Abstract

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is the narrowing of arteries due to plaque accumulation in the vascular walls. This leads to insufficient blood supply to the extremities and can ultimately cause cell death. Currently available methods are ineffective in diagnosing PAD in patients with calcified arteries, such as those with diabetes. In this paper we investigate the potential of dynamic diffuse optical tomography (DDOT) as an alternative way to assess PAD in the lower extremities. DDOT is a non-invasive, non-ionizing imaging modality that uses near-infrared light to create spatio-temporal maps of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin in tissue. We present three case studies in which we used DDOT to visualize vascular perfusion of a healthy volunteer, a PAD patient and a diabetic PAD patient with calcified arteries. These preliminary results show significant differences in DDOT time-traces and images between all three cases, underscoring the potential of DDOT as a new diagnostic tool.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. R. Hiatt, “Medical treatment of peripheral arterial disease and claudication,” N. Engl. J. Med.344(21), 1608–1621 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Norgren, W. R. Hiatt, J. A. Dormandy, M. R. Nehler, K. A. Harris, F. G. R. Fowkes, and TASC II Working Group, “Inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II),” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg.33(Suppl 1), S1–S75 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. M. N. M. Al-Qaisi, D. H. King, S. Kaddoura, and M. Hamady, “Imaging of peripheral vascular disease,” Rep. Med. Imaging2, 25–34 (2009).
  5. H. Sanada, Y. Higashi, C. Goto, K. Chayama, M. Yoshizumi, and T. Sueda, “Vascular function in patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease: a comparison of functions in upper and lower extremities,” Atherosclerosis178(1), 179–185 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. V. Finn, Y. Chandrashekhar, and J. Narula, “IVUS and OCT: either or survivor,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1047–1049 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Casavola, L. A. Paunescu, S. Fantini, and E. Gratton, “Blood flow and oxygen consumption with near-infrared spectroscopy and venous occlusion: spatial maps and the effect of time and pressure of inflation,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(3), 269–276 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, and T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt.37(16), 3586–3593 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, H. Luo, I. Arif, J. Hira, Y. Pei, A. Bluestone, S. Zhong, R. Andronica, I. Soller, N. Ramirez, S. L. Barbour, and R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation and calibration protocol for imaging dynamic features in dense-scattering media by optical tomography,” Appl. Opt.39(34), 6466–6486 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. M. Lasker, J. M. Masciotti, M. Schoenecker, C. H. Schmitz, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital-signal-processor-based dynamic imaging system for optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(8), 083706 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. M. Carpenter, R. Rakow-Penner, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, G. H. Glover, and K. D. Paulsen, “Monitoring of hemodynamic changes induced in the healthy breast through inspired gas stimuli with MR-guided diffuse optical imaging,” Med. Phys.37(4), 1638–1646 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. M. Lasker, C. J. Fong, D. T. Ginat, E. Dwyer, and A. H. Hielscher, “Dynamic optical imaging of vascular and metabolic reactivity in rheumatoid joints,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 052001 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. M. Masciotti, J. M. Lasker, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital lock-in algorithm for biomedical spectroscopy and imaging instruments with multiple modulated sources,” in 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2006. EMBS '06 (IEEE, 2006), Vol. 1, pp. 3198–3201.
  16. N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan, and K. R. Rao, “Discrete cosine transform,” IEEE Trans. Comput.C-23(1), 90–93 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. K. Kim, M. Flexman, D. J. Yamashiro, J. J. Kandel, and A. H. Hielscher, “PDE-constrained multispectral imaging of tissue chromophores with the equation of radiative transfer,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(3), 812–824 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, “Three-dimensional optical tomography: resolution in small-object imaging,” Appl. Opt.42(16), 3117–3128 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. W. Pogue, S. C. Davis, X. Song, B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Image analysis methods for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 033001 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

A. V. Finn, Y. Chandrashekhar, and J. Narula, “IVUS and OCT: either or survivor,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1047–1049 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

C. M. Carpenter, R. Rakow-Penner, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, G. H. Glover, and K. D. Paulsen, “Monitoring of hemodynamic changes induced in the healthy breast through inspired gas stimuli with MR-guided diffuse optical imaging,” Med. Phys.37(4), 1638–1646 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Kim, M. Flexman, D. J. Yamashiro, J. J. Kandel, and A. H. Hielscher, “PDE-constrained multispectral imaging of tissue chromophores with the equation of radiative transfer,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(3), 812–824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

D. M. N. M. Al-Qaisi, D. H. King, S. Kaddoura, and M. Hamady, “Imaging of peripheral vascular disease,” Rep. Med. Imaging2, 25–34 (2009).

2007 (3)

L. Norgren, W. R. Hiatt, J. A. Dormandy, M. R. Nehler, K. A. Harris, F. G. R. Fowkes, and TASC II Working Group, “Inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II),” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg.33(Suppl 1), S1–S75 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Lasker, J. M. Masciotti, M. Schoenecker, C. H. Schmitz, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital-signal-processor-based dynamic imaging system for optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(8), 083706 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Lasker, C. J. Fong, D. T. Ginat, E. Dwyer, and A. H. Hielscher, “Dynamic optical imaging of vascular and metabolic reactivity in rheumatoid joints,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 052001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

B. W. Pogue, S. C. Davis, X. Song, B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Image analysis methods for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 033001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. Sanada, Y. Higashi, C. Goto, K. Chayama, M. Yoshizumi, and T. Sueda, “Vascular function in patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease: a comparison of functions in upper and lower extremities,” Atherosclerosis178(1), 179–185 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, “Three-dimensional optical tomography: resolution in small-object imaging,” Appl. Opt.42(16), 3117–3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Hiatt, “Medical treatment of peripheral arterial disease and claudication,” N. Engl. J. Med.344(21), 1608–1621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

C. Casavola, L. A. Paunescu, S. Fantini, and E. Gratton, “Blood flow and oxygen consumption with near-infrared spectroscopy and venous occlusion: spatial maps and the effect of time and pressure of inflation,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(3), 269–276 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, H. Luo, I. Arif, J. Hira, Y. Pei, A. Bluestone, S. Zhong, R. Andronica, I. Soller, N. Ramirez, S. L. Barbour, and R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation and calibration protocol for imaging dynamic features in dense-scattering media by optical tomography,” Appl. Opt.39(34), 6466–6486 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1974 (1)

N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan, and K. R. Rao, “Discrete cosine transform,” IEEE Trans. Comput.C-23(1), 90–93 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, N.

N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan, and K. R. Rao, “Discrete cosine transform,” IEEE Trans. Comput.C-23(1), 90–93 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Al Abdi, R.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al-Qaisi, D. M. N. M.

D. M. N. M. Al-Qaisi, D. H. King, S. Kaddoura, and M. Hamady, “Imaging of peripheral vascular disease,” Rep. Med. Imaging2, 25–34 (2009).

Andronica, R.

Arif, I.

Barbour, R. L.

Barbour, S. L.

Bluestone, A.

Brooksby, B.

Brooksby, B. A.

B. W. Pogue, S. C. Davis, X. Song, B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Image analysis methods for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 033001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carpenter, C. M.

C. M. Carpenter, R. Rakow-Penner, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, G. H. Glover, and K. D. Paulsen, “Monitoring of hemodynamic changes induced in the healthy breast through inspired gas stimuli with MR-guided diffuse optical imaging,” Med. Phys.37(4), 1638–1646 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casavola, C.

C. Casavola, L. A. Paunescu, S. Fantini, and E. Gratton, “Blood flow and oxygen consumption with near-infrared spectroscopy and venous occlusion: spatial maps and the effect of time and pressure of inflation,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(3), 269–276 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandrashekhar, Y.

A. V. Finn, Y. Chandrashekhar, and J. Narula, “IVUS and OCT: either or survivor,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1047–1049 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chayama, K.

H. Sanada, Y. Higashi, C. Goto, K. Chayama, M. Yoshizumi, and T. Sueda, “Vascular function in patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease: a comparison of functions in upper and lower extremities,” Atherosclerosis178(1), 179–185 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J. H.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choudhury, D.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comerota, A. J.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coussirat, D.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Creager, M. A.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Criqui, M. H.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, S. C.

B. W. Pogue, S. C. Davis, X. Song, B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Image analysis methods for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 033001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

B. W. Pogue, S. C. Davis, X. Song, B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Image analysis methods for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 033001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, “Three-dimensional optical tomography: resolution in small-object imaging,” Appl. Opt.42(16), 3117–3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desperito, E.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dormandy, J. A.

L. Norgren, W. R. Hiatt, J. A. Dormandy, M. R. Nehler, K. A. Harris, F. G. R. Fowkes, and TASC II Working Group, “Inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II),” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg.33(Suppl 1), S1–S75 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwyer, E.

J. M. Lasker, C. J. Fong, D. T. Ginat, E. Dwyer, and A. H. Hielscher, “Dynamic optical imaging of vascular and metabolic reactivity in rheumatoid joints,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 052001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eick, A. A.

Fantini, S.

C. Casavola, L. A. Paunescu, S. Fantini, and E. Gratton, “Blood flow and oxygen consumption with near-infrared spectroscopy and venous occlusion: spatial maps and the effect of time and pressure of inflation,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(3), 269–276 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finn, A. V.

A. V. Finn, Y. Chandrashekhar, and J. Narula, “IVUS and OCT: either or survivor,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1047–1049 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flexman, M.

Flexman, M. L.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fong, C. J.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Lasker, C. J. Fong, D. T. Ginat, E. Dwyer, and A. H. Hielscher, “Dynamic optical imaging of vascular and metabolic reactivity in rheumatoid joints,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 052001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fowkes, F. G. R.

L. Norgren, W. R. Hiatt, J. A. Dormandy, M. R. Nehler, K. A. Harris, F. G. R. Fowkes, and TASC II Working Group, “Inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II),” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg.33(Suppl 1), S1–S75 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

Ginat, D. T.

J. M. Lasker, C. J. Fong, D. T. Ginat, E. Dwyer, and A. H. Hielscher, “Dynamic optical imaging of vascular and metabolic reactivity in rheumatoid joints,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 052001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glover, G. H.

C. M. Carpenter, R. Rakow-Penner, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, G. H. Glover, and K. D. Paulsen, “Monitoring of hemodynamic changes induced in the healthy breast through inspired gas stimuli with MR-guided diffuse optical imaging,” Med. Phys.37(4), 1638–1646 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goto, C.

H. Sanada, Y. Higashi, C. Goto, K. Chayama, M. Yoshizumi, and T. Sueda, “Vascular function in patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease: a comparison of functions in upper and lower extremities,” Atherosclerosis178(1), 179–185 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graber, H. L.

Gratton, E.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Casavola, L. A. Paunescu, S. Fantini, and E. Gratton, “Blood flow and oxygen consumption with near-infrared spectroscopy and venous occlusion: spatial maps and the effect of time and pressure of inflation,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(3), 269–276 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamady, M.

D. M. N. M. Al-Qaisi, D. H. King, S. Kaddoura, and M. Hamady, “Imaging of peripheral vascular disease,” Rep. Med. Imaging2, 25–34 (2009).

Harris, K. A.

L. Norgren, W. R. Hiatt, J. A. Dormandy, M. R. Nehler, K. A. Harris, F. G. R. Fowkes, and TASC II Working Group, “Inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II),” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg.33(Suppl 1), S1–S75 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hershman, D. L.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiatt, W. R.

L. Norgren, W. R. Hiatt, J. A. Dormandy, M. R. Nehler, K. A. Harris, F. G. R. Fowkes, and TASC II Working Group, “Inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II),” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg.33(Suppl 1), S1–S75 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Hiatt, “Medical treatment of peripheral arterial disease and claudication,” N. Engl. J. Med.344(21), 1608–1621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hielscher, A. H.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Kim, M. Flexman, D. J. Yamashiro, J. J. Kandel, and A. H. Hielscher, “PDE-constrained multispectral imaging of tissue chromophores with the equation of radiative transfer,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(3), 812–824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Lasker, C. J. Fong, D. T. Ginat, E. Dwyer, and A. H. Hielscher, “Dynamic optical imaging of vascular and metabolic reactivity in rheumatoid joints,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 052001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Lasker, J. M. Masciotti, M. Schoenecker, C. H. Schmitz, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital-signal-processor-based dynamic imaging system for optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(8), 083706 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, and T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt.37(16), 3586–3593 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higashi, Y.

H. Sanada, Y. Higashi, C. Goto, K. Chayama, M. Yoshizumi, and T. Sueda, “Vascular function in patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease: a comparison of functions in upper and lower extremities,” Atherosclerosis178(1), 179–185 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hira, J.

Hirsch, A. T.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hull, S.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunninghake, D. B.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

C. M. Carpenter, R. Rakow-Penner, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, G. H. Glover, and K. D. Paulsen, “Monitoring of hemodynamic changes induced in the healthy breast through inspired gas stimuli with MR-guided diffuse optical imaging,” Med. Phys.37(4), 1638–1646 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

Kaddoura, S.

D. M. N. M. Al-Qaisi, D. H. King, S. Kaddoura, and M. Hamady, “Imaging of peripheral vascular disease,” Rep. Med. Imaging2, 25–34 (2009).

Kandel, J. J.

Khalil, M. A.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. K.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Kim, M. Flexman, D. J. Yamashiro, J. J. Kandel, and A. H. Hielscher, “PDE-constrained multispectral imaging of tissue chromophores with the equation of radiative transfer,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(3), 812–824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, D. H.

D. M. N. M. Al-Qaisi, D. H. King, S. Kaddoura, and M. Hamady, “Imaging of peripheral vascular disease,” Rep. Med. Imaging2, 25–34 (2009).

Krook, S. H.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasker, J. M.

J. M. Lasker, J. M. Masciotti, M. Schoenecker, C. H. Schmitz, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital-signal-processor-based dynamic imaging system for optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(8), 083706 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Lasker, C. J. Fong, D. T. Ginat, E. Dwyer, and A. H. Hielscher, “Dynamic optical imaging of vascular and metabolic reactivity in rheumatoid joints,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 052001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levi, M.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, H.

Mantulin, W. W.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masciotti, J. M.

J. M. Lasker, J. M. Masciotti, M. Schoenecker, C. H. Schmitz, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital-signal-processor-based dynamic imaging system for optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(8), 083706 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDermott, M. M.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michalos, A.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

Narula, J.

A. V. Finn, Y. Chandrashekhar, and J. Narula, “IVUS and OCT: either or survivor,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1047–1049 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natarajan, T.

N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan, and K. R. Rao, “Discrete cosine transform,” IEEE Trans. Comput.C-23(1), 90–93 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nehler, M. R.

L. Norgren, W. R. Hiatt, J. A. Dormandy, M. R. Nehler, K. A. Harris, F. G. R. Fowkes, and TASC II Working Group, “Inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II),” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg.33(Suppl 1), S1–S75 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norgren, L.

L. Norgren, W. R. Hiatt, J. A. Dormandy, M. R. Nehler, K. A. Harris, F. G. R. Fowkes, and TASC II Working Group, “Inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II),” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg.33(Suppl 1), S1–S75 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olin, J. W.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

C. M. Carpenter, R. Rakow-Penner, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, G. H. Glover, and K. D. Paulsen, “Monitoring of hemodynamic changes induced in the healthy breast through inspired gas stimuli with MR-guided diffuse optical imaging,” Med. Phys.37(4), 1638–1646 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. C. Davis, X. Song, B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Image analysis methods for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 033001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, “Three-dimensional optical tomography: resolution in small-object imaging,” Appl. Opt.42(16), 3117–3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paunescu, L. A.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Casavola, L. A. Paunescu, S. Fantini, and E. Gratton, “Blood flow and oxygen consumption with near-infrared spectroscopy and venous occlusion: spatial maps and the effect of time and pressure of inflation,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(3), 269–276 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pei, Y.

Pogue, B. W.

C. M. Carpenter, R. Rakow-Penner, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, G. H. Glover, and K. D. Paulsen, “Monitoring of hemodynamic changes induced in the healthy breast through inspired gas stimuli with MR-guided diffuse optical imaging,” Med. Phys.37(4), 1638–1646 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. C. Davis, X. Song, B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Image analysis methods for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 033001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, “Three-dimensional optical tomography: resolution in small-object imaging,” Appl. Opt.42(16), 3117–3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakow-Penner, R.

C. M. Carpenter, R. Rakow-Penner, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, G. H. Glover, and K. D. Paulsen, “Monitoring of hemodynamic changes induced in the healthy breast through inspired gas stimuli with MR-guided diffuse optical imaging,” Med. Phys.37(4), 1638–1646 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramirez, N.

Rao, K. R.

N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan, and K. R. Rao, “Discrete cosine transform,” IEEE Trans. Comput.C-23(1), 90–93 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Regensteiner, J. G.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safonova, L. P.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanada, H.

H. Sanada, Y. Higashi, C. Goto, K. Chayama, M. Yoshizumi, and T. Sueda, “Vascular function in patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease: a comparison of functions in upper and lower extremities,” Atherosclerosis178(1), 179–185 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitz, C. H.

Schoenecker, M.

J. M. Lasker, J. M. Masciotti, M. Schoenecker, C. H. Schmitz, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital-signal-processor-based dynamic imaging system for optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(8), 083706 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, D.

Shudong, J.

Soller, I.

Song, X.

B. W. Pogue, S. C. Davis, X. Song, B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Image analysis methods for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 033001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sueda, T.

H. Sanada, Y. Higashi, C. Goto, K. Chayama, M. Yoshizumi, and T. Sueda, “Vascular function in patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease: a comparison of functions in upper and lower extremities,” Atherosclerosis178(1), 179–185 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treat-Jacobson, D.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, M. E.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, M.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, U.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashiro, D. J.

Yoshizumi, M.

H. Sanada, Y. Higashi, C. Goto, K. Chayama, M. Yoshizumi, and T. Sueda, “Vascular function in patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease: a comparison of functions in upper and lower extremities,” Atherosclerosis178(1), 179–185 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, S.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Atherosclerosis (1)

H. Sanada, Y. Higashi, C. Goto, K. Chayama, M. Yoshizumi, and T. Sueda, “Vascular function in patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease: a comparison of functions in upper and lower extremities,” Atherosclerosis178(1), 179–185 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. (1)

L. Norgren, W. R. Hiatt, J. A. Dormandy, M. R. Nehler, K. A. Harris, F. G. R. Fowkes, and TASC II Working Group, “Inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II),” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg.33(Suppl 1), S1–S75 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan, and K. R. Rao, “Discrete cosine transform,” IEEE Trans. Comput.C-23(1), 90–93 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

B. W. Pogue, S. C. Davis, X. Song, B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Image analysis methods for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 033001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Lasker, C. J. Fong, D. T. Ginat, E. Dwyer, and A. H. Hielscher, “Dynamic optical imaging of vascular and metabolic reactivity in rheumatoid joints,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 052001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Casavola, L. A. Paunescu, S. Fantini, and E. Gratton, “Blood flow and oxygen consumption with near-infrared spectroscopy and venous occlusion: spatial maps and the effect of time and pressure of inflation,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(3), 269–276 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vasc. Surg. (1)

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging (1)

A. V. Finn, Y. Chandrashekhar, and J. Narula, “IVUS and OCT: either or survivor,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1047–1049 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

JAMA (1)

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

C. M. Carpenter, R. Rakow-Penner, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, G. H. Glover, and K. D. Paulsen, “Monitoring of hemodynamic changes induced in the healthy breast through inspired gas stimuli with MR-guided diffuse optical imaging,” Med. Phys.37(4), 1638–1646 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

W. R. Hiatt, “Medical treatment of peripheral arterial disease and claudication,” N. Engl. J. Med.344(21), 1608–1621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Med. Imaging (1)

D. M. N. M. Al-Qaisi, D. H. King, S. Kaddoura, and M. Hamady, “Imaging of peripheral vascular disease,” Rep. Med. Imaging2, 25–34 (2009).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. M. Lasker, J. M. Masciotti, M. Schoenecker, C. H. Schmitz, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital-signal-processor-based dynamic imaging system for optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(8), 083706 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. M. Masciotti, J. M. Lasker, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital lock-in algorithm for biomedical spectroscopy and imaging instruments with multiple modulated sources,” in 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2006. EMBS '06 (IEEE, 2006), Vol. 1, pp. 3198–3201.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dynamic diffuse optical tomography system and the measurement probe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Five stage measurement protocol used for dynamic diffuse optical tomography.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized detector readings (different detector positions shown as colored lines) for a single source illumination over time for (A) a healthy volunteer, (B) a PAD patient, and (C) a diabetic PAD patient. The individual traces were filtered with a 50-point moving average filter. A dip in intensity is observed at approximately 1 minute when the 60 mmHg cuff is applied to thigh. This impedes blood from returning to the heart and causes it to pool in the leg increasing light absorption. Upon release of the cuff the signal returns to baseline the same behavior can be seen with the 120 mmHg cuff. There are clear differences in the magnitude drop during thigh occlusions as well as the recovery rates from release of the thigh cuff.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The locations of hemoglobin change within the 2D reconstructions correlate with the expected anatomy of the cross section of the foot.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dynamic changes occurring during the 120 mmHg occlusion within the cross section of the foot along the course of the imaging sequence. There appears to be a faster reaction to the thigh cuff within the healthy foot than the feet with the affected vasculature as well as a greater change in the total hemoglobin concentration.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

2D Reconstructions of the total hemoglobin concentration [HbT] for a healthy volunteer, a PAD patient and a diabetic PAD patient. There is more hemoglobin present within the healthy volunteer than the two patient cross sections shown below it.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Area weighted average total hemoglobin signal healthy for (A) a healthy volunteer, (B) a PAD patient, and (C) a diabetic PAD patient. We recover the five phases seen in the raw detector time traces and observe more blood pooling within the healthy volunteer than the patients with affected vasculature.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Pixels that correlate with weighted average total hemoglobin signal and their corresponding time traces for (A) a healthy volunteer, (B) a PAD patient, and (C) a diabetic PAD patient. By using RHC we see much cleaner signals than the weighted average signals and the differences in the vascular dynamics become much more apparent.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

frequency spectrum analysis of hemoglobin time trace.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ= t=0 N1 (h(t) μ h )*( W(t) μ W ) t=0 N1 (h(t) μ h ) 2 * t=0 N1 ( W(t) μ W ) 2

Metrics