Abstract

We present real-time 3D (2D cross-sectional image plus time) and 4D (3D volume plus time) phase-resolved Doppler OCT (PRDOCT) imaging based on configuration of dual graphics processing units (GPU). A GPU-accelerated phase-resolving processing algorithm was developed and implemented. We combined a structural image intensity-based thresholding mask and average window method to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the Doppler phase image. A 2D simultaneous display of the structure and Doppler flow images was presented at a frame rate of 70 fps with an image size of 1000 × 1024 (X × Z) pixels. A 3D volume rendering of tissue structure and flow images—each with a size of 512 × 512 pixels—was presented 64.9 milliseconds after every volume scanning cycle with a volume size of 500 × 256 × 512 (X × Y × Z) voxels, with an acquisition time window of only 3.7 seconds. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an online, simultaneous structure and Doppler flow volume visualization has been achieved. Maximum system processing speed was measured to be 249,000 A-scans per second with each A-scan size of 2048 pixels.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

H. Ren, C. Du, and Y. Pan, “Cerebral blood flow imaged with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence angiography and Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1388–1390 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time reference A-line subtraction and saturation artifact removal using graphics processing unit for high-frame rate Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video imaging,” Opt. Eng.51(7), 073203 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. K. C. Lee, A. Mariampillai, J. X. Z. Yu, D. W. Cadotte, B. C. Wilson, B. A. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, “Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1557–1564 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jeong, N. H. Cho, U. Jung, C. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Ultra-fast displaying spectral domain optical Doppler tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)12(6), 6920–6929 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rasakanthan, K. Sugden, and P. H. Tomlins, “Processing and rendering of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography images at a line rate over 524 kHz using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time numerical dispersion compensation using graphics processing unit for Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett.47(5), 309–310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, W. J. Qi, L. F. Yu, and Z. P. Chen, “Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging,” Opt. Express19(4), 3657–3666 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time intraoperative 4D full-range FD-OCT based on the dual graphics processing units architecture for microsurgery guidance,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 764–770 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu, L. Chou, W. Jia, W. Qi, B. Choi, and Z. P. Chen, “Intensity-based modified Doppler variance algorithm: application to phase instable and phase stable optical coherence tomography systems,” Opt. Express19(12), 11429–11440 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system,” Opt. Express18(11), 11772–11784 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Watanabe, S. Maeno, K. Aoshima, H. Hasegawa, and H. Koseki, “Real-time processing for full-range Fourier-domain optical-coherence tomography with zero-filling interpolation using multiple graphic processing units,” Appl. Opt.49(25), 4756–4762 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, J. Y. Jiang, M. A. Yaseen, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, and D. A. Boas, “Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 43–45 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Doppler optical micro-angiography for volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion in vivo,” Opt. Express17(11), 8926–8940 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Z. C. Luo, H. G. Ren, C. W. Du, and Y. Pan, “A digital frequency ramping method for enhancing Doppler flow imaging in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(5), 3951–3963 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2004

T. Leng, J. M. Miller, K. V. Bilbao, D. V. Palanker, P. Huie, and M. S. Blumenkranz, “The chick chorioallantoic membrane as a model tissue for surgical retinal research and simulation,” Retina24(3), 427–434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1997

S. Yazdanfar, M. D. Kulkarni, and J. A. Izatt, “High resolution imaging of in vivo cardiac dynamics using color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express1(13), 424–431 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(14), 1119–1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, M. Hammer-Wilson, M. J. Schell, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, “Differential vascular response to laser photothermolysis,” J. Invest. Dermatol.103(5), 693–700 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Doppler optical micro-angiography for volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion in vivo,” Opt. Express17(11), 8926–8940 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoshima, K.

Barry, S.

V. J. Srinivasan, J. Y. Jiang, M. A. Yaseen, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, and D. A. Boas, “Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 43–45 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, M. Hammer-Wilson, M. J. Schell, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, “Differential vascular response to laser photothermolysis,” J. Invest. Dermatol.103(5), 693–700 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilbao, K. V.

T. Leng, J. M. Miller, K. V. Bilbao, D. V. Palanker, P. Huie, and M. S. Blumenkranz, “The chick chorioallantoic membrane as a model tissue for surgical retinal research and simulation,” Retina24(3), 427–434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blumenkranz, M. S.

T. Leng, J. M. Miller, K. V. Bilbao, D. V. Palanker, P. Huie, and M. S. Blumenkranz, “The chick chorioallantoic membrane as a model tissue for surgical retinal research and simulation,” Retina24(3), 427–434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

V. J. Srinivasan, J. Y. Jiang, M. A. Yaseen, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, and D. A. Boas, “Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 43–45 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bradu, A.

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, J. Y. Jiang, M. A. Yaseen, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, and D. A. Boas, “Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 43–45 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cadotte, D. W.

K. K. C. Lee, A. Mariampillai, J. X. Z. Yu, D. W. Cadotte, B. C. Wilson, B. A. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, “Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1557–1564 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chen, T.

Chen, Z. P.

Cho, N. H.

H. Jeong, N. H. Cho, U. Jung, C. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Ultra-fast displaying spectral domain optical Doppler tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)12(6), 6920–6929 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B.

Chou, L.

Davis, A. M.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Ding, Z.

Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dragostinoff, N.

Du, C.

H. Ren, C. Du, and Y. Pan, “Cerebral blood flow imaged with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence angiography and Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1388–1390 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, C. W.

Duker, J. S.

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Gruber, A.

Hammer-Wilson, M.

S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, M. Hammer-Wilson, M. J. Schell, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, “Differential vascular response to laser photothermolysis,” J. Invest. Dermatol.103(5), 693–700 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanson, S. R.

Hasegawa, H.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hornegger, J.

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time reference A-line subtraction and saturation artifact removal using graphics processing unit for high-frame rate Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video imaging,” Opt. Eng.51(7), 073203 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huie, P.

T. Leng, J. M. Miller, K. V. Bilbao, D. V. Palanker, P. Huie, and M. S. Blumenkranz, “The chick chorioallantoic membrane as a model tissue for surgical retinal research and simulation,” Retina24(3), 427–434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurst, S.

Itagaki, T.

Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jacques, S. L.

Jeong, H.

H. Jeong, N. H. Cho, U. Jung, C. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Ultra-fast displaying spectral domain optical Doppler tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)12(6), 6920–6929 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jia, W.

Jiang, J.

Jiang, J. Y.

V. J. Srinivasan, J. Y. Jiang, M. A. Yaseen, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, and D. A. Boas, “Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 43–45 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, U.

H. Jeong, N. H. Cho, U. Jung, C. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Ultra-fast displaying spectral domain optical Doppler tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)12(6), 6920–6929 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

Y. Huang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time reference A-line subtraction and saturation artifact removal using graphics processing unit for high-frame rate Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video imaging,” Opt. Eng.51(7), 073203 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time intraoperative 4D full-range FD-OCT based on the dual graphics processing units architecture for microsurgery guidance,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 764–770 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time numerical dispersion compensation using graphics processing unit for Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett.47(5), 309–310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system,” Opt. Express18(11), 11772–11784 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khurana, M.

Kim, J.

H. Jeong, N. H. Cho, U. Jung, C. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Ultra-fast displaying spectral domain optical Doppler tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)12(6), 6920–6929 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-Y.

H. Jeong, N. H. Cho, U. Jung, C. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Ultra-fast displaying spectral domain optical Doppler tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)12(6), 6920–6929 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kimel, S.

S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, M. Hammer-Wilson, M. J. Schell, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, “Differential vascular response to laser photothermolysis,” J. Invest. Dermatol.103(5), 693–700 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koseki, H.

Kraus, M. F.

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, M. D.

Lee, C.

H. Jeong, N. H. Cho, U. Jung, C. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Ultra-fast displaying spectral domain optical Doppler tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)12(6), 6920–6929 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K. C.

K. K. C. Lee, A. Mariampillai, J. X. Z. Yu, D. W. Cadotte, B. C. Wilson, B. A. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, “Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1557–1564 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leng, T.

T. Leng, J. M. Miller, K. V. Bilbao, D. V. Palanker, P. Huie, and M. S. Blumenkranz, “The chick chorioallantoic membrane as a model tissue for surgical retinal research and simulation,” Retina24(3), 427–434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leung, M. K. K.

Liu, G.

Liu, J. J.

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Z. C.

Ma, Z.

Maeno, S.

Malekafzali, A.

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(14), 1119–1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mariampillai, A.

K. K. C. Lee, A. Mariampillai, J. X. Z. Yu, D. W. Cadotte, B. C. Wilson, B. A. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, “Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1557–1564 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, J. M.

T. Leng, J. M. Miller, K. V. Bilbao, D. V. Palanker, P. Huie, and M. S. Blumenkranz, “The chick chorioallantoic membrane as a model tissue for surgical retinal research and simulation,” Retina24(3), 427–434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(14), 1119–1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, M. Hammer-Wilson, M. J. Schell, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, “Differential vascular response to laser photothermolysis,” J. Invest. Dermatol.103(5), 693–700 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moriyama, E. H.

Munce, N. R.

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, C. Saxer, Q. Shen, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Doppler standard deviation imaging for clinical monitoring of in vivo human skin blood flow,” Opt. Lett.25(18), 1358–1360 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(14), 1119–1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, M. Hammer-Wilson, M. J. Schell, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, “Differential vascular response to laser photothermolysis,” J. Invest. Dermatol.103(5), 693–700 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palanker, D. V.

T. Leng, J. M. Miller, K. V. Bilbao, D. V. Palanker, P. Huie, and M. S. Blumenkranz, “The chick chorioallantoic membrane as a model tissue for surgical retinal research and simulation,” Retina24(3), 427–434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Y.

H. Ren, C. Du, and Y. Pan, “Cerebral blood flow imaged with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence angiography and Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1388–1390 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Z. C. Luo, H. G. Ren, C. W. Du, and Y. Pan, “A digital frequency ramping method for enhancing Doppler flow imaging in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(5), 3951–3963 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B.

Pierce, M.

Pircher, M.

Podoleanu, A. G.

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, W.

Qi, W. J.

Radhakrishnan, H.

V. J. Srinivasan, J. Y. Jiang, M. A. Yaseen, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, and D. A. Boas, “Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 43–45 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasakanthan, J.

J. Rasakanthan, K. Sugden, and P. H. Tomlins, “Processing and rendering of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography images at a line rate over 524 kHz using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

H. Ren, C. Du, and Y. Pan, “Cerebral blood flow imaged with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence angiography and Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1388–1390 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H. G.

Saxer, C.

Schell, M. J.

S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, M. Hammer-Wilson, M. J. Schell, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, “Differential vascular response to laser photothermolysis,” J. Invest. Dermatol.103(5), 693–700 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

Shen, Q.

Srinivas, S.

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(14), 1119–1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

V. J. Srinivasan, J. Y. Jiang, M. A. Yaseen, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, and D. A. Boas, “Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 43–45 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Standish, B. A.

K. K. C. Lee, A. Mariampillai, J. X. Z. Yu, D. W. Cadotte, B. C. Wilson, B. A. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, “Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1557–1564 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugden, K.

J. Rasakanthan, K. Sugden, and P. H. Tomlins, “Processing and rendering of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography images at a line rate over 524 kHz using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svaasand, L. O.

S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, M. Hammer-Wilson, M. J. Schell, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, “Differential vascular response to laser photothermolysis,” J. Invest. Dermatol.103(5), 693–700 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G.

Tomlins, P. H.

J. Rasakanthan, K. Sugden, and P. H. Tomlins, “Processing and rendering of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography images at a line rate over 524 kHz using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van der Jeught, S.

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(14), 1119–1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I. A.

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Doppler optical micro-angiography for volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion in vivo,” Opt. Express17(11), 8926–8940 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(14), 1119–1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, Y.

Werkmeister, R. M.

White, B.

Wilson, B. C.

K. K. C. Lee, A. Mariampillai, J. X. Z. Yu, D. W. Cadotte, B. C. Wilson, B. A. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, “Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1557–1564 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, W.

V. J. Srinivasan, J. Y. Jiang, M. A. Yaseen, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, and D. A. Boas, “Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 43–45 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, S.

Yang, V. X. D.

K. K. C. Lee, A. Mariampillai, J. X. Z. Yu, D. W. Cadotte, B. C. Wilson, B. A. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, “Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1557–1564 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaseen, M. A.

V. J. Srinivasan, J. Y. Jiang, M. A. Yaseen, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, and D. A. Boas, “Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 43–45 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

Yu, J. X. Z.

K. K. C. Lee, A. Mariampillai, J. X. Z. Yu, D. W. Cadotte, B. C. Wilson, B. A. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, “Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1557–1564 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, L. F.

Yuan, Z.

Zhang, K.

Zhao, Y. H.

Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, C. Saxer, Q. Shen, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Doppler standard deviation imaging for clinical monitoring of in vivo human skin blood flow,” Opt. Lett.25(18), 1358–1360 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

K. K. C. Lee, A. Mariampillai, J. X. Z. Yu, D. W. Cadotte, B. C. Wilson, B. A. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, “Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1557–1564 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express

Electron. Lett.

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time numerical dispersion compensation using graphics processing unit for Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett.47(5), 309–310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Rasakanthan, K. Sugden, and P. H. Tomlins, “Processing and rendering of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography images at a line rate over 524 kHz using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, M. Hammer-Wilson, M. J. Schell, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, “Differential vascular response to laser photothermolysis,” J. Invest. Dermatol.103(5), 693–700 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Doppler optical micro-angiography for volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion in vivo,” Opt. Express17(11), 8926–8940 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

H. Ren, C. Du, and Y. Pan, “Cerebral blood flow imaged with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence angiography and Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1388–1390 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(14), 1119–1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, J. Y. Jiang, M. A. Yaseen, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, and D. A. Boas, “Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 43–45 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng.

Y. Huang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time reference A-line subtraction and saturation artifact removal using graphics processing unit for high-frame rate Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video imaging,” Opt. Eng.51(7), 073203 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

S. Yazdanfar, M. D. Kulkarni, and J. A. Izatt, “High resolution imaging of in vivo cardiac dynamics using color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express1(13), 424–431 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. White, M. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu, L. Chou, W. Jia, W. Qi, B. Choi, and Z. P. Chen, “Intensity-based modified Doppler variance algorithm: application to phase instable and phase stable optical coherence tomography systems,” Opt. Express19(12), 11429–11440 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, “Single-pass volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a modified Hilbert transform,” Opt. Express16(16), 12350–12361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu, W. J. Qi, L. F. Yu, and Z. P. Chen, “Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging,” Opt. Express19(4), 3657–3666 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Z. C. Luo, H. G. Ren, C. W. Du, and Y. Pan, “A digital frequency ramping method for enhancing Doppler flow imaging in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(5), 3951–3963 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system,” Opt. Express18(11), 11772–11784 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Retina

T. Leng, J. M. Miller, K. V. Bilbao, D. V. Palanker, P. Huie, and M. S. Blumenkranz, “The chick chorioallantoic membrane as a model tissue for surgical retinal research and simulation,” Retina24(3), 427–434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel Switzerland)

H. Jeong, N. H. Cho, U. Jung, C. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Ultra-fast displaying spectral domain optical Doppler tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)12(6), 6920–6929 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

NVIDIA, “NVIDIA CUDA C Programming Guide Version 4.2,” (April 2012).

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography, Technology and Applications (Springer, 2008)

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (534 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System configuration: L1,L3, achromatic collimators; L2, achromatic focal lens; SL, scanning lens; C, 50:50 broadband fiber coupler; GVS, galvanometer pairs; PC, polarization controller, M, reference mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Data processing flowchart of the OCT system. Solid arrows: data stream, blue indicates internal GPU or Host data flow red indicates GPU-host data flow; here the entire GPU memory buffers were allocated on global memory. Thread 1 boxed by green controls the OCT data acquisition; thread 2 boxed by yellow controls the GPU1 data processing and galvanometer mirrors; thread 3 boxed by red controls the GPU2 volume rendering processing. Synchronization and hand-shake between threads are realized through a software event-based trigger.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized phase noise measured from a stationary mirror.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration for intensity-based mask and averaging of phase images: (a) raw phase image without any processing, (b) phase image after mask thresholding, (c) phase image after mask thresholding and averaging, (d) phase image after only averaging (scale bar: 300 µm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) phantom flow phase images showing the effect of different thresholding values: 5.0, 5.4 and 5.8 (b) phase profile along the red line in (a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Zoomed screen-captured B-mode structure and phase images of a 300 µm microchannel with different flow velocities. Doppler angle: 85°. (b) Phase profile along the center of the microchannel with parabolic fitting.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phantom volume rendering: red box indicates the screen-captured image of the program display zone and volume rendering images under top, isotropic, and front views.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Processing time measurement of all GPU kernel functions: (a) GPU1 for a B-mode image size of 1000 × 1024 pixels and (b) GPU2 for a C-mode volume size of 500 × 256 × 512 voxels.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Real-time video image (Media 1) showing the pulsation of blood flow of one vessel of chicken embryo membrane, imaged at 70 fps and played back at 30 fps (scale bar: 300 µm).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Screen-captures of simultaneous flow and structure imaging of CAM under different views; B-mode images correspond to position marked by yellow dashed line on the volume image.

Equations (1)

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Δ φ ( z , x ) = tan 1 [ Im [ I ~ ( z , x n ) I * ~ ( z , x n 1 ) ] Re [ I ~ ( z , x n ) I * ~ ( z , x n 1 ) ] ]

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