Abstract

Using third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy, we demonstrate that granularity differences of leukocytes can be revealed without a label. Excited by a 1230 nm femtosecond laser, THG signals were generated at a significantly higher level in neutrophils than other mononuclear cells, whereas signals in agranular lymphocytes were one order of magnitude smaller. Interestingly, the characteristic THG features can also be observed in vivo to track the newly recruited leukocytes following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. These results suggest that label-free THG imaging may provide timely tracking of leukocyte movement without disturbing the normal cellular or physiological status.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. N. Germain, M. J. Miller, M. L. Dustin, and M. C. Nussenzweig, “Dynamic imaging of the immune system: progress, pitfalls and promise,” Nat. Rev. Immunol.6(7), 497–507 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. P. Cairns, A. D. Crockard, J. R. McConnell, P. A. Courtney, and A. L. Bell, “Reduced expression of CD44 on monocytes and neutrophils in systemic lupus erythematosus: relations with apoptotic neutrophils and disease activity,” Ann. Rheum. Dis.60(10), 950–955 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol.113(3), 293–303 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. González, R. Sackstein, R. R. Anderson, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Real-time evidence of in vivo leukocyte trafficking in human skin by reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol.117(2), 384–386 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Li, R. K. Pastila, C. Pitsillides, J. M. Runnels, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, and C. P. Lin, “Imaging leukocyte trafficking in vivo with two-photon-excited endogenous tryptophan fluorescence,” Opt. Express18(2), 988–999 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. S. Lim, J. L. Suhalim, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Identification of cholesterol crystals in plaques of atherosclerotic mice using hyperspectral CARS imaging,” J. Lipid Res.52(12), 2177–2186 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Rehberg, F. Krombach, U. Pohl, and S. Dietzel, “Label-free 3D visualization of cellular and tissue structures in intact muscle with second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” PLoS ONE6(11), e28237 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Golan, D. Yeheskely-Hayon, L. Minai, E. J. Dann, and D. Yelin, “Noninvasive imaging of flowing blood cells using label-free spectrally encoded flow cytometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1455–1464 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060505 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M.-R. Tsai, S.-Y. Chen, D.-B. Shieh, P.-J. Lou, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa with harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2317–2328 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3(1), 47–53 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Wang, H.-W. Wang, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, “Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue through the optical window between 1600 and 1850 nm,” J Biophotonics5(1), 25–32 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. European mutant mouse pathology database (Pathbase), “Scanning electron microscopy of the mouse ear,” (University of Cambridge, 08/2009). http://eulep.pdn.cam.ac.uk/~skinbase/Anatomic_hair_types/EAR_ ANNOTAT ED.jpg .
  19. C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. F. Chang, C. H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “Multi-photon resonance enhancement of third harmonic generation in human oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin,” J Biophotonics3(10-11), 678–685 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Condeelis and J. W. Pollard, “Macrophages: obligate partners for tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis,” Cell124(2), 263–266 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M.-C. Chan, T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, and C.-K. Sun, “Compact fiber-delivered Cr:forsterite laser for nonlinear light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 054006 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. T.-M. Liu, M.-C. Chan, I.-H. Chen, S.-H. Chia, and C.-K. Sun, “Miniaturized multiphoton microscope with a 24Hz frame-rate,” Opt. Express16(14), 10501–10506 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S.-H. Chia, C.-H. Yu, C.-H. Lin, N.-C. Cheng, T.-M. Liu, M.-C. Chan, I.-H. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Miniaturized video-rate epi-third-harmonic-generation fiber-microscope,” Opt. Express18(16), 17382–17391 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

P. Wang, H.-W. Wang, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, “Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue through the optical window between 1600 and 1850 nm,” J Biophotonics5(1), 25–32 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Golan, D. Yeheskely-Hayon, L. Minai, E. J. Dann, and D. Yelin, “Noninvasive imaging of flowing blood cells using label-free spectrally encoded flow cytometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1455–1464 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

M.-R. Tsai, S.-Y. Chen, D.-B. Shieh, P.-J. Lou, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa with harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2317–2328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Lim, J. L. Suhalim, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Identification of cholesterol crystals in plaques of atherosclerotic mice using hyperspectral CARS imaging,” J. Lipid Res.52(12), 2177–2186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rehberg, F. Krombach, U. Pohl, and S. Dietzel, “Label-free 3D visualization of cellular and tissue structures in intact muscle with second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” PLoS ONE6(11), e28237 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

C. F. Chang, C. H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “Multi-photon resonance enhancement of third harmonic generation in human oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin,” J Biophotonics3(10-11), 678–685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, R. K. Pastila, C. Pitsillides, J. M. Runnels, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, and C. P. Lin, “Imaging leukocyte trafficking in vivo with two-photon-excited endogenous tryptophan fluorescence,” Opt. Express18(2), 988–999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. Chia, C.-H. Yu, C.-H. Lin, N.-C. Cheng, T.-M. Liu, M.-C. Chan, I.-H. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Miniaturized video-rate epi-third-harmonic-generation fiber-microscope,” Opt. Express18(16), 17382–17391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-M. Liu, M.-C. Chan, I.-H. Chen, S.-H. Chia, and C.-K. Sun, “Miniaturized multiphoton microscope with a 24Hz frame-rate,” Opt. Express16(14), 10501–10506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

R. N. Germain, M. J. Miller, M. L. Dustin, and M. C. Nussenzweig, “Dynamic imaging of the immune system: progress, pitfalls and promise,” Nat. Rev. Immunol.6(7), 497–507 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Condeelis and J. W. Pollard, “Macrophages: obligate partners for tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis,” Cell124(2), 263–266 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M.-C. Chan, T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, and C.-K. Sun, “Compact fiber-delivered Cr:forsterite laser for nonlinear light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 054006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

S. González, R. Sackstein, R. R. Anderson, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Real-time evidence of in vivo leukocyte trafficking in human skin by reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol.117(2), 384–386 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Cairns, A. D. Crockard, J. R. McConnell, P. A. Courtney, and A. L. Bell, “Reduced expression of CD44 on monocytes and neutrophils in systemic lupus erythematosus: relations with apoptotic neutrophils and disease activity,” Ann. Rheum. Dis.60(10), 950–955 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol.113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abdulreda, M. H.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. González, R. Sackstein, R. R. Anderson, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Real-time evidence of in vivo leukocyte trafficking in human skin by reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol.117(2), 384–386 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol.113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayer, A. L.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaurepaire, E.

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, A. L.

A. P. Cairns, A. D. Crockard, J. R. McConnell, P. A. Courtney, and A. L. Bell, “Reduced expression of CD44 on monocytes and neutrophils in systemic lupus erythematosus: relations with apoptotic neutrophils and disease activity,” Ann. Rheum. Dis.60(10), 950–955 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benson, S. V.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berggren, P. O.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourgine, P.

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caicedo, A.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cairns, A. P.

A. P. Cairns, A. D. Crockard, J. R. McConnell, P. A. Courtney, and A. L. Bell, “Reduced expression of CD44 on monocytes and neutrophils in systemic lupus erythematosus: relations with apoptotic neutrophils and disease activity,” Ann. Rheum. Dis.60(10), 950–955 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, A. L.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celso, C. L.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, M.-C.

Chandler, W.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. F.

C. F. Chang, C. H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “Multi-photon resonance enhancement of third harmonic generation in human oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin,” J Biophotonics3(10-11), 678–685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, I.-H.

Chen, S.-U.

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-Y.

M.-R. Tsai, S.-Y. Chen, D.-B. Shieh, P.-J. Lou, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa with harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2317–2328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.-X.

P. Wang, H.-W. Wang, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, “Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue through the optical window between 1600 and 1850 nm,” J Biophotonics5(1), 25–32 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, N.-C.

Chia, S.-H.

Chu, S.-W.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Combettes, L.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Condeelis, J.

J. Condeelis and J. W. Pollard, “Macrophages: obligate partners for tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis,” Cell124(2), 263–266 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Côté, D.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, R. K. Pastila, C. Pitsillides, J. M. Runnels, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, and C. P. Lin, “Imaging leukocyte trafficking in vivo with two-photon-excited endogenous tryptophan fluorescence,” Opt. Express18(2), 988–999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courtney, P. A.

A. P. Cairns, A. D. Crockard, J. R. McConnell, P. A. Courtney, and A. L. Bell, “Reduced expression of CD44 on monocytes and neutrophils in systemic lupus erythematosus: relations with apoptotic neutrophils and disease activity,” Ann. Rheum. Dis.60(10), 950–955 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crockard, A. D.

A. P. Cairns, A. D. Crockard, J. R. McConnell, P. A. Courtney, and A. L. Bell, “Reduced expression of CD44 on monocytes and neutrophils in systemic lupus erythematosus: relations with apoptotic neutrophils and disease activity,” Ann. Rheum. Dis.60(10), 950–955 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dann, E. J.

Débarre, D.

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietzel, S.

M. Rehberg, F. Krombach, U. Pohl, and S. Dietzel, “Label-free 3D visualization of cellular and tissue structures in intact muscle with second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” PLoS ONE6(11), e28237 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douglas, D. R.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duloquin, L.

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dustin, M. L.

R. N. Germain, M. J. Miller, M. L. Dustin, and M. C. Nussenzweig, “Dynamic imaging of the immune system: progress, pitfalls and promise,” Nat. Rev. Immunol.6(7), 497–507 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dylla, H. F.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Echeverria, O. A.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edlund, P. K.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabre, A.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faleo, G.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farinelli, W.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faure, E.

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C. W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujisaki, J.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardecki, J. A.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Germain, R. N.

R. N. Germain, M. J. Miller, M. L. Dustin, and M. C. Nussenzweig, “Dynamic imaging of the immune system: progress, pitfalls and promise,” Nat. Rev. Immunol.6(7), 497–507 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golan, L.

González, S.

S. González, R. Sackstein, R. R. Anderson, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Real-time evidence of in vivo leukocyte trafficking in human skin by reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol.117(2), 384–386 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol.113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gubeli, J.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtom, G. R.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordan, K.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krombach, F.

M. Rehberg, F. Krombach, U. Pohl, and S. Dietzel, “Label-free 3D visualization of cellular and tissue structures in intact muscle with second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” PLoS ONE6(11), e28237 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larocca, R.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laubach, H.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W.-J.

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leibiger, I.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levi, M.

R. S. Lim, J. L. Suhalim, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Identification of cholesterol crystals in plaques of atherosclerotic mice using hyperspectral CARS imaging,” J. Lipid Res.52(12), 2177–2186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Liao, Y.-H.

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, R. S.

R. S. Lim, J. L. Suhalim, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Identification of cholesterol crystals in plaques of atherosclerotic mice using hyperspectral CARS imaging,” J. Lipid Res.52(12), 2177–2186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, R. K. Pastila, C. Pitsillides, J. M. Runnels, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, and C. P. Lin, “Imaging leukocyte trafficking in vivo with two-photon-excited endogenous tryptophan fluorescence,” Opt. Express18(2), 988–999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-H.

Lin, C.-Y.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T.-M.

S.-H. Chia, C.-H. Yu, C.-H. Lin, N.-C. Cheng, T.-M. Liu, M.-C. Chan, I.-H. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Miniaturized video-rate epi-third-harmonic-generation fiber-microscope,” Opt. Express18(16), 17382–17391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-M. Liu, M.-C. Chan, I.-H. Chen, S.-H. Chia, and C.-K. Sun, “Miniaturized multiphoton microscope with a 24Hz frame-rate,” Opt. Express16(14), 10501–10506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chan, T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, and C.-K. Sun, “Compact fiber-delivered Cr:forsterite laser for nonlinear light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 054006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Cabezas, M.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lou, P.-J.

Lu, S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luengo-Oroz, M. A.

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manstein, D.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McConnell, J. R.

A. P. Cairns, A. D. Crockard, J. R. McConnell, P. A. Courtney, and A. L. Bell, “Reduced expression of CD44 on monocytes and neutrophils in systemic lupus erythematosus: relations with apoptotic neutrophils and disease activity,” Ann. Rheum. Dis.60(10), 950–955 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, M. J.

R. N. Germain, M. J. Miller, M. L. Dustin, and M. C. Nussenzweig, “Dynamic imaging of the immune system: progress, pitfalls and promise,” Nat. Rev. Immunol.6(7), 497–507 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minai, L.

Miyazaki, M.

R. S. Lim, J. L. Suhalim, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Identification of cholesterol crystals in plaques of atherosclerotic mice using hyperspectral CARS imaging,” J. Lipid Res.52(12), 2177–2186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyazaki-Anzai, S.

R. S. Lim, J. L. Suhalim, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Identification of cholesterol crystals in plaques of atherosclerotic mice using hyperspectral CARS imaging,” J. Lipid Res.52(12), 2177–2186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molano, R. D.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molina, J.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadkarni, S. K.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neil, G. R.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nussenzweig, M. C.

R. N. Germain, M. J. Miller, M. L. Dustin, and M. C. Nussenzweig, “Dynamic imaging of the immune system: progress, pitfalls and promise,” Nat. Rev. Immunol.6(7), 497–507 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, N.

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pastila, R. K.

Pena, A.-M.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perez, V.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyriéras, N.

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pileggi, A.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitsillides, C.

Pohl, U.

M. Rehberg, F. Krombach, U. Pohl, and S. Dietzel, “Label-free 3D visualization of cellular and tissue structures in intact muscle with second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” PLoS ONE6(11), e28237 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollard, J. W.

J. Condeelis and J. W. Pollard, “Macrophages: obligate partners for tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis,” Cell124(2), 263–266 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potma, E. O.

R. S. Lim, J. L. Suhalim, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Identification of cholesterol crystals in plaques of atherosclerotic mice using hyperspectral CARS imaging,” J. Lipid Res.52(12), 2177–2186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puoris’haag, M.

Putheti, P.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

S. González, R. Sackstein, R. R. Anderson, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Real-time evidence of in vivo leukocyte trafficking in human skin by reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol.117(2), 384–386 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol.113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rehberg, M.

M. Rehberg, F. Krombach, U. Pohl, and S. Dietzel, “Label-free 3D visualization of cellular and tissue structures in intact muscle with second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” PLoS ONE6(11), e28237 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ricordi, C.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez-Diaz, R.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Runnels, J. M.

Saar, B. G.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sackstein, R.

S. González, R. Sackstein, R. R. Anderson, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Real-time evidence of in vivo leukocyte trafficking in human skin by reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol.117(2), 384–386 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, T. I.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santos, A.

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, T.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savy, T.

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scadden, D. T.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shieh, D.-B.

Shinn, M.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberstein, L.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solinas, X.

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strom, T. B.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturek, M.

P. Wang, H.-W. Wang, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, “Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue through the optical window between 1600 and 1850 nm,” J Biophotonics5(1), 25–32 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suhalim, J. L.

R. S. Lim, J. L. Suhalim, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Identification of cholesterol crystals in plaques of atherosclerotic mice using hyperspectral CARS imaging,” J. Lipid Res.52(12), 2177–2186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.-K.

M.-R. Tsai, S.-Y. Chen, D.-B. Shieh, P.-J. Lou, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa with harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2317–2328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Chang, C. H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “Multi-photon resonance enhancement of third harmonic generation in human oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin,” J Biophotonics3(10-11), 678–685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Chia, C.-H. Yu, C.-H. Lin, N.-C. Cheng, T.-M. Liu, M.-C. Chan, I.-H. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Miniaturized video-rate epi-third-harmonic-generation fiber-microscope,” Opt. Express18(16), 17382–17391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-M. Liu, M.-C. Chan, I.-H. Chen, S.-H. Chia, and C.-K. Sun, “Miniaturized multiphoton microscope with a 24Hz frame-rate,” Opt. Express16(14), 10501–10506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chan, T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, and C.-K. Sun, “Compact fiber-delivered Cr:forsterite laser for nonlinear light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 054006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supatto, W.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sykes, M.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tai, S.-P.

M.-C. Chan, T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, and C.-K. Sun, “Compact fiber-delivered Cr:forsterite laser for nonlinear light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 054006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, Y.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tordjmann, T.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toussaint, J. D.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

R. S. Lim, J. L. Suhalim, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Identification of cholesterol crystals in plaques of atherosclerotic mice using hyperspectral CARS imaging,” J. Lipid Res.52(12), 2177–2186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, H.-J.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M.-R.

Tsai, T.-H.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuyuzaki, H.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veilleux, I.

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.-W.

P. Wang, H.-W. Wang, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, “Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue through the optical window between 1600 and 1850 nm,” J Biophotonics5(1), 25–32 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, H.-W. Wang, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, “Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue through the optical window between 1600 and 1850 nm,” J Biophotonics5(1), 25–32 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol.113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, G. P.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H.-Y.

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yagi, Y.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaroslavsky, A. N.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeheskely-Hayon, D.

Yelin, D.

Yu, C. H.

C. F. Chang, C. H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “Multi-photon resonance enhancement of third harmonic generation in human oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin,” J Biophotonics3(10-11), 678–685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C.-H.

Zahr-Akrawi, E.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavislan, J. M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol.113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Rheum. Dis.

A. P. Cairns, A. D. Crockard, J. R. McConnell, P. A. Courtney, and A. L. Bell, “Reduced expression of CD44 on monocytes and neutrophils in systemic lupus erythematosus: relations with apoptotic neutrophils and disease activity,” Ann. Rheum. Dis.60(10), 950–955 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express

Cell

J. Condeelis and J. W. Pollard, “Macrophages: obligate partners for tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis,” Cell124(2), 263–266 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J Biophotonics

P. Wang, H.-W. Wang, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, “Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue through the optical window between 1600 and 1850 nm,” J Biophotonics5(1), 25–32 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Chang, C. H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “Multi-photon resonance enhancement of third harmonic generation in human oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin,” J Biophotonics3(10-11), 678–685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M.-C. Chan, T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, and C.-K. Sun, “Compact fiber-delivered Cr:forsterite laser for nonlinear light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 054006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol.113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. González, R. Sackstein, R. R. Anderson, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Real-time evidence of in vivo leukocyte trafficking in human skin by reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol.117(2), 384–386 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lipid Res.

R. S. Lim, J. L. Suhalim, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Identification of cholesterol crystals in plaques of atherosclerotic mice using hyperspectral CARS imaging,” J. Lipid Res.52(12), 2177–2186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Struct. Biol.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Immunol.

R. N. Germain, M. J. Miller, M. L. Dustin, and M. C. Nussenzweig, “Dynamic imaging of the immune system: progress, pitfalls and promise,” Nat. Rev. Immunol.6(7), 497–507 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

J. Fujisaki, J. Wu, A. L. Carlson, L. Silberstein, P. Putheti, R. Larocca, W. Gao, T. I. Saito, C. L. Celso, H. Tsuyuzaki, T. Sato, D. Côté, M. Sykes, T. B. Strom, D. T. Scadden, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Nature474(7350), 216–219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

PLoS ONE

M. Rehberg, F. Krombach, U. Pohl, and S. Dietzel, “Label-free 3D visualization of cellular and tissue structures in intact muscle with second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” PLoS ONE6(11), e28237 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

M. H. Abdulreda, G. Faleo, R. D. Molano, M. Lopez-Cabezas, J. Molina, Y. Tan, O. A. Echeverria, E. Zahr-Akrawi, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, P. K. Edlund, I. Leibiger, A. L. Bayer, V. Perez, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “High-resolution, noninvasive longitudinal live imaging of immune responses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(31), 12863–12868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

European mutant mouse pathology database (Pathbase), “Scanning electron microscopy of the mouse ear,” (University of Cambridge, 08/2009). http://eulep.pdn.cam.ac.uk/~skinbase/Anatomic_hair_types/EAR_ ANNOTAT ED.jpg .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Third harmonic generation images (a-c) and 3D surface plots (d-f) of a (a,d) neutrophil, (b,e) monocyte, and (c,f) lymphocyte. Field of view: 12 × 12 μm. (g) Cross sectional view of neutrophil (red curve), monocyte (blue curve), and lymphocyte (black curve). (h) Multiphoton nonlinear optical spectrum of leukocytes under imaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) THG images of spleen extract. White arrows indicate hollow-core splenocytes. (b-d) The (b) TPF, (c) THG, and (d) combined images of an anti-D3ε-Allophycocyanin labeled T-lymphocyte. Scale bar: 5 μm. (e) The bright-field image of lymphocyte with Wright-Giemsa stain. Scale bar: 5 μm (f) The THG images of hollow-core leukocytes without anti-CD3ε-APC targeting in spleen extracts. Scale bar: 10 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Combined second harmonic generation (green color) and third harmonic generation (magenta color) images of subcutaneous microenvironments. Resident cells include (a) epitheial keratenocytes, (b) sebocytes in sebaceous gland (SG), (c) adipocytes, and (d) chondrocytes. White arrows indicate the vessels around the sebaceous gland. Field of view: 240 × 240 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Combined second harmonic generation (green color) and third harmonic generation (magenta color) time course images of inflammation microenvironments (a) 6 hours, (b),(c) 3 days, and (d) 6 days post-LPS challenge in the same mouse. White arrows indicate (a) deformed neutrophils, (b) hollow-core lymphoid cells, (c) deformed lymphoid cells, and (d) a vessel with circulating red blood cells. Bottom rows shows THG images of elongated (e) neutrophil and (f) lymphoid leukocytes, (g) ruffled lymphoid leukocytes, and (h) cell-cell contact between granulocytes and lymphoid cells. Fields of view are 120 × 120 μm in (a-d) and 12 × 12 μm in (e-h).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Amoeboid movement of neutrophils at 3 days post-LPS challenge in Balb/c mice. Field of view: 24 × 24 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

In vivo THG images of leukocyte infiltration in an ICR mouse at (a) 10hours, (b) 36hours, and (c) 60hours post-LPS challenge in ear pinna. Neutrophils (N) and lymphoid cells (L) can be identified in the microenvironment of an immune response. THG signals around leukocytes were generated from collagen, which serves as an in vivo reference for the normalization of THG signals from different images.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Population percentages of neutrophil-like (magenta color bar) and lymphocyte-like (white color bar) leukocytes at 10hours, 36hours, and 60hours post-LPS challenge.

Metrics