-immersion aspheric singlet (NA = 0.5) was developed and used as the objective lens. The water-immersion condition was used to reduce the spherical aberrations and specular reflection from the tissue surface, which enables cellular imaging of the tissue deep below the surface. A custom collimation lens and a small-size grating were used along with the custom aspheric singlet to reduce the probe size. A dual-clad fiber was used to provide both the single- and multi- mode detection modes. The SECM probe optics was made to be 5.85 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, which is small enough for safe and comfortable endoscopic imaging of the gastrointestinal tract. The lateral resolution was 1.8 and 2.3 µm for the single- and multi- mode detection modes, respectively, and the axial resolution 11 and 17 µm. SECM images of the swine esophageal tissue demonstrated the capability of this device to enable the visualization of characteristic cellular structural features, including basal cell nuclei and papillae, down to the imaging depth of 260 µm. These results suggest that the new SECM endoscopic probe optics will be useful for imaging large areas of the esophagus at the cellular scale in vivo.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

2012 (2)

L. Golan, D. Yeheskely-Hayon, L. Minai, and D. Yelin, “High-speed interferometric spectrally encoded flow cytometry,” Opt. Lett.37(24), 5154–5156 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Glazowski and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 085001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

Y. K. Tao and J. A. Izatt, “Spectrally encoded confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Lett.35(4), 574–576 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. i. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express18(10), 9755–9764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy With Virtual Chromoendoscopy for Classification of Colon Polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Vázquez-Iglesias, P. Alonso-Aguirre, M. T. Diz-Lois, M. A. Vázquez-Millán, A. Alvarez, and M. J. Lorenzo, “Acetic acid allows effective selection of areas for obtaining biopsy samples in Barrett’s esophagus,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.19(3), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ren, P. Shum, J. Hu, X. Yu, and Y. Gong, “Fabrication of all-solid photonic bandgap fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett.32(21), 3059–3061 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

M. Guelrud, I. Herrera, H. Essenfeld, and J. Castro, “Enhanced magnification endoscopy: A new technique to identify specialized intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc.53(6), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

Alonso-Aguirre, P.

J. L. Vázquez-Iglesias, P. Alonso-Aguirre, M. T. Diz-Lois, M. A. Vázquez-Millán, A. Alvarez, and M. J. Lorenzo, “Acetic acid allows effective selection of areas for obtaining biopsy samples in Barrett’s esophagus,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.19(3), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alvarez, A.

J. L. Vázquez-Iglesias, P. Alonso-Aguirre, M. T. Diz-Lois, M. A. Vázquez-Millán, A. Alvarez, and M. J. Lorenzo, “Acetic acid allows effective selection of areas for obtaining biopsy samples in Barrett’s esophagus,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.19(3), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ando, T.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, V.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. i. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express18(10), 9755–9764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

S. C. Schlachter, D. Kang, M. J. Gora, P. Vacas-Jacques, T. Wu, R. W. Carruth, E. J. Wilsterman, B. E. Bouma, K. Woods, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy of esophageal tissues at 100 kHz line rate,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(9), 1636–1645 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Kang, H. Yoo, P. Jillella, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive volumetric confocal microscopy with adaptive focusing,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1412–1422 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett.29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchner, A. M.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy With Virtual Chromoendoscopy for Classification of Colon Polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carruth, R. W.

Castro, J.

M. Guelrud, I. Herrera, H. Essenfeld, and J. Castro, “Enhanced magnification endoscopy: A new technique to identify specialized intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc.53(6), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crook, J. E.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy With Virtual Chromoendoscopy for Classification of Colon Polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahlmann, A.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daxhelet, X.

Desjardins, A. E.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diz-Lois, M. T.

J. L. Vázquez-Iglesias, P. Alonso-Aguirre, M. T. Diz-Lois, M. A. Vázquez-Millán, A. Alvarez, and M. J. Lorenzo, “Acetic acid allows effective selection of areas for obtaining biopsy samples in Barrett’s esophagus,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.19(3), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Essenfeld, H.

M. Guelrud, I. Herrera, H. Essenfeld, and J. Castro, “Enhanced magnification endoscopy: A new technique to identify specialized intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc.53(6), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, J. A.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galle, P. R.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghabril, M.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy With Virtual Chromoendoscopy for Classification of Colon Polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glazowski, C.

C. Glazowski and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 085001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godbout, N.

Goetz, M.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golan, L.

Gomez, V.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy With Virtual Chromoendoscopy for Classification of Colon Polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, Y.

Gora, M. J.

Gossner, L.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goto, H.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guelrud, M.

M. Guelrud, I. Herrera, H. Essenfeld, and J. Castro, “Enhanced magnification endoscopy: A new technique to identify specialized intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc.53(6), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, M.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy With Virtual Chromoendoscopy for Classification of Colon Polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heckman, M. G.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy With Virtual Chromoendoscopy for Classification of Colon Polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrera, I.

M. Guelrud, I. Herrera, H. Essenfeld, and J. Castro, “Enhanced magnification endoscopy: A new technique to identify specialized intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc.53(6), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirooka, Y.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, A.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

Iguchi, Y.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, A.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jillella, P.

Jung, M.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, D.

Kang, D. K.

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitabatake, S.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishna, M.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy With Virtual Chromoendoscopy for Classification of Colon Polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauwers, G. Y.

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemire-Renaud, S.

Lorenzo, M. J.

J. L. Vázquez-Iglesias, P. Alonso-Aguirre, M. T. Diz-Lois, M. A. Vázquez-Millán, A. Alvarez, and M. J. Lorenzo, “Acetic acid allows effective selection of areas for obtaining biopsy samples in Barrett’s esophagus,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.19(3), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, O.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuura, T.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meining, A.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minai, L.

Mino-Kenudson, M.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Miyahara, R.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morneau, D.

Nafe, B.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagasaka, T.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niwa, Y.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W.-Y.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohashi, A.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohmiya, N.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prinz, C.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puricelli, W. P.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Raimondo, M.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy With Virtual Chromoendoscopy for Classification of Colon Polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

C. Glazowski and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 085001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, G.

Rivard, M.

Schlachter, S. C.

Schmid, R. M.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shahid, M. W.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy With Virtual Chromoendoscopy for Classification of Colon Polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimoyama, Y.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishko, M.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shum, P.

Stolte, M.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strupler, M.

Suter, M. J.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G. J.

S. C. Schlachter, D. Kang, M. J. Gora, P. Vacas-Jacques, T. Wu, R. W. Carruth, E. J. Wilsterman, B. E. Bouma, K. Woods, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy of esophageal tissues at 100 kHz line rate,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(9), 1636–1645 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Kang, H. Yoo, P. Jillella, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive volumetric confocal microscopy with adaptive focusing,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1412–1422 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett.29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vacas-Jacques, P.

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vázquez-Iglesias, J. L.

J. L. Vázquez-Iglesias, P. Alonso-Aguirre, M. T. Diz-Lois, M. A. Vázquez-Millán, A. Alvarez, and M. J. Lorenzo, “Acetic acid allows effective selection of areas for obtaining biopsy samples in Barrett’s esophagus,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.19(3), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vázquez-Millán, M. A.

J. L. Vázquez-Iglesias, P. Alonso-Aguirre, M. T. Diz-Lois, M. A. Vázquez-Millán, A. Alvarez, and M. J. Lorenzo, “Acetic acid allows effective selection of areas for obtaining biopsy samples in Barrett’s esophagus,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.19(3), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vercauteren, T.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verpillat, F. i.

Vieth, M.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Weyhern, C. H.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy With Virtual Chromoendoscopy for Classification of Colon Polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Wilsterman, E. J.

Wolfsen, H. C.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy With Virtual Chromoendoscopy for Classification of Colon Polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woods, K.

Woodward, T.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy With Virtual Chromoendoscopy for Classification of Colon Polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, T.

Yachimski, P. S.

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeheskely-Hayon, D.

Yelin, D.

Yoo, H.

D. Kang, H. Yoo, P. Jillella, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive volumetric confocal microscopy with adaptive focusing,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1412–1422 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, X.

Yun, S. H.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett.29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endoscopy (1)

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

J. L. Vázquez-Iglesias, P. Alonso-Aguirre, M. T. Diz-Lois, M. A. Vázquez-Millán, A. Alvarez, and M. J. Lorenzo, “Acetic acid allows effective selection of areas for obtaining biopsy samples in Barrett’s esophagus,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.19(3), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy With Virtual Chromoendoscopy for Classification of Colon Polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (4)

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

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[PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of SECM probe optics and system. CL – collimation lens; and BS – beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

ZEMAX simulation of SECM objective lens. A – layout of the objective lens with ray tracing; and B – RMS wavefront error as a function of the field angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of SECM endoscopic probe. A – collimation optics; and B – final probe assembly. Scale bar = 2 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SECM images of USAF resolution target. A – single-mode detection; and B- multi-mode detection. Scale bars = 50 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Axial response curves for the single-mode (black) and multi-mode (red) detection methods.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SECM images of swine esophageal tissue ex vivo taken from the imaging depths of 130 µm (A, B), 160 µm (C, D), and 260 µm (E,F). A, C, E – single-mode images; and B, D, F – multi-mode images. circles – basal cell nuclei; and arrows – papillae. Size of each image = 700 µm × 700 µm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

High-magnification SECM images of swine esophageal tissue ex vivo. A – single-mode image; and B – multi-mode image. Size of each image = 350 µm × 350 µm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SECM focal lines in the tissue space. The red line is shifted by 67 µm transversely from the blue line. Black areas show the overwrapping between the two focal lines.

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