Abstract

Three-dimensional second-harmonic fields, sample orientation, and susceptibility ratios of biological samples are measured using polarization-resolved second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The three-dimensional (3D) polarization is gathered by measurement of a series of holograms for which excitation and analyzer polarizations are systematically varied, and the 3D SHG field is recovered through numerical back propagation. Harmonophore orientation is resolved in 3D from a sub-set of polarization-resolved SHG holograms. We further expand on previous approaches for the determination of susceptibility ratios, adding the calculation of multiple ratio values to allow intrinsic verification.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Stoller, B. M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7, 205–214 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J.82, 3330–3342 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  25. Y. Pu, M. Centurion, and D. Psaltis, “Harmonic holography: a new holographic principle,” Appl. Opt.47, A103–A110 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. Roth and I. Freund, “Second harmonic-generation in collagen,” J. Chem. Phys.70, 1637–1643 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Stoller, P. M. Celliers, K. M. Reiser, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Quantitative second-harmonic generation microscopy in collagen,” Appl. Opt.42, 5209–5219 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, “Estimating the helical pitch angle of amylopectin in starch using polarization second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt.12, 084007 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  31. P. W. Wachulak, R. A. Bartels, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, J. J. Rocca, Y. Lu, and B. Parkinson, “Sub 400 nm spatial resolution extreme ultraviolet holography with a table top laser,” Opt. Express14, 9636–9642 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  33. P. W. Wachulak, M. C. Marconi, R. A. Bartels, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, “Soft x-ray laser holography with wavelength resolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1811–1814 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011

P. J. Campagnola and C. Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation microscopy: principles and applications to disease diagnosis,” Laser & Photon. Rev.5, 13–26 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. Sivaguru, S. Durgam, R. Ambekar, D. Luedtke, G. Fried, A. Stewart, and K. C. Toussaint, “Quantitative analysis of collagen fiber organization in injured tendons using fourier transform-second harmonic generation imaging,” Opt. Express18, 24983–24993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Timmins, Q. F. Wu, A. T. Yeh, J. E. Moore, and S. E. Greenwald, “Structural inhomogeneity and fiber orientation in the inner arterial media,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.298, H1537–H1545 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, “Digital phase conjugation of second harmonic radiation emitted by nanoparticles in turbid media,” Opt. Express18, 12283–12290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Masihzadeh, P. Schlup, and R. A. Bartels, “Label-free second harmonic generation holographic microscopy of biological specimens,” Opt. Express18, 9840–9851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shaffer, C. Moratal, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Label-free second-harmonic phase imaging of biological specimen by digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.35, 4102–4104 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, “Estimating the helical pitch angle of amylopectin in starch using polarization second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt.12, 084007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, and F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schurmann, F. von Wegner, R. H. A. Fink, O. Friedrich, and M. Vogel, “Second harmonic generation microscopy probes different states of motor protein interaction in myofibrils,” Biophys. J.99, 1842–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

C. Odin, T. Guilbert, A. Alkilani, O. P. Boryskina, V. Fleury, and Y. Le Grand, “Collagen and myosin characterization by orientation field second harmonic microscopy,” Opt. Express16, 16151–16165 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Odin, Y. Le Grand, A. Renault, L. Gailhouste, and G. Baffet, “Orientation fields of nonlinear biological fibrils by second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford)229, 32–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Wachulak, M. C. Marconi, R. A. Bartels, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, “Soft x-ray laser holography with wavelength resolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1811–1814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pu, M. Centurion, and D. Psaltis, “Harmonic holography: a new holographic principle,” Appl. Opt.47, A103–A110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Scherz, J. Huisken, P. Sahai-Hernandez, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “High-speed imaging of developing heart valves reveals interplay of morphogenesis and function,” Development135, 1179–1187 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J.90, 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Wachulak, R. A. Bartels, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, J. J. Rocca, Y. Lu, and B. Parkinson, “Sub 400 nm spatial resolution extreme ultraviolet holography with a table top laser,” Opt. Express14, 9636–9642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of x((2))/x((3)) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J.86, 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82, 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Stoller, B. M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7, 205–214 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J.82, 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J.77, 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

S. Roth and I. Freund, “Second harmonic generation and orientational order in connective tissue: a mosaic model for fibril orientational ordering in rat-tail tendon,” J. Appl. Crystallogr.15, 72–78 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

S. Roth and I. Freund, “Second harmonic-generation in collagen,” J. Chem. Phys.70, 1637–1643 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

J. N. Gannaway and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second-harmonic imaging in scanning optical microscope,” Opt. Quantum Electron.10, 435–439 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Alkilani, A.

Amat-Roldan, I.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, “Estimating the helical pitch angle of amylopectin in starch using polarization second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt.12, 084007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, D. Artigas, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Quantitative discrimination between endogenous shg sources in mammalian tissue, based on their polarization response,” Opt. Express17, 10168–10176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ambekar, R.

Artigas, D.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, “Estimating the helical pitch angle of amylopectin in starch using polarization second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt.12, 084007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, D. Artigas, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Quantitative discrimination between endogenous shg sources in mammalian tissue, based on their polarization response,” Opt. Express17, 10168–10176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Backus, S.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Baffet, G.

C. Odin, Y. Le Grand, A. Renault, L. Gailhouste, and G. Baffet, “Orientation fields of nonlinear biological fibrils by second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford)229, 32–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R. A.

Boryskina, O. P.

Brown, R. M.

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola and C. Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation microscopy: principles and applications to disease diagnosis,” Laser & Photon. Rev.5, 13–26 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J.90, 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol.21, 1356–1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Brown, A. C. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, “Macromolecular structure of cellulose studied by second-harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Opt. Lett.28, 2207–2209 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82, 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J.77, 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celliers, P. M.

P. Stoller, P. M. Celliers, K. M. Reiser, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Quantitative second-harmonic generation microscopy in collagen,” Appl. Opt.42, 5209–5219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J.82, 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Centurion, M.

Chen, S. J.

Chen, S. Y.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of x((2))/x((3)) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J.86, 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. L.

Chen, Y. C.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of x((2))/x((3)) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J.86, 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chern, G. W.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of x((2))/x((3)) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J.86, 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, C. K.

Christov, I. P.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Chu, S. W.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of x((2))/x((3)) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J.86, 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da Silva, L. B.

P. Stoller, B. M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7, 205–214 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Dong, C. Y.

Durgam, S.

Fink, R. H. A.

S. Schurmann, F. von Wegner, R. H. A. Fink, O. Friedrich, and M. Vogel, “Second harmonic generation microscopy probes different states of motor protein interaction in myofibrils,” Biophys. J.99, 1842–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleury, V.

Freund, I.

S. Roth and I. Freund, “Second harmonic generation and orientational order in connective tissue: a mosaic model for fibril orientational ordering in rat-tail tendon,” J. Appl. Crystallogr.15, 72–78 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Roth and I. Freund, “Second harmonic-generation in collagen,” J. Chem. Phys.70, 1637–1643 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fried, G.

Friedrich, O.

S. Schurmann, F. von Wegner, R. H. A. Fink, O. Friedrich, and M. Vogel, “Second harmonic generation microscopy probes different states of motor protein interaction in myofibrils,” Biophys. J.99, 1842–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fusi, L.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, and F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gailhouste, L.

C. Odin, Y. Le Grand, A. Renault, L. Gailhouste, and G. Baffet, “Orientation fields of nonlinear biological fibrils by second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford)229, 32–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gannaway, J. N.

J. N. Gannaway and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second-harmonic imaging in scanning optical microscope,” Opt. Quantum Electron.10, 435–439 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Grange, R.

Green, H.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Greenwald, S. E.

L. H. Timmins, Q. F. Wu, A. T. Yeh, J. E. Moore, and S. E. Greenwald, “Structural inhomogeneity and fiber orientation in the inner arterial media,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.298, H1537–H1545 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guilbert, T.

Hong, J. B.

Hoppe, P. E.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82, 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.-L.

Hu, C.

Huisken, J.

P. J. Scherz, J. Huisken, P. Sahai-Hernandez, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “High-speed imaging of developing heart valves reveals interplay of morphogenesis and function,” Development135, 1179–1187 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kim, B. M.

P. Stoller, B. M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7, 205–214 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Grand, Y.

C. Odin, Y. Le Grand, A. Renault, L. Gailhouste, and G. Baffet, “Orientation fields of nonlinear biological fibrils by second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford)229, 32–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Odin, T. Guilbert, A. Alkilani, O. P. Boryskina, V. Fleury, and Y. Le Grand, “Collagen and myosin characterization by orientation field second harmonic microscopy,” Opt. Express16, 16151–16165 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, A.

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J.77, 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, T. H.

Lin, B. L.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of x((2))/x((3)) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J.86, 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S. J.

Linari, M.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, and F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. W.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Loew, L. M.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol.21, 1356–1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J.77, 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lombardi, V.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, and F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, “Estimating the helical pitch angle of amylopectin in starch using polarization second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt.12, 084007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, D. Artigas, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Quantitative discrimination between endogenous shg sources in mammalian tissue, based on their polarization response,” Opt. Express17, 10168–10176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Luedtke, D.

Magistretti, P.

Malone, C. J.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82, 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marconi, M. C.

Marquet, P.

Masihzadeh, O.

Matcher, S. J.

S. J. Matcher, “A review of some recent developments in polarization-sensitive optical imaging techniques for the study of articular cartilage,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 102041 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Menoni, C. S.

Millard, A. C.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J.90, 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Brown, A. C. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, “Macromolecular structure of cellulose studied by second-harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Opt. Lett.28, 2207–2209 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82, 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mohler, W. A.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J.90, 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82, 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moore, J. E.

L. H. Timmins, Q. F. Wu, A. T. Yeh, J. E. Moore, and S. E. Greenwald, “Structural inhomogeneity and fiber orientation in the inner arterial media,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.298, H1537–H1545 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moratal, C.

Murnane, M. M.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Nucciotti, V.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, and F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odin, C.

C. Odin, Y. Le Grand, A. Renault, L. Gailhouste, and G. Baffet, “Orientation fields of nonlinear biological fibrils by second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford)229, 32–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Odin, T. Guilbert, A. Alkilani, O. P. Boryskina, V. Fleury, and Y. Le Grand, “Collagen and myosin characterization by orientation field second harmonic microscopy,” Opt. Express16, 16151–16165 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parkinson, B.

Paul, A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Pavone, F. S.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, and F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piazzesi, G.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, and F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Planas, A. M.

Plotnikov, S. V.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J.90, 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Psilodimitrakopoulos, S.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, “Estimating the helical pitch angle of amylopectin in starch using polarization second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt.12, 084007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, D. Artigas, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Quantitative discrimination between endogenous shg sources in mammalian tissue, based on their polarization response,” Opt. Express17, 10168–10176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pu, Y.

Recher, G.

Reiser, K. M.

P. Stoller, P. M. Celliers, K. M. Reiser, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Quantitative second-harmonic generation microscopy in collagen,” Appl. Opt.42, 5209–5219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J.82, 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, B. M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7, 205–214 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renault, A.

C. Odin, Y. Le Grand, A. Renault, L. Gailhouste, and G. Baffet, “Orientation fields of nonlinear biological fibrils by second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford)229, 32–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

Roth, S.

S. Roth and I. Freund, “Second harmonic generation and orientational order in connective tissue: a mosaic model for fibril orientational ordering in rat-tail tendon,” J. Appl. Crystallogr.15, 72–78 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Roth and I. Freund, “Second harmonic-generation in collagen,” J. Chem. Phys.70, 1637–1643 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rouede, D.

Rubenchik, A. M.

P. Stoller, P. M. Celliers, K. M. Reiser, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Quantitative second-harmonic generation microscopy in collagen,” Appl. Opt.42, 5209–5219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, B. M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7, 205–214 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J.82, 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sacconi, L.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, and F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahai-Hernandez, P.

P. J. Scherz, J. Huisken, P. Sahai-Hernandez, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “High-speed imaging of developing heart valves reveals interplay of morphogenesis and function,” Development135, 1179–1187 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherz, P. J.

P. J. Scherz, J. Huisken, P. Sahai-Hernandez, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “High-speed imaging of developing heart valves reveals interplay of morphogenesis and function,” Development135, 1179–1187 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlup, P.

Schurmann, S.

S. Schurmann, F. von Wegner, R. H. A. Fink, O. Friedrich, and M. Vogel, “Second harmonic generation microscopy probes different states of motor protein interaction in myofibrils,” Biophys. J.99, 1842–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaffer, E.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

J. N. Gannaway and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second-harmonic imaging in scanning optical microscope,” Opt. Quantum Electron.10, 435–439 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sivaguru, M.

Soria, G.

Stainier, D. Y. R.

P. J. Scherz, J. Huisken, P. Sahai-Hernandez, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “High-speed imaging of developing heart valves reveals interplay of morphogenesis and function,” Development135, 1179–1187 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, A.

Stoller, P.

P. Stoller, P. M. Celliers, K. M. Reiser, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Quantitative second-harmonic generation microscopy in collagen,” Appl. Opt.42, 5209–5219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, B. M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7, 205–214 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J.82, 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stringari, C.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, and F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, P. J.

Sun, C. K.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of x((2))/x((3)) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J.86, 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terasaki, M.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82, 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tiaho, F.

Timmins, L. H.

L. H. Timmins, Q. F. Wu, A. T. Yeh, J. E. Moore, and S. E. Greenwald, “Structural inhomogeneity and fiber orientation in the inner arterial media,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.298, H1537–H1545 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toussaint, K. C.

Tsai, T. H.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of x((2))/x((3)) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J.86, 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanzi, F.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, and F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, M.

S. Schurmann, F. von Wegner, R. H. A. Fink, O. Friedrich, and M. Vogel, “Second harmonic generation microscopy probes different states of motor protein interaction in myofibrils,” Biophys. J.99, 1842–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Wegner, F.

S. Schurmann, F. von Wegner, R. H. A. Fink, O. Friedrich, and M. Vogel, “Second harmonic generation microscopy probes different states of motor protein interaction in myofibrils,” Biophys. J.99, 1842–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wachulak, P. W.

Wei, M. D.

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J.77, 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Q. F.

L. H. Timmins, Q. F. Wu, A. T. Yeh, J. E. Moore, and S. E. Greenwald, “Structural inhomogeneity and fiber orientation in the inner arterial media,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.298, H1537–H1545 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, R. J.

Yeh, A. T.

L. H. Timmins, Q. F. Wu, A. T. Yeh, J. E. Moore, and S. E. Greenwald, “Structural inhomogeneity and fiber orientation in the inner arterial media,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.298, H1537–H1545 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.

L. H. Timmins, Q. F. Wu, A. T. Yeh, J. E. Moore, and S. E. Greenwald, “Structural inhomogeneity and fiber orientation in the inner arterial media,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.298, H1537–H1545 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biophys. J.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J.82, 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schurmann, F. von Wegner, R. H. A. Fink, O. Friedrich, and M. Vogel, “Second harmonic generation microscopy probes different states of motor protein interaction in myofibrils,” Biophys. J.99, 1842–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82, 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J.77, 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of x((2))/x((3)) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J.86, 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J.90, 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Development

P. J. Scherz, J. Huisken, P. Sahai-Hernandez, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “High-speed imaging of developing heart valves reveals interplay of morphogenesis and function,” Development135, 1179–1187 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Crystallogr.

S. Roth and I. Freund, “Second harmonic generation and orientational order in connective tissue: a mosaic model for fibril orientational ordering in rat-tail tendon,” J. Appl. Crystallogr.15, 72–78 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. J. Matcher, “A review of some recent developments in polarization-sensitive optical imaging techniques for the study of articular cartilage,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 102041 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

P. Stoller, B. M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7, 205–214 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys.

S. Roth and I. Freund, “Second harmonic-generation in collagen,” J. Chem. Phys.70, 1637–1643 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (Oxford)

C. Odin, Y. Le Grand, A. Renault, L. Gailhouste, and G. Baffet, “Orientation fields of nonlinear biological fibrils by second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford)229, 32–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, “Estimating the helical pitch angle of amylopectin in starch using polarization second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt.12, 084007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser & Photon. Rev.

P. J. Campagnola and C. Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation microscopy: principles and applications to disease diagnosis,” Laser & Photon. Rev.5, 13–26 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol.21, 1356–1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

F. Tiaho, G. Recher, and D. Rouede, “Estimation of helical angles of myosin and collagen by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Opt. Express15, 12286–12295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Odin, T. Guilbert, A. Alkilani, O. P. Boryskina, V. Fleury, and Y. Le Grand, “Collagen and myosin characterization by orientation field second harmonic microscopy,” Opt. Express16, 16151–16165 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Su, W. L. Chen, J. B. Hong, T. H. Li, R. J. Wu, C. K. Chou, S. J. Chen, C. Hu, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Discrimination of collagen in normal and pathological skin dermis through second-order susceptibility microscopy,” Opt. Express17, 11161–11171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sivaguru, S. Durgam, R. Ambekar, D. Luedtke, G. Fried, A. Stewart, and K. C. Toussaint, “Quantitative analysis of collagen fiber organization in injured tendons using fourier transform-second harmonic generation imaging,” Opt. Express18, 24983–24993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, D. Artigas, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Quantitative discrimination between endogenous shg sources in mammalian tissue, based on their polarization response,” Opt. Express17, 10168–10176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Wachulak, R. A. Bartels, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, J. J. Rocca, Y. Lu, and B. Parkinson, “Sub 400 nm spatial resolution extreme ultraviolet holography with a table top laser,” Opt. Express14, 9636–9642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Wachulak, M. C. Marconi, R. A. Bartels, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, “Volume extreme ultraviolet holographic imaging with numerical optical sectioning,” Opt. Express15, 10622–10628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, “Digital phase conjugation of second harmonic radiation emitted by nanoparticles in turbid media,” Opt. Express18, 12283–12290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Masihzadeh, P. Schlup, and R. A. Bartels, “Label-free second harmonic generation holographic microscopy of biological specimens,” Opt. Express18, 9840–9851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

J. N. Gannaway and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second-harmonic imaging in scanning optical microscope,” Opt. Quantum Electron.10, 435–439 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, and F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (2899 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2375 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reconstructed field magnitude of 16 holograms of a 20 μm thick slice of corn seed, with varying excitation and analyzer polarizations. Rows vary excitation angle from 0 to 135° in 45° steps, from top to bottom; columns vary analyzer angle from 0 to 135° in 45° steps, from left to right. The colormap indicates total SHG intensity, with low intensity in black and high intensity in white.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frame from a movie showing reconstructed intensities of canine tongue (a, Media 1) and corn seed (b, Media 2), with polarization orientation indicated with white lines, showing reconstructions over a distance of 22 μm through the sample. Phase differences are shown for tongue (c) and corn seed (d), between projections (n, m) = (1, 2) and (0, 0).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated ρ values per pixel for two example ratios: (a) V/W, V > 0 and (b) V/W, V < 0. The histogram of ratio V/W, V < 0 is shown in (c). All values are displayed over the same range.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P x ( 2 ) ( r ) = E in 2 sin [ 2 α + 2 θ ( r ) ] d 31 c ( r )
P y ( 2 ) ( r ) = E in 2 { sin [ α + θ ( r ) ] 2 d 31 + cos [ α + θ ( r ) ] 2 d 33 } c ( r )
E SHG ψ = E SHG x cos ( ψ ) + E SHG y sin ( ψ ) .
F m , n = cos ( m π 4 ) sin ( n π 4 + 2 θ ) + 1 2 sin ( m π 4 ) [ ( 1 + ρ ) ( 1 ρ ) cos ( n π 2 + 2 θ ) ] ,
I n = 1 2 m = 1 4 | F m , n | 2 = U + V cos ( n π 4 ) + W cos ( n π + 4 θ )
U = 1 4 ( I 0 + I 1 + I 2 + I 3 ) , V = ± 1 2 Δ I 31 2 + Δ I 02 2 , W = 1 4 ( Δ I 01 + Δ I 23 ) I 02 2 + I 31 2 I 02 2 I 31 2
ρ = r VU ± 2 4 + 4 r VU 5 r VU 2 3 r VU + 4
= r VU ± 2 4 4 r VU 5 r VU 2 3 r VU 4
ρ = ( 1 + r WU ) ± 2 1 5 r WU 2 3 r WU 1
ρ = 3 r VW ± 4 r VW ± 4

Metrics