Abstract

The split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm was recently developed as a method for imaging blood flow in the human retina without the use of phase information. In order to enable absolute blood velocity quantification, in vitro phantom experiments are performed to correlate the SSADA signal at multiple time scales with various preset velocities. A linear model relating SSADA measurements to absolute flow velocities is derived using the phantom data. The operating range for the linear model is discussed along with its implication for velocity quantification with SSADA in a clinical setting.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (2)

H. C. Hendargo, R. Estrada, S. J. Chiu, C. Tomasi, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Automated non-rigid registration and mosaicing for robust imaging of distinct retinal capillary beds using speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(6), 803–821 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kim, W. Qi, J. Zhang, Y. J. Kwon, and Z. Chen, “Imaging and quantifying Brownian motion of micro- and nanoparticles using phase-resolved Doppler variance optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 030504 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz – 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXVI, 82130M, 82130M-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, W. Jia, V. Sun, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “High-resolution imaging of microvasculature in human skin in-vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express20(7), 7694–7705 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu, A. J. Lin, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “A comparison of Doppler optical coherence tomography methods,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2669–2680 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, J. C. Morrison, J. Tokayer, O. Tan, L. Lombardi, B. Baumann, C. D. Lu, W. Choi, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative OCT angiography of optic nerve head blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3127–3137 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express20(3), 2740–2760 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (8)

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J Biophotonics4(9), 583–587 (2011).
[PubMed]

G. Liu, W. Qi, L. Yu, and Z. Chen, “Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging,” Opt. Express19(4), 3657–3666 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A. H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tokayer and D. Huang, “Effect of blood vessel diameter on relative blood flow estimates in Doppler optical coherence tomography algorithms,” Proc. SPIE 7889, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXV, 78892X, 78892X-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Tam, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Characterization of single-file flow through human retinal parafoveal capillaries using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 781–793 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu, L. Chou, W. Jia, W. Qi, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “Intensity-based modified Doppler variance algorithm: application to phase instable and phase stable optical coherence tomography systems,” Opt. Express19(12), 11429–11440 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (8)

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, “Single-pass volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a modified Hilbert transform,” Opt. Express16(16), 12350–12361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Flower, E. Peiretti, M. Magnani, L. Rossi, S. Serafini, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, “Observation of erythrocyte dynamics in the retinal capillaries and choriocapillaris using ICG-loaded erythrocyte ghost cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5510–5516 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range, high-speed, high-resolution 1 μm spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using BM-scan for volumetric imaging of the human posterior eye,” Opt. Express16(12), 8406–8420 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography--limitations and improvements,” Opt. Lett.33(13), 1425–1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

2006 (4)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

2002 (3)

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun.208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefánsson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.21(4), 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

W. Li, A. F. W. van der Steen, C. T. Lancée, I. Céspedes, and N. Bom, “Blood flow imaging and volume flow quantitation with intravascular ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.24(2), 203–214 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

E. Friedman, “A hemodynamic model of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.124(5), 677–682 (1997).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

W. Li, C. T. Lancee, E. I. Cespedes, A. F. W. van der Steen, and N. Bom, “Decorrelation properties of intravascular echo signals: Potentials for blood velocity estimation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.71(14), 70D–86D (1993).

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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1980 (1)

Akiba, M.

Alex Vitkin, I.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun.208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).

An, L.

Bajraszewski, T.

Bartlett, L. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Biedermann, B. R.

Bom, N.

W. Li, A. F. W. van der Steen, C. T. Lancée, I. Céspedes, and N. Bom, “Blood flow imaging and volume flow quantitation with intravascular ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.24(2), 203–214 (1998).
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Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
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Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041215 (2007).
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Cable, A. E.

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz – 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXVI, 82130M, 82130M-8 (2012).
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B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
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Cespedes, E. I.

W. Li, C. T. Lancee, E. I. Cespedes, A. F. W. van der Steen, and N. Bom, “Decorrelation properties of intravascular echo signals: Potentials for blood velocity estimation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.71(14), 70D–86D (1993).

Céspedes, I.

W. Li, A. F. W. van der Steen, C. T. Lancée, I. Céspedes, and N. Bom, “Blood flow imaging and volume flow quantitation with intravascular ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.24(2), 203–214 (1998).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Chen, Z.

C. S. Kim, W. Qi, J. Zhang, Y. J. Kwon, and Z. Chen, “Imaging and quantifying Brownian motion of micro- and nanoparticles using phase-resolved Doppler variance optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 030504 (2013).
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G. Liu, W. Jia, V. Sun, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “High-resolution imaging of microvasculature in human skin in-vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express20(7), 7694–7705 (2012).
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G. Liu, A. J. Lin, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “A comparison of Doppler optical coherence tomography methods,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2669–2680 (2012).
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G. Liu, L. Chou, W. Jia, W. Qi, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “Intensity-based modified Doppler variance algorithm: application to phase instable and phase stable optical coherence tomography systems,” Opt. Express19(12), 11429–11440 (2011).
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G. Liu, W. Qi, L. Yu, and Z. Chen, “Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging,” Opt. Express19(4), 3657–3666 (2011).
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L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016029 (2010).
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V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun.208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett.25(2), 114–116 (2000).
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Choi, B.

Choi, W.

Y. Jia, J. C. Morrison, J. Tokayer, O. Tan, L. Lombardi, B. Baumann, C. D. Lu, W. Choi, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative OCT angiography of optic nerve head blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3127–3137 (2012).
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E. Wei, Y. Jia, O. Tan, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Parafoveal retinal vascular response to pattern visual stimulation assessed with OCT angiography,” PLoS ONE. submitted.

Choma, M. A.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 024014 (2006).
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Cobbold, R. S. C.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun.208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).

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J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefánsson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.21(4), 359–393 (2002).
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Davis, A. M.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Dhalla, A. H.

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Duker, J. S.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Ellerbee, A. K.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 024014 (2006).
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E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J Biophotonics4(9), 583–587 (2011).
[PubMed]

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Flammer, J.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefánsson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.21(4), 359–393 (2002).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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R. Flower, E. Peiretti, M. Magnani, L. Rossi, S. Serafini, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, “Observation of erythrocyte dynamics in the retinal capillaries and choriocapillaris using ICG-loaded erythrocyte ghost cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5510–5516 (2008).
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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, J. C. Morrison, J. Tokayer, O. Tan, L. Lombardi, B. Baumann, C. D. Lu, W. Choi, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative OCT angiography of optic nerve head blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3127–3137 (2012).
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B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz – 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXVI, 82130M, 82130M-8 (2012).
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B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
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M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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E. Wei, Y. Jia, O. Tan, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Parafoveal retinal vascular response to pattern visual stimulation assessed with OCT angiography,” PLoS ONE. submitted.

Fukumura, D.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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Gorczynska, I.

Gordon, M. L.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun.208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Grulkowski, I.

Gryczynski, I.

R. Flower, E. Peiretti, M. Magnani, L. Rossi, S. Serafini, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, “Observation of erythrocyte dynamics in the retinal capillaries and choriocapillaris using ICG-loaded erythrocyte ghost cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5510–5516 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, Z.

R. Flower, E. Peiretti, M. Magnani, L. Rossi, S. Serafini, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, “Observation of erythrocyte dynamics in the retinal capillaries and choriocapillaris using ICG-loaded erythrocyte ghost cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5510–5516 (2008).
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M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
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B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz – 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXVI, 82130M, 82130M-8 (2012).
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Hitzenberger, C.

Hong, Y.

Hong, Y. J.

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
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Y. Jia, J. C. Morrison, J. Tokayer, O. Tan, L. Lombardi, B. Baumann, C. D. Lu, W. Choi, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative OCT angiography of optic nerve head blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3127–3137 (2012).
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J. Tokayer and D. Huang, “Effect of blood vessel diameter on relative blood flow estimates in Doppler optical coherence tomography algorithms,” Proc. SPIE 7889, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXV, 78892X, 78892X-8 (2011).
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B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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E. Wei, Y. Jia, O. Tan, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Parafoveal retinal vascular response to pattern visual stimulation assessed with OCT angiography,” PLoS ONE. submitted.

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Itoh, M.

Izatt, J. A.

H. C. Hendargo, R. Estrada, S. J. Chiu, C. Tomasi, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Automated non-rigid registration and mosaicing for robust imaging of distinct retinal capillary beds using speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(6), 803–821 (2013).
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H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A. H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
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Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064003 (2008).
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Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, “Single-pass volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a modified Hilbert transform,” Opt. Express16(16), 12350–12361 (2008).
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Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 024014 (2006).
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S. Yazdanfar, C. Yang, M. V. Sarunic, and J. A. Izatt, “Frequency estimation precision in Doppler optical coherence tomography using the Cramer-Rao lower bound,” Opt. Express13(2), 410–416 (2005).
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M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
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Jaillon, F.

Jain, R. K.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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Jayaraman, V.

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz – 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXVI, 82130M, 82130M-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jia, W.

Jia, Y.

Jiang, J.

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz – 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXVI, 82130M, 82130M-8 (2012).
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Jonathan, E.

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J Biophotonics4(9), 583–587 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ju, M. J.

Khurana, M.

Kim, C. S.

C. S. Kim, W. Qi, J. Zhang, Y. J. Kwon, and Z. Chen, “Imaging and quantifying Brownian motion of micro- and nanoparticles using phase-resolved Doppler variance optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 030504 (2013).
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Klein, T.

Ko, T. H.

Kowalczyk, A.

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J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefánsson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.21(4), 359–393 (2002).
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Kwon, Y. J.

C. S. Kim, W. Qi, J. Zhang, Y. J. Kwon, and Z. Chen, “Imaging and quantifying Brownian motion of micro- and nanoparticles using phase-resolved Doppler variance optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 030504 (2013).
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W. Li, C. T. Lancee, E. I. Cespedes, A. F. W. van der Steen, and N. Bom, “Decorrelation properties of intravascular echo signals: Potentials for blood velocity estimation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.71(14), 70D–86D (1993).

Lancée, C. T.

W. Li, A. F. W. van der Steen, C. T. Lancée, I. Céspedes, and N. Bom, “Blood flow imaging and volume flow quantitation with intravascular ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.24(2), 203–214 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanning, R. M.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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Leahy, M. J.

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J Biophotonics4(9), 583–587 (2011).
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Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leung, M. K. K.

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W. Li, A. F. W. van der Steen, C. T. Lancée, I. Céspedes, and N. Bom, “Blood flow imaging and volume flow quantitation with intravascular ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.24(2), 203–214 (1998).
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W. Li, C. T. Lancee, E. I. Cespedes, A. F. W. van der Steen, and N. Bom, “Decorrelation properties of intravascular echo signals: Potentials for blood velocity estimation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.71(14), 70D–86D (1993).

Li, X.

Lin, A. J.

Lin, C. P.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
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Liu, J. J.

Lombardi, L.

Lu, C. D.

Ma, Z.

Magnani, M.

R. Flower, E. Peiretti, M. Magnani, L. Rossi, S. Serafini, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, “Observation of erythrocyte dynamics in the retinal capillaries and choriocapillaris using ICG-loaded erythrocyte ghost cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5510–5516 (2008).
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Makita, S.

Mariampillai, A.

McNabb, R. P.

Min, E. J.

Miura, M.

Mok, A.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun.208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).

Moriyama, E. H.

Morrison, J. C.

Munce, N. R.

Munn, L. L.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (6)

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
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H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A. H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
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H. C. Hendargo, R. Estrada, S. J. Chiu, C. Tomasi, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Automated non-rigid registration and mosaicing for robust imaging of distinct retinal capillary beds using speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(6), 803–821 (2013).
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Y. Jia, J. C. Morrison, J. Tokayer, O. Tan, L. Lombardi, B. Baumann, C. D. Lu, W. Choi, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative OCT angiography of optic nerve head blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3127–3137 (2012).
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G. Liu, A. J. Lin, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “A comparison of Doppler optical coherence tomography methods,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2669–2680 (2012).
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J. Tam, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Characterization of single-file flow through human retinal parafoveal capillaries using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 781–793 (2011).
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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

R. Flower, E. Peiretti, M. Magnani, L. Rossi, S. Serafini, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, “Observation of erythrocyte dynamics in the retinal capillaries and choriocapillaris using ICG-loaded erythrocyte ghost cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5510–5516 (2008).
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J Biophotonics (1)

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J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

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J. Biomed. Opt. (6)

L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016029 (2010).
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Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064003 (2008).
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M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 024014 (2006).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nat. Med. (1)

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun.208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).

Opt. Express (22)

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
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B. White, M. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
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R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
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Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express20(3), 2740–2760 (2012).
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H. Ren and X. Li, “Clutter rejection filters for optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express14(13), 6103–6112 (2006).
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Y. Yasuno, Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1- um swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express15(10), 6121–6139 (2007).
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Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Kim, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional visualization of choroidal vessels by using standard and ultra-high resolution scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express15(12), 7538–7550 (2007).
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M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
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Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, “Single-pass volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a modified Hilbert transform,” Opt. Express16(16), 12350–12361 (2008).
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I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
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S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
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L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
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G. Liu, W. Qi, L. Yu, and Z. Chen, “Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging,” Opt. Express19(4), 3657–3666 (2011).
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J. Fingler, D. Schwartz, C. Yang, and S. E. Fraser, “Mobility and transverse flow visualization using phase variance contrast with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(20), 12636–12653 (2007).
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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, C. Yang, M. V. Sarunic, and J. A. Izatt, “Frequency estimation precision in Doppler optical coherence tomography using the Cramer-Rao lower bound,” Opt. Express13(2), 410–416 (2005).
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T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
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S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range, high-speed, high-resolution 1 μm spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using BM-scan for volumetric imaging of the human posterior eye,” Opt. Express16(12), 8406–8420 (2008).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
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G. Liu, L. Chou, W. Jia, W. Qi, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “Intensity-based modified Doppler variance algorithm: application to phase instable and phase stable optical coherence tomography systems,” Opt. Express19(12), 11429–11440 (2011).
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G. Liu, W. Jia, V. Sun, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “High-resolution imaging of microvasculature in human skin in-vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express20(7), 7694–7705 (2012).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral domain OCT system schematic. SLD – superluminescent diode, FC – 2x2 fiber coupler, PC – personal computer, H20 – water cell, Galvos – scanning mirror galvanometers, BS beamsplitter. This system was originally designed for retinal imaging so that a water cell is in the reference arm for dispersion matching and a beamsplitter is in the sample arm to allow for slit lamp illumination of the retina. The retinal imaging system was modified by adding a focusing lens in the sample arm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sample intensity images. Capillary was placed on top of a piece of paper. Left panel: B-scan; Right panel: M-mode scan.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sample Doppler Frequency shifts

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Multi-timescale SSADA M-mode image of blood flow through capillary tube. Time separation indicates the time between the two A-lines used to compute the decorrelation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of measured SSADA decorrelation signal on Doppler angle. Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the decorrelation measurements and Doppler angle is ρ = 0.87. ρ is a nonparametric measure of how well the relationship between decorrelation and Doppler angle can be described using a monotonic function. In this case the function appears to be sigmoidal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Multi-timescale decorrelation (Eq. (5)) for various flow speeds. The asymptotic decorrelation value for our experiments is 0.21.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Decorrelation vs velocity for various time separations ( Δt ) between A-lines. Left panel: black dotted line indicates the saturation cutoff value of 0.18. Right Panel: Linear fits of decorrelation vs velocity after saturated points have been removed.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Linear fit of slope m Δt (1) vs time separation Δt .

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Summary of linear fit of decorrelation versus velocity

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Table 2 Operating range for linear model

Equations (10)

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I( k )Re{ S(k)r(x,z)exp(4ln2( x 2 / ω 0 2 ))exp(i2kz)dxdz }
S(k)exp(4ln2 (k k 0 ) 2 /Δ k 2 )
I(Z) r(x,z)exp(i2 k 0 (zZ))exp( 4ln2( x 2 ω 0 2 + (zZ) 2 δ z 0 2 ) )dxdz
G j (k)=exp(4ln2 (k k 0j ) 2 /Δ k G 2 )
D ¯ (Z,Δt)=1 2 N1   1 M n=1 N1 m=1 M A n m ( Z ) A n+Δt/τ m ( Z ) A n m ( Z ) 2 + A n+Δt/τ m ( Z ) 2  
D Δt = m Δt (1) v+ b (1)
D(v,Δt)= m (2) Δtv+ b (1) =0.24Δtv+0.08
v(D,Δt)= m(Db) Δt = 4.17(D0.08) Δt
vΔt=Δx=m(Db)=4.17(D0.08)
m=4.17=Δ x SAT /0.1

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