Abstract

Patent Blue V (PBV), a dye used clinically for sentinel lymph node detection, was mixed with human serum albumin (HSA). After binding to HSA, the fluorescence quantum yield increased from 5 × 10−4 to 1.7 × 10−2, which was enough to allow fluorescence detection and imaging of its distribution. A detection threshold, evaluated in scattering test objects, lower than 2.5 nmol × L−1 was obtained, using a single-probe setup with a 5-mW incident light power. The detection sensitivity using a fluorescence imaging device was in the µmol × L−1 range, with a noncooled CCD camera. Preclinical evaluation was performed on a rat model and permitted to observe inflamed nodes on all animals.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. E. Giuliano, D. M. Kirgan, J. M. Guenther, and D. L. Morton, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer,” Ann. Surg.220(3), 391–401 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Mariani, L. Moresco, G. Viale, G. Villa, M. Bagnasco, G. Canavese, J. Buscombe, H. W. Strauss, and G. Paganelli, “Radioguided sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery,” J. Nucl. Med.42(8), 1198–1215 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  4. J. F. Rodier, M. Velten, M. Wilt, P. Martel, G. Ferron, V. Vaini-Elies, H. Mignotte, A. Brémond, J. M. Classe, F. Dravet, T. Routiot, C. T. de Lara, A. Avril, G. Lorimier, E. Fondrinier, G. Houvenaeghel, and S. Avigdor, “Prospective multicentric randomized study comparing periareolar and peritumoral injection of radiotracer and blue dye for the detection of sentinel lymph node in breast sparing procedures: FRANSENODE trial,” J. Clin. Oncol.25(24), 3664–3669 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. E. Schaafsma, J. S. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, P. J. Kuppen, C. W. Löwik, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery,” J. Surg. Oncol.104(3), 323–332 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Sugie, K. A. Kassim, M. Takeuchi, T. Hashimoto, K. Yamagami, Y. Masai, and M. Toi, “A novel method for sentinel lymph node biopsy by indocyanine green fluorescence technique in breast cancer,” Cancers2(2), 713–720 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, Y. Nakano, Y. Ohno, and T. Kosaka, “Axillary reverse mapping using a fluorescence imaging system in breast cancer,” J. Surg. Oncol.105(3), 229–234 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Hirche, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, D. Murawa, and M. Hünerbein, “High rate of solitary sentinel node metastases identification by fluorescence-guided lymphatic imaging in breast cancer,” J. Surg. Oncol.105(2), 162–166 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Hojo, T. Nagao, M. Kikuyama, S. Akashi, and T. Kinoshita, “Evaluation of sentinel node biopsy by combined fluorescent and dye method and lymph flow for breast cancer,” Breast19(3), 210–213 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats—volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology255(2), 442–450 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. V. Frangioni, S. W. Kim, S. Ohnishi, S. Kim, and M. G. Bawendi, “Sentinel lymph node mapping with type-II quantum dots,” Methods Mol. Biol.374, 147–159 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  16. E. Pic, T. Pons, L. Bezdetnaya, A. Leroux, F. Guillemin, B. Dubertret, and F. Marchal, “Fluorescence imaging and whole-body biodistribution of near-infrared-emitting quantum dots after subcutaneous injection for regional lymph node mapping in mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol.12(4), 394–405 (2010).
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  17. T. Buckle, A. C. van Leeuwen, P. T. Chin, H. Janssen, S. H. Muller, J. Jonkers, and F. W. van Leeuwen, “A self-assembled multimodal complex for combined pre- and intraoperative imaging of the sentinel lymph node,” Nanotechnology21(35), 355101 (2010).
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  18. Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol.12(2), 155–162 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano5(1), 173–182 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. F. Tellier, R. Ravelo, H. Simon, R. Chabrier, J. Steibel, and P. Poulet, “Sentinel lymph node detection by an optical method using scattered photons,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(3), 902–910 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. F. Tellier, H. Simon, F. X. Ble, R. Ravelo, R. Chabrier, J. Steibel, J. F. Rodier, and P. Poulet, “Comparison of 2- and 4-wavelength methods for the optical detection of sentinel lymph node,” Proc. SPIE8092, 80920L, 80920L-7 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Tsopelas and R. Sutton, “Why certain dyes are useful for localizing the sentinel lymph node,” J. Nucl. Med.43(10), 1377–1382 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  23. D. W. Newton, P. J. Breen, D. E. Brown, J. F. Mackie, and R. B. Kluza, “Physicochemical characteristics of patent blue violet dye,” J. Pharm. Sci.70(2), 122–127 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. S. Baptista and G. L. Indig, “Effect of BSA binding on photophysical and photochemical properties of triarylmethane dyes,” J. Phys. Chem. B102(23), 4678–4688 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. H. Sloop, L. Dory, and P. S. Roheim, “Interstitial fluid lipoproteins,” J. Lipid Res.28(3), 225–237 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  26. S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. T. Svensson, J. Swartling, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, P. Lindblom, C. Ingvar, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Characterization of normal breast tissue heterogeneity using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(11), 2559–2571 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. W. Melhuish and W. S. Metcalf, “The quenching of the fluorescence of anthracene; the transition from strong to weak quenching,” J. Chem. Soc.976–979 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. Du, R. A. Fuh, J. Li, L. A. Corkan, and J. S. Lindsey, “PhotochemCAD++: a computer-aided design and research tool in photochemistry,” Photochem. Photobiol.68(2), 141–142 (1998).
  30. I. J. Namaer, J. Steibel, P. Poulet, J. P. Armspach, Y. Mauss, and J. Chambron, “In vivo dynamic MR imaging of MBP-induced acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rat,” Magn. Reson. Med.24(2), 325–334 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. N. L. Tilney, “Patterns of lymphatic drainage in the adult laboratory rat,” J. Anat.109(Pt 3), 369–383 (1971).
    [PubMed]
  32. J. R. Babendure, S. R. Adams, and R. Y. Tsien, “Aptamers switch on fluorescence of triphenylmethane dyes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(48), 14716–14717 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. A. Werner, P. V. Konarev, D. I. Svergun, and U. Hahn, “Characterization of a fluorophore binding RNA aptamer by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering,” Anal. Biochem.389(1), 52–62 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. A. Bartlett and G. L. Indig, “Effect of self-association and protein binding on the photochemical reactivity of triarylmethanes. Implications of noncovalent interactions on the competition between photosensitization mechanisms type I and type II,” Photochem. Photobiol.70(4), 490–498 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. V. J. Pansare, S. Hejazi, W. J. Faenza, and R. K. Prud’homme, “Review of long-wavelength optical and NIR imaging materials contrast agents, fluorophores, and multifunctional nano carriers,” Chem. Mater.24(5), 812–827 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  36. T. J. Russin, E. I. Altınoğlu, J. H. Adair, and P. C. Eklund, “Measuring the fluorescent quantum efficiency of indocyanine green encapsulated in nanocomposite particulates,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter22(33), 334217 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. C. E. Metz, “Basic principles of ROC analysis,” Semin. Nucl. Med.8(4), 283–298 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. F. Tellier, P. Poulet, J. P. Ghnassia, M. Wilt, D. Weitbruch, and J. F. Rodier, “A new optical probe for the detection of the sentinel lymph node using Patent Blue V dye in breast cancer: a preliminary study,” Mol. Clin. Oncol. (to be published).
  39. L. Barthelmes, A. Goyal, R. G. Newcombe, F. McNeill, R. E. Mansel, and NEW START and ALMANAC study groups, “Adverse reactions to patent blue V dye—The NEW START and ALMANAC experience,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.36(4), 399–403 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

M. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, Y. Nakano, Y. Ohno, and T. Kosaka, “Axillary reverse mapping using a fluorescence imaging system in breast cancer,” J. Surg. Oncol.105(3), 229–234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hirche, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, D. Murawa, and M. Hünerbein, “High rate of solitary sentinel node metastases identification by fluorescence-guided lymphatic imaging in breast cancer,” J. Surg. Oncol.105(2), 162–166 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Pansare, S. Hejazi, W. J. Faenza, and R. K. Prud’homme, “Review of long-wavelength optical and NIR imaging materials contrast agents, fluorophores, and multifunctional nano carriers,” Chem. Mater.24(5), 812–827 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

F. Tellier, H. Simon, F. X. Ble, R. Ravelo, R. Chabrier, J. Steibel, J. F. Rodier, and P. Poulet, “Comparison of 2- and 4-wavelength methods for the optical detection of sentinel lymph node,” Proc. SPIE8092, 80920L, 80920L-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Schaafsma, J. S. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, P. J. Kuppen, C. W. Löwik, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery,” J. Surg. Oncol.104(3), 323–332 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hutteman, J. S. D. Mieog, J. R. van der Vorst, G. J. Liefers, H. Putter, C. W. G. M. Löwik, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. H. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Randomized, double-blind comparison of indocyanine green with or without albumin premixing for near-infrared fluorescence imaging of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat.127(1), 163–170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. van Leeuwen, T. Buckle, G. Bendle, L. Vermeeren, R. Valdés Olmos, H. G. van de Poel, and F. W. van Leeuwen, “Tracer-cocktail injections for combined pre- and intraoperative multimodal imaging of lymph nodes in a spontaneous mouse prostate tumor model,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 016004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, L. Jankovic, and L. V. Wang, “Performance benchmarks of an array-based hand-help photoacoustic probe adapted from a clinical ultrasound system for non-invasive sentinel lymph node imaging,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci.369(1955), 4644–4650 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano5(1), 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

F. Tellier, R. Ravelo, H. Simon, R. Chabrier, J. Steibel, and P. Poulet, “Sentinel lymph node detection by an optical method using scattered photons,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(3), 902–910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pic, T. Pons, L. Bezdetnaya, A. Leroux, F. Guillemin, B. Dubertret, and F. Marchal, “Fluorescence imaging and whole-body biodistribution of near-infrared-emitting quantum dots after subcutaneous injection for regional lymph node mapping in mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol.12(4), 394–405 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Buckle, A. C. van Leeuwen, P. T. Chin, H. Janssen, S. H. Muller, J. Jonkers, and F. W. van Leeuwen, “A self-assembled multimodal complex for combined pre- and intraoperative imaging of the sentinel lymph node,” Nanotechnology21(35), 355101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol.12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats—volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sugie, K. A. Kassim, M. Takeuchi, T. Hashimoto, K. Yamagami, Y. Masai, and M. Toi, “A novel method for sentinel lymph node biopsy by indocyanine green fluorescence technique in breast cancer,” Cancers2(2), 713–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hojo, T. Nagao, M. Kikuyama, S. Akashi, and T. Kinoshita, “Evaluation of sentinel node biopsy by combined fluorescent and dye method and lymph flow for breast cancer,” Breast19(3), 210–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Russin, E. I. Altınoğlu, J. H. Adair, and P. C. Eklund, “Measuring the fluorescent quantum efficiency of indocyanine green encapsulated in nanocomposite particulates,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter22(33), 334217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Barthelmes, A. Goyal, R. G. Newcombe, F. McNeill, R. E. Mansel, and NEW START and ALMANAC study groups, “Adverse reactions to patent blue V dye—The NEW START and ALMANAC experience,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.36(4), 399–403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. Werner, P. V. Konarev, D. I. Svergun, and U. Hahn, “Characterization of a fluorophore binding RNA aptamer by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering,” Anal. Biochem.389(1), 52–62 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. F. Rodier, M. Velten, M. Wilt, P. Martel, G. Ferron, V. Vaini-Elies, H. Mignotte, A. Brémond, J. M. Classe, F. Dravet, T. Routiot, C. T. de Lara, A. Avril, G. Lorimier, E. Fondrinier, G. Houvenaeghel, and S. Avigdor, “Prospective multicentric randomized study comparing periareolar and peritumoral injection of radiotracer and blue dye for the detection of sentinel lymph node in breast sparing procedures: FRANSENODE trial,” J. Clin. Oncol.25(24), 3664–3669 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Frangioni, S. W. Kim, S. Ohnishi, S. Kim, and M. G. Bawendi, “Sentinel lymph node mapping with type-II quantum dots,” Methods Mol. Biol.374, 147–159 (2007).
[PubMed]

2005

T. Svensson, J. Swartling, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, P. Lindblom, C. Ingvar, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Characterization of normal breast tissue heterogeneity using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(11), 2559–2571 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. R. Babendure, S. R. Adams, and R. Y. Tsien, “Aptamers switch on fluorescence of triphenylmethane dyes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(48), 14716–14717 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

C. Tsopelas and R. Sutton, “Why certain dyes are useful for localizing the sentinel lymph node,” J. Nucl. Med.43(10), 1377–1382 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001

G. Mariani, L. Moresco, G. Viale, G. Villa, M. Bagnasco, G. Canavese, J. Buscombe, H. W. Strauss, and G. Paganelli, “Radioguided sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery,” J. Nucl. Med.42(8), 1198–1215 (2001).
[PubMed]

1999

J. A. Bartlett and G. L. Indig, “Effect of self-association and protein binding on the photochemical reactivity of triarylmethanes. Implications of noncovalent interactions on the competition between photosensitization mechanisms type I and type II,” Photochem. Photobiol.70(4), 490–498 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

M. S. Baptista and G. L. Indig, “Effect of BSA binding on photophysical and photochemical properties of triarylmethane dyes,” J. Phys. Chem. B102(23), 4678–4688 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Du, R. A. Fuh, J. Li, L. A. Corkan, and J. S. Lindsey, “PhotochemCAD++: a computer-aided design and research tool in photochemistry,” Photochem. Photobiol.68(2), 141–142 (1998).

1994

A. E. Giuliano, D. M. Kirgan, J. M. Guenther, and D. L. Morton, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer,” Ann. Surg.220(3), 391–401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

D. N. Krag, D. L. Weaver, J. C. Alex, and J. T. Fairbank, “Surgical resection and radiolocalization of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using a gamma probe,” Surg. Oncol.2(6), 335–340 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

I. J. Namaer, J. Steibel, P. Poulet, J. P. Armspach, Y. Mauss, and J. Chambron, “In vivo dynamic MR imaging of MBP-induced acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rat,” Magn. Reson. Med.24(2), 325–334 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

C. H. Sloop, L. Dory, and P. S. Roheim, “Interstitial fluid lipoproteins,” J. Lipid Res.28(3), 225–237 (1987).
[PubMed]

1981

D. W. Newton, P. J. Breen, D. E. Brown, J. F. Mackie, and R. B. Kluza, “Physicochemical characteristics of patent blue violet dye,” J. Pharm. Sci.70(2), 122–127 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

C. E. Metz, “Basic principles of ROC analysis,” Semin. Nucl. Med.8(4), 283–298 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971

N. L. Tilney, “Patterns of lymphatic drainage in the adult laboratory rat,” J. Anat.109(Pt 3), 369–383 (1971).
[PubMed]

1954

H. W. Melhuish and W. S. Metcalf, “The quenching of the fluorescence of anthracene; the transition from strong to weak quenching,” J. Chem. Soc.976–979 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Achilefu, S.

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano5(1), 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adair, J. H.

T. J. Russin, E. I. Altınoğlu, J. H. Adair, and P. C. Eklund, “Measuring the fluorescent quantum efficiency of indocyanine green encapsulated in nanocomposite particulates,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter22(33), 334217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, S. R.

J. R. Babendure, S. R. Adams, and R. Y. Tsien, “Aptamers switch on fluorescence of triphenylmethane dyes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(48), 14716–14717 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akashi, S.

T. Hojo, T. Nagao, M. Kikuyama, S. Akashi, and T. Kinoshita, “Evaluation of sentinel node biopsy by combined fluorescent and dye method and lymph flow for breast cancer,” Breast19(3), 210–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akers, W. J.

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano5(1), 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alex, J. C.

D. N. Krag, D. L. Weaver, J. C. Alex, and J. T. Fairbank, “Surgical resection and radiolocalization of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using a gamma probe,” Surg. Oncol.2(6), 335–340 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altinoglu, E. I.

T. J. Russin, E. I. Altınoğlu, J. H. Adair, and P. C. Eklund, “Measuring the fluorescent quantum efficiency of indocyanine green encapsulated in nanocomposite particulates,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter22(33), 334217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

T. Svensson, J. Swartling, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, P. Lindblom, C. Ingvar, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Characterization of normal breast tissue heterogeneity using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(11), 2559–2571 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armspach, J. P.

I. J. Namaer, J. Steibel, P. Poulet, J. P. Armspach, Y. Mauss, and J. Chambron, “In vivo dynamic MR imaging of MBP-induced acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rat,” Magn. Reson. Med.24(2), 325–334 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avigdor, S.

J. F. Rodier, M. Velten, M. Wilt, P. Martel, G. Ferron, V. Vaini-Elies, H. Mignotte, A. Brémond, J. M. Classe, F. Dravet, T. Routiot, C. T. de Lara, A. Avril, G. Lorimier, E. Fondrinier, G. Houvenaeghel, and S. Avigdor, “Prospective multicentric randomized study comparing periareolar and peritumoral injection of radiotracer and blue dye for the detection of sentinel lymph node in breast sparing procedures: FRANSENODE trial,” J. Clin. Oncol.25(24), 3664–3669 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avril, A.

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D. W. Newton, P. J. Breen, D. E. Brown, J. F. Mackie, and R. B. Kluza, “Physicochemical characteristics of patent blue violet dye,” J. Pharm. Sci.70(2), 122–127 (1981).
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J. F. Rodier, M. Velten, M. Wilt, P. Martel, G. Ferron, V. Vaini-Elies, H. Mignotte, A. Brémond, J. M. Classe, F. Dravet, T. Routiot, C. T. de Lara, A. Avril, G. Lorimier, E. Fondrinier, G. Houvenaeghel, and S. Avigdor, “Prospective multicentric randomized study comparing periareolar and peritumoral injection of radiotracer and blue dye for the detection of sentinel lymph node in breast sparing procedures: FRANSENODE trial,” J. Clin. Oncol.25(24), 3664–3669 (2007).
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C. Hirche, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, D. Murawa, and M. Hünerbein, “High rate of solitary sentinel node metastases identification by fluorescence-guided lymphatic imaging in breast cancer,” J. Surg. Oncol.105(2), 162–166 (2012).
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G. Mariani, L. Moresco, G. Viale, G. Villa, M. Bagnasco, G. Canavese, J. Buscombe, H. W. Strauss, and G. Paganelli, “Radioguided sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery,” J. Nucl. Med.42(8), 1198–1215 (2001).
[PubMed]

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A. E. Giuliano, D. M. Kirgan, J. M. Guenther, and D. L. Morton, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer,” Ann. Surg.220(3), 391–401 (1994).
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T. Buckle, A. C. van Leeuwen, P. T. Chin, H. Janssen, S. H. Muller, J. Jonkers, and F. W. van Leeuwen, “A self-assembled multimodal complex for combined pre- and intraoperative imaging of the sentinel lymph node,” Nanotechnology21(35), 355101 (2010).
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C. Hirche, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, D. Murawa, and M. Hünerbein, “High rate of solitary sentinel node metastases identification by fluorescence-guided lymphatic imaging in breast cancer,” J. Surg. Oncol.105(2), 162–166 (2012).
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T. Hojo, T. Nagao, M. Kikuyama, S. Akashi, and T. Kinoshita, “Evaluation of sentinel node biopsy by combined fluorescent and dye method and lymph flow for breast cancer,” Breast19(3), 210–213 (2010).
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M. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, Y. Nakano, Y. Ohno, and T. Kosaka, “Axillary reverse mapping using a fluorescence imaging system in breast cancer,” J. Surg. Oncol.105(3), 229–234 (2012).
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I. J. Namaer, J. Steibel, P. Poulet, J. P. Armspach, Y. Mauss, and J. Chambron, “In vivo dynamic MR imaging of MBP-induced acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rat,” Magn. Reson. Med.24(2), 325–334 (1992).
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L. Barthelmes, A. Goyal, R. G. Newcombe, F. McNeill, R. E. Mansel, and NEW START and ALMANAC study groups, “Adverse reactions to patent blue V dye—The NEW START and ALMANAC experience,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.36(4), 399–403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. W. Newton, P. J. Breen, D. E. Brown, J. F. Mackie, and R. B. Kluza, “Physicochemical characteristics of patent blue violet dye,” J. Pharm. Sci.70(2), 122–127 (1981).
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M. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, Y. Nakano, Y. Ohno, and T. Kosaka, “Axillary reverse mapping using a fluorescence imaging system in breast cancer,” J. Surg. Oncol.105(3), 229–234 (2012).
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M. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, Y. Nakano, Y. Ohno, and T. Kosaka, “Axillary reverse mapping using a fluorescence imaging system in breast cancer,” J. Surg. Oncol.105(3), 229–234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. V. Frangioni, S. W. Kim, S. Ohnishi, S. Kim, and M. G. Bawendi, “Sentinel lymph node mapping with type-II quantum dots,” Methods Mol. Biol.374, 147–159 (2007).
[PubMed]

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M. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, Y. Nakano, Y. Ohno, and T. Kosaka, “Axillary reverse mapping using a fluorescence imaging system in breast cancer,” J. Surg. Oncol.105(3), 229–234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Mariani, L. Moresco, G. Viale, G. Villa, M. Bagnasco, G. Canavese, J. Buscombe, H. W. Strauss, and G. Paganelli, “Radioguided sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery,” J. Nucl. Med.42(8), 1198–1215 (2001).
[PubMed]

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V. J. Pansare, S. Hejazi, W. J. Faenza, and R. K. Prud’homme, “Review of long-wavelength optical and NIR imaging materials contrast agents, fluorophores, and multifunctional nano carriers,” Chem. Mater.24(5), 812–827 (2012).
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T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology256(1), 102–110 (2010).
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Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol.12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Pic, T. Pons, L. Bezdetnaya, A. Leroux, F. Guillemin, B. Dubertret, and F. Marchal, “Fluorescence imaging and whole-body biodistribution of near-infrared-emitting quantum dots after subcutaneous injection for regional lymph node mapping in mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol.12(4), 394–405 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Pic, T. Pons, L. Bezdetnaya, A. Leroux, F. Guillemin, B. Dubertret, and F. Marchal, “Fluorescence imaging and whole-body biodistribution of near-infrared-emitting quantum dots after subcutaneous injection for regional lymph node mapping in mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol.12(4), 394–405 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Tellier, H. Simon, F. X. Ble, R. Ravelo, R. Chabrier, J. Steibel, J. F. Rodier, and P. Poulet, “Comparison of 2- and 4-wavelength methods for the optical detection of sentinel lymph node,” Proc. SPIE8092, 80920L, 80920L-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Tellier, R. Ravelo, H. Simon, R. Chabrier, J. Steibel, and P. Poulet, “Sentinel lymph node detection by an optical method using scattered photons,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(3), 902–910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Namaer, J. Steibel, P. Poulet, J. P. Armspach, Y. Mauss, and J. Chambron, “In vivo dynamic MR imaging of MBP-induced acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rat,” Magn. Reson. Med.24(2), 325–334 (1992).
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Pramanik, M.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prud’homme, R. K.

V. J. Pansare, S. Hejazi, W. J. Faenza, and R. K. Prud’homme, “Review of long-wavelength optical and NIR imaging materials contrast agents, fluorophores, and multifunctional nano carriers,” Chem. Mater.24(5), 812–827 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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M. Hutteman, J. S. D. Mieog, J. R. van der Vorst, G. J. Liefers, H. Putter, C. W. G. M. Löwik, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. H. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Randomized, double-blind comparison of indocyanine green with or without albumin premixing for near-infrared fluorescence imaging of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat.127(1), 163–170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol.12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ravelo, R.

F. Tellier, H. Simon, F. X. Ble, R. Ravelo, R. Chabrier, J. Steibel, J. F. Rodier, and P. Poulet, “Comparison of 2- and 4-wavelength methods for the optical detection of sentinel lymph node,” Proc. SPIE8092, 80920L, 80920L-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Tellier, R. Ravelo, H. Simon, R. Chabrier, J. Steibel, and P. Poulet, “Sentinel lymph node detection by an optical method using scattered photons,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(3), 902–910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Tellier, H. Simon, F. X. Ble, R. Ravelo, R. Chabrier, J. Steibel, J. F. Rodier, and P. Poulet, “Comparison of 2- and 4-wavelength methods for the optical detection of sentinel lymph node,” Proc. SPIE8092, 80920L, 80920L-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Rodier, M. Velten, M. Wilt, P. Martel, G. Ferron, V. Vaini-Elies, H. Mignotte, A. Brémond, J. M. Classe, F. Dravet, T. Routiot, C. T. de Lara, A. Avril, G. Lorimier, E. Fondrinier, G. Houvenaeghel, and S. Avigdor, “Prospective multicentric randomized study comparing periareolar and peritumoral injection of radiotracer and blue dye for the detection of sentinel lymph node in breast sparing procedures: FRANSENODE trial,” J. Clin. Oncol.25(24), 3664–3669 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tellier, P. Poulet, J. P. Ghnassia, M. Wilt, D. Weitbruch, and J. F. Rodier, “A new optical probe for the detection of the sentinel lymph node using Patent Blue V dye in breast cancer: a preliminary study,” Mol. Clin. Oncol. (to be published).

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C. H. Sloop, L. Dory, and P. S. Roheim, “Interstitial fluid lipoproteins,” J. Lipid Res.28(3), 225–237 (1987).
[PubMed]

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J. F. Rodier, M. Velten, M. Wilt, P. Martel, G. Ferron, V. Vaini-Elies, H. Mignotte, A. Brémond, J. M. Classe, F. Dravet, T. Routiot, C. T. de Lara, A. Avril, G. Lorimier, E. Fondrinier, G. Houvenaeghel, and S. Avigdor, “Prospective multicentric randomized study comparing periareolar and peritumoral injection of radiotracer and blue dye for the detection of sentinel lymph node in breast sparing procedures: FRANSENODE trial,” J. Clin. Oncol.25(24), 3664–3669 (2007).
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T. J. Russin, E. I. Altınoğlu, J. H. Adair, and P. C. Eklund, “Measuring the fluorescent quantum efficiency of indocyanine green encapsulated in nanocomposite particulates,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter22(33), 334217 (2010).
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B. E. Schaafsma, J. S. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, P. J. Kuppen, C. W. Löwik, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery,” J. Surg. Oncol.104(3), 323–332 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Tellier, H. Simon, F. X. Ble, R. Ravelo, R. Chabrier, J. Steibel, J. F. Rodier, and P. Poulet, “Comparison of 2- and 4-wavelength methods for the optical detection of sentinel lymph node,” Proc. SPIE8092, 80920L, 80920L-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Tellier, R. Ravelo, H. Simon, R. Chabrier, J. Steibel, and P. Poulet, “Sentinel lymph node detection by an optical method using scattered photons,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(3), 902–910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. H. Sloop, L. Dory, and P. S. Roheim, “Interstitial fluid lipoproteins,” J. Lipid Res.28(3), 225–237 (1987).
[PubMed]

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C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats—volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Tellier, H. Simon, F. X. Ble, R. Ravelo, R. Chabrier, J. Steibel, J. F. Rodier, and P. Poulet, “Comparison of 2- and 4-wavelength methods for the optical detection of sentinel lymph node,” Proc. SPIE8092, 80920L, 80920L-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Tellier, R. Ravelo, H. Simon, R. Chabrier, J. Steibel, and P. Poulet, “Sentinel lymph node detection by an optical method using scattered photons,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(3), 902–910 (2010).
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[PubMed]

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T. Sugie, K. A. Kassim, M. Takeuchi, T. Hashimoto, K. Yamagami, Y. Masai, and M. Toi, “A novel method for sentinel lymph node biopsy by indocyanine green fluorescence technique in breast cancer,” Cancers2(2), 713–720 (2010).
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C. Tsopelas and R. Sutton, “Why certain dyes are useful for localizing the sentinel lymph node,” J. Nucl. Med.43(10), 1377–1382 (2002).
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A. Werner, P. V. Konarev, D. I. Svergun, and U. Hahn, “Characterization of a fluorophore binding RNA aptamer by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering,” Anal. Biochem.389(1), 52–62 (2009).
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T. Svensson, J. Swartling, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, P. Lindblom, C. Ingvar, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Characterization of normal breast tissue heterogeneity using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(11), 2559–2571 (2005).
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T. Sugie, K. A. Kassim, M. Takeuchi, T. Hashimoto, K. Yamagami, Y. Masai, and M. Toi, “A novel method for sentinel lymph node biopsy by indocyanine green fluorescence technique in breast cancer,” Cancers2(2), 713–720 (2010).
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T. Svensson, J. Swartling, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, P. Lindblom, C. Ingvar, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Characterization of normal breast tissue heterogeneity using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(11), 2559–2571 (2005).
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F. Tellier, H. Simon, F. X. Ble, R. Ravelo, R. Chabrier, J. Steibel, J. F. Rodier, and P. Poulet, “Comparison of 2- and 4-wavelength methods for the optical detection of sentinel lymph node,” Proc. SPIE8092, 80920L, 80920L-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Tellier, R. Ravelo, H. Simon, R. Chabrier, J. Steibel, and P. Poulet, “Sentinel lymph node detection by an optical method using scattered photons,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(3), 902–910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tellier, P. Poulet, J. P. Ghnassia, M. Wilt, D. Weitbruch, and J. F. Rodier, “A new optical probe for the detection of the sentinel lymph node using Patent Blue V dye in breast cancer: a preliminary study,” Mol. Clin. Oncol. (to be published).

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[PubMed]

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T. Sugie, K. A. Kassim, M. Takeuchi, T. Hashimoto, K. Yamagami, Y. Masai, and M. Toi, “A novel method for sentinel lymph node biopsy by indocyanine green fluorescence technique in breast cancer,” Cancers2(2), 713–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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T. Svensson, J. Swartling, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, P. Lindblom, C. Ingvar, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Characterization of normal breast tissue heterogeneity using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(11), 2559–2571 (2005).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Tsopelas and R. Sutton, “Why certain dyes are useful for localizing the sentinel lymph node,” J. Nucl. Med.43(10), 1377–1382 (2002).
[PubMed]

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S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
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A. C. van Leeuwen, T. Buckle, G. Bendle, L. Vermeeren, R. Valdés Olmos, H. G. van de Poel, and F. W. van Leeuwen, “Tracer-cocktail injections for combined pre- and intraoperative multimodal imaging of lymph nodes in a spontaneous mouse prostate tumor model,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 016004 (2011).
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G. Mariani, L. Moresco, G. Viale, G. Villa, M. Bagnasco, G. Canavese, J. Buscombe, H. W. Strauss, and G. Paganelli, “Radioguided sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery,” J. Nucl. Med.42(8), 1198–1215 (2001).
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A. Werner, P. V. Konarev, D. I. Svergun, and U. Hahn, “Characterization of a fluorophore binding RNA aptamer by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering,” Anal. Biochem.389(1), 52–62 (2009).
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J. F. Rodier, M. Velten, M. Wilt, P. Martel, G. Ferron, V. Vaini-Elies, H. Mignotte, A. Brémond, J. M. Classe, F. Dravet, T. Routiot, C. T. de Lara, A. Avril, G. Lorimier, E. Fondrinier, G. Houvenaeghel, and S. Avigdor, “Prospective multicentric randomized study comparing periareolar and peritumoral injection of radiotracer and blue dye for the detection of sentinel lymph node in breast sparing procedures: FRANSENODE trial,” J. Clin. Oncol.25(24), 3664–3669 (2007).
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F. Tellier, P. Poulet, J. P. Ghnassia, M. Wilt, D. Weitbruch, and J. F. Rodier, “A new optical probe for the detection of the sentinel lymph node using Patent Blue V dye in breast cancer: a preliminary study,” Mol. Clin. Oncol. (to be published).

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T. Sugie, K. A. Kassim, M. Takeuchi, T. Hashimoto, K. Yamagami, Y. Masai, and M. Toi, “A novel method for sentinel lymph node biopsy by indocyanine green fluorescence technique in breast cancer,” Cancers2(2), 713–720 (2010).
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W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano5(1), 173–182 (2011).
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C. Tsopelas and R. Sutton, “Why certain dyes are useful for localizing the sentinel lymph node,” J. Nucl. Med.43(10), 1377–1382 (2002).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schema of the single probe setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schema of the imaging device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra of: (a) free PBV (black curve) and (b) HSA-bound PBV (blue curve). Emission spectra of: (c) PBV, 4 µmol × L−1, bound to HSA 0.125 mmol × L−1 (red curve) and (d) free PBV (green curve) with a 620-nm excitation wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Variations in the fluorescence signal measured as a function of PBV concentration (laser power 20 mW), (b) ROC curves for the determination of the detection threshold.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of micro-vials filled with PBV bound to Vialebex solutions: (a) color image, vials labeled a through g contain various PBV/Vialebex mixtures (see text), (b) fluorescence image, (c) superimposed images, (d) normalized mean intensities measured on regions of interest encircled in 5(b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images of rats injected with PBV/Vialebex (top) and PBV/rat serum albumin (bottom). Color images (a, d), fluorescence images (b, e) and overlaid images (c, f) showing the inguinal lymph node.

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