Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy depends on the local dose deposited in the lesion as well as oxygen availability in the lesion. We report significant interlesion differences between two patients with oral lesions treated with the same drug dose and similar light dose of 2-1[hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinylpyropheophorbide-a (HPPH)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT). Pre-PDT and PDT-induced changes in hemodynamic parameters and HPPH photosensitizer content, quantified by diffuse optical methods, demonstrated substantial differences between the two lesions. The differences in PDT action determined by the oxidative cross-linking of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a molecular measure of accumulated local PDT photoreaction, also showed >100-fold difference between the lesions, greatly exceeding what would be expected from the slight difference in light dose. Our results suggest diffuse optical spectroscopies can provide in vivo metrics that are indicative of local PDT dose in oral lesions.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (1)

H. Quon, C. E. Grossman, J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, C. S. Clemmens, K. M. Malloy, and T. M. Busch, “Photodynamic therapy in the management of pre-malignant head and neck mucosal dysplasia and microinvasive carcinoma,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.8(2), 75–85 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Wilson and M. S. Patterson, “The physics, biophysics and technology of photodynamic therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(9), R61–R109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

M. A. Biel, “Photodynamic therapy treatment of early oral and laryngeal cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol.83(5), 1063–1068 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Henderson, C. Daroqui, E. Tracy, L. A. Vaughan, G. M. Loewen, M. T. Cooper, and H. Baumann, “Cross-linking of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3—a molecular marker for the photodynamic reaction in cells and tumors,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(11), 3156–3163 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, S. Makonnen, C. Zhou, T. Durduran, G. Yu, H. W. Wang, W. M. F. Lee, and A. G. Yodh, “Hemodynamic responses to antivascular therapy and ionizing radiation assessed by diffuse optical spectroscopies,” Opt. Express15(23), 15507–15516 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt.45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zakharov, A. Völker, A. Buck, B. Weber, and F. Scheffold, “Quantitative modeling of laser speckle imaging,” Opt. Lett.31(23), 3465–3467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol.82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res.11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, A. van der Ploeg van den Heuvel, W. J. de Wolf, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Monitoring PDT by means of superficial reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B79(3), 243–251 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

C. Sheng, B. W. Pogue, E. Wang, J. E. Hutchins, and P. J. Hoopes, “Assessment of photosensitizer dosimetry and tissue damage assay for photodynamic therapy in advanced-stage tumors,” Photochem. Photobiol.79(6), 520–525 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome,” Cancer Res.64(20), 7553–7561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, A. R. Oseroff, and H. Baumann, “Photodynamic therapy causes cross-linking of signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins and attenuation of interleukin-6 cytokine responsiveness in epithelial cells,” Cancer Res.64(18), 6579–6587 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

J. C. Finlay, D. L. Conover, E. L. Hull, and T. H. Foster, “Porphyrin bleaching and PDT-induced spectral changes are irradiance dependent in ALA-sensitized normal rat skin in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.73(1), 54–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Hull and T. H. Foster, “Steady-state reflectance spectroscopy in the P3 approximation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A18(3), 584–599 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Inaguma and K. Hashimoto, “Porphyrin-like fluorescence in oral cancer,” Cancer86(11), 2201–2211 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

I. Georgakoudi and T. H. Foster, “Singlet oxygen- versus nonsinglet oxygen-mediated mechanisms of sensitizer photobleaching and their effects on photodynamic dosimetry,” Photochem. Photobiol.67(6), 612–625 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (5)

1995 (1)

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1988 (1)

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.60(12), 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, “Multiple light-scattering from disordered media—the effect of Brownian-motion of scatterers,” Z. Phys. B65(4), 409–413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Amelink, A.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, A. van der Ploeg van den Heuvel, W. J. de Wolf, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Monitoring PDT by means of superficial reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B79(3), 243–251 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Axelsson, J.

Baumann, H.

U. Sunar, D. Rohrbach, N. Rigual, E. Tracy, K. Keymel, M. T. Cooper, H. Baumann, and B. H. Henderson, “Monitoring photobleaching and hemodynamic responses to HPPH-mediated photodynamic therapy of head and neck cancer: a case report,” Opt. Express18(14), 14969–14978 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Henderson, C. Daroqui, E. Tracy, L. A. Vaughan, G. M. Loewen, M. T. Cooper, and H. Baumann, “Cross-linking of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3—a molecular marker for the photodynamic reaction in cells and tumors,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(11), 3156–3163 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, A. R. Oseroff, and H. Baumann, “Photodynamic therapy causes cross-linking of signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins and attenuation of interleukin-6 cytokine responsiveness in epithelial cells,” Cancer Res.64(18), 6579–6587 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biel, M. A.

M. A. Biel, “Photodynamic therapy treatment of early oral and laryngeal cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol.83(5), 1063–1068 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14(1), 192–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, J.

Buck, A.

Busch, T. M.

H. Quon, C. E. Grossman, J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, C. S. Clemmens, K. M. Malloy, and T. M. Busch, “Photodynamic therapy in the management of pre-malignant head and neck mucosal dysplasia and microinvasive carcinoma,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.8(2), 75–85 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol.82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res.11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome,” Cancer Res.64(20), 7553–7561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, J.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, L. E.

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaikin, P. M.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.60(12), 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clemmens, C. S.

H. Quon, C. E. Grossman, J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, C. S. Clemmens, K. M. Malloy, and T. M. Busch, “Photodynamic therapy in the management of pre-malignant head and neck mucosal dysplasia and microinvasive carcinoma,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.8(2), 75–85 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conover, D. L.

J. C. Finlay, D. L. Conover, E. L. Hull, and T. H. Foster, “Porphyrin bleaching and PDT-induced spectral changes are irradiance dependent in ALA-sensitized normal rat skin in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.73(1), 54–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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U. Sunar, D. Rohrbach, N. Rigual, E. Tracy, K. Keymel, M. T. Cooper, H. Baumann, and B. H. Henderson, “Monitoring photobleaching and hemodynamic responses to HPPH-mediated photodynamic therapy of head and neck cancer: a case report,” Opt. Express18(14), 14969–14978 (2010).
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B. W. Henderson, C. Daroqui, E. Tracy, L. A. Vaughan, G. M. Loewen, M. T. Cooper, and H. Baumann, “Cross-linking of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3—a molecular marker for the photodynamic reaction in cells and tumors,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(11), 3156–3163 (2007).
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Daroqui, C.

B. W. Henderson, C. Daroqui, E. Tracy, L. A. Vaughan, G. M. Loewen, M. T. Cooper, and H. Baumann, “Cross-linking of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3—a molecular marker for the photodynamic reaction in cells and tumors,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(11), 3156–3163 (2007).
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A. Amelink, A. van der Ploeg van den Heuvel, W. J. de Wolf, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Monitoring PDT by means of superficial reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B79(3), 243–251 (2005).
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X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietsche, G.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044002 (2005).
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H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 014004 (2005).
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Du, J.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
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Durduran, T.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
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U. Sunar, S. Makonnen, C. Zhou, T. Durduran, G. Yu, H. W. Wang, W. M. F. Lee, and A. G. Yodh, “Hemodynamic responses to antivascular therapy and ionizing radiation assessed by diffuse optical spectroscopies,” Opt. Express15(23), 15507–15516 (2007).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
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G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol.82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res.11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
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C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
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J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044002 (2005).
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H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome,” Cancer Res.64(20), 7553–7561 (2004).
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T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
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T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
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Feld, M. S.

Finlay, J. C.

H. Quon, C. E. Grossman, J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, C. S. Clemmens, K. M. Malloy, and T. M. Busch, “Photodynamic therapy in the management of pre-malignant head and neck mucosal dysplasia and microinvasive carcinoma,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.8(2), 75–85 (2011).
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G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol.82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Finlay, D. L. Conover, E. L. Hull, and T. H. Foster, “Porphyrin bleaching and PDT-induced spectral changes are irradiance dependent in ALA-sensitized normal rat skin in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.73(1), 54–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, T. H.

J. C. Finlay, D. L. Conover, E. L. Hull, and T. H. Foster, “Porphyrin bleaching and PDT-induced spectral changes are irradiance dependent in ALA-sensitized normal rat skin in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.73(1), 54–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Hull and T. H. Foster, “Steady-state reflectance spectroscopy in the P3 approximation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A18(3), 584–599 (2001).
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H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
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Georgakoudi, I.

I. Georgakoudi and T. H. Foster, “Singlet oxygen- versus nonsinglet oxygen-mediated mechanisms of sensitizer photobleaching and their effects on photodynamic dosimetry,” Photochem. Photobiol.67(6), 612–625 (1998).
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J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res.11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome,” Cancer Res.64(20), 7553–7561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
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T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
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H. Quon, C. E. Grossman, J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, C. S. Clemmens, K. M. Malloy, and T. M. Busch, “Photodynamic therapy in the management of pre-malignant head and neck mucosal dysplasia and microinvasive carcinoma,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.8(2), 75–85 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol.82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
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X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
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M. Inaguma and K. Hashimoto, “Porphyrin-like fluorescence in oral cancer,” Cancer86(11), 2201–2211 (1999).
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Henderson, B. H.

Henderson, B. W.

B. W. Henderson, C. Daroqui, E. Tracy, L. A. Vaughan, G. M. Loewen, M. T. Cooper, and H. Baumann, “Cross-linking of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3—a molecular marker for the photodynamic reaction in cells and tumors,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(11), 3156–3163 (2007).
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D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.60(12), 1134–1137 (1988).
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Hoopes, J.

X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoopes, P. J.

C. Sheng, B. W. Pogue, E. Wang, J. E. Hutchins, and P. J. Hoopes, “Assessment of photosensitizer dosimetry and tissue damage assay for photodynamic therapy in advanced-stage tumors,” Photochem. Photobiol.79(6), 520–525 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiang, D.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
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Hull, E. L.

J. C. Finlay, D. L. Conover, E. L. Hull, and T. H. Foster, “Porphyrin bleaching and PDT-induced spectral changes are irradiance dependent in ALA-sensitized normal rat skin in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.73(1), 54–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Hull and T. H. Foster, “Steady-state reflectance spectroscopy in the P3 approximation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A18(3), 584–599 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hutchins, J. E.

C. Sheng, B. W. Pogue, E. Wang, J. E. Hutchins, and P. J. Hoopes, “Assessment of photosensitizer dosimetry and tissue damage assay for photodynamic therapy in advanced-stage tumors,” Photochem. Photobiol.79(6), 520–525 (2004).
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Iftime, D.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044002 (2005).
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M. Inaguma and K. Hashimoto, “Porphyrin-like fluorescence in oral cancer,” Cancer86(11), 2201–2211 (1999).
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T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

Joshi, R.

X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
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A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
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Koch, C. J.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
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Lee, W. M. F.

Li, J.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044002 (2005).
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B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, and L. Lilge, “Implicit and explicit dosimetry in photodynamic therapy: a New paradigm,” Lasers Med. Sci.12(3), 182–199 (1997).
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W. Liu, A. R. Oseroff, and H. Baumann, “Photodynamic therapy causes cross-linking of signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins and attenuation of interleukin-6 cytokine responsiveness in epithelial cells,” Cancer Res.64(18), 6579–6587 (2004).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
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Loewen, G. M.

B. W. Henderson, C. Daroqui, E. Tracy, L. A. Vaughan, G. M. Loewen, M. T. Cooper, and H. Baumann, “Cross-linking of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3—a molecular marker for the photodynamic reaction in cells and tumors,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(11), 3156–3163 (2007).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
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Makonnen, S.

Malkowicz, S. B.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol.82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
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H. Quon, C. E. Grossman, J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, C. S. Clemmens, K. M. Malloy, and T. M. Busch, “Photodynamic therapy in the management of pre-malignant head and neck mucosal dysplasia and microinvasive carcinoma,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.8(2), 75–85 (2011).
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J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044002 (2005).
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Mehta, R.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metz, J.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 014004 (2005).
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Miles, J.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 014004 (2005).
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Mourant, J. R.

Nioka, S.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oseroff, A. R.

W. Liu, A. R. Oseroff, and H. Baumann, “Photodynamic therapy causes cross-linking of signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins and attenuation of interleukin-6 cytokine responsiveness in epithelial cells,” Cancer Res.64(18), 6579–6587 (2004).
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Patterson, M. S.

B. C. Wilson and M. S. Patterson, “The physics, biophysics and technology of photodynamic therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(9), R61–R109 (2008).
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B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, and L. Lilge, “Implicit and explicit dosimetry in photodynamic therapy: a New paradigm,” Lasers Med. Sci.12(3), 182–199 (1997).
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A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, “Improved solutions of the steady-state and the time-resolved diffusion equations for reflectance from a semi-infinite turbid medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14(1), 246–254 (1997).
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D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.60(12), 1134–1137 (1988).
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Pogue, B. W.

X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sheng, B. W. Pogue, E. Wang, J. E. Hutchins, and P. J. Hoopes, “Assessment of photosensitizer dosimetry and tissue damage assay for photodynamic therapy in advanced-stage tumors,” Photochem. Photobiol.79(6), 520–525 (2004).
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U. Sunar, S. Makonnen, C. Zhou, T. Durduran, G. Yu, H. W. Wang, W. M. F. Lee, and A. G. Yodh, “Hemodynamic responses to antivascular therapy and ionizing radiation assessed by diffuse optical spectroscopies,” Opt. Express15(23), 15507–15516 (2007).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
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X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
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H. Quon, C. E. Grossman, J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, C. S. Clemmens, K. M. Malloy, and T. M. Busch, “Photodynamic therapy in the management of pre-malignant head and neck mucosal dysplasia and microinvasive carcinoma,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.8(2), 75–85 (2011).
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B. W. Henderson, C. Daroqui, E. Tracy, L. A. Vaughan, G. M. Loewen, M. T. Cooper, and H. Baumann, “Cross-linking of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3—a molecular marker for the photodynamic reaction in cells and tumors,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(11), 3156–3163 (2007).
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G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res.11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, “Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients,” Clin. Cancer Res.10(14), 4630–4638 (2004).
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Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1)

X. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, “Pretreatment photosensitizer dosimetry reduces variation in tumor response,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.64(4), 1211–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 014004 (2005).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

A. Amelink, A. van der Ploeg van den Heuvel, W. J. de Wolf, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Monitoring PDT by means of superficial reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B79(3), 243–251 (2005).
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Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, and L. Lilge, “Implicit and explicit dosimetry in photodynamic therapy: a New paradigm,” Lasers Med. Sci.12(3), 182–199 (1997).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Oral Oncol. (1)

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. (5)

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol.82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sheng, B. W. Pogue, E. Wang, J. E. Hutchins, and P. J. Hoopes, “Assessment of photosensitizer dosimetry and tissue damage assay for photodynamic therapy in advanced-stage tumors,” Photochem. Photobiol.79(6), 520–525 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[PubMed]

M. A. Biel, “Photodynamic therapy treatment of early oral and laryngeal cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol.83(5), 1063–1068 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Finlay, D. L. Conover, E. L. Hull, and T. H. Foster, “Porphyrin bleaching and PDT-induced spectral changes are irradiance dependent in ALA-sensitized normal rat skin in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.73(1), 54–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. (1)

H. Quon, C. E. Grossman, J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, C. S. Clemmens, K. M. Malloy, and T. M. Busch, “Photodynamic therapy in the management of pre-malignant head and neck mucosal dysplasia and microinvasive carcinoma,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.8(2), 75–85 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

B. C. Wilson and M. S. Patterson, “The physics, biophysics and technology of photodynamic therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(9), R61–R109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Phys. B (1)

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[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. R. Bargo, “Optical measurements for quality control in photodynamic therapy” (Oregon Health & Science University, 2003).

S. L. Jacques, “Origins of tissue optical properties in the UVA, Visible, and NIR regions,” in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds., in Vol. 2 of OSA Topics in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 364–369.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram indicating the types and locations of the lesions in Patient-1 and 2, respectively. Patient-1 had a carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the hard palate on the roof of the mouth (Lesion A) and Patient-2 had high grade dysplasia in a papilloma of the buccal mucosa (Lesion B).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Representative autocorrelation curves and fits for each patient (decay rate is related to blood flow). (b) Normalized reflectance (Rn) shows spectral differences between the two patients, black arrows highlight the HPPH absorption contrast. (c) Autofluorescence (Auto) subtracted fluorescence spectra and fits for Patient-1 and (d) Patient-2. Comparison of HPPH fluorescence shows high pretreatment contrast between the two patients at the HPPH emission peak ~668 nm. Porphyrin-like fluorescence was visible with a peak at ~630 nm. PpIX: protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), CpUp: precursor coproporphyrinogen and uroporphyrinogen (CpUp), Photo: photoproduct of PpIX.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Blood flow contrast. (a) Blood flow differences between lesion and periphery for the first patient. (b) Blood flow differences between lesion and periphery for the second patient. Pre-treatment blood flow contrast is significant for both patients. Blood flow changes for each lesion are also significant. Error bars are standard error, * represents statistical significance (p<0.05)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Blood volume fraction (BVf) for lesion and periphery sites before and after treatment for (a) Patient-1 and (b) Patient-2. Blood oxygen saturation (StO2) for lesion and periphery sites before and after treatment for (c) Patient-1 and (d) Patient-2 . Error bars represent standard error.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photosensitizer concentration (cHPPH [μM]) for lesion and periphery sites before and after treatment for (a) Patient-1 and (b) Patient-2. Error bars represent standard error, * represents statistical significance (p<0.05)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fitted fluorescence amplitudes before and after PDT. HPPH fluorescence for Patient-1 (a) and Patient-2 (b). Fluorescence ratio (HPPH/Autofluorescence (AF)) for Patient-1 (c) and Patient-2 (d). PpIX fluorescence for Patient-1 (e) and Patient-2 (f). Error bars represent standard error, * represents statistical significance (p<0.05)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

STAT3 crosslinking for Patient-1 and Patient-2 with a human hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (FaDu) shown as a control.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Pretreatment contrasts between the two patients. All parameters except blood volume fraction (BVf) showed a significant contrast between two patients.

Tables Icon

Table 2 PDT-induced changes in extracted parameters for Patient-1 (P1) and Patient-2 (P2), BFI and HPPH/Auto were significant for both patients while changes in cHPPH were only significant for Patient-1.

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