Abstract

Bile duct injury (BDI) is the most serious iatrogenic complication during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and occurs easily in inexperienced surgeons since the position of common bile duct (CBD) and its related ductal junctions are hard to precisely identify in the hepatic anatomy during surgery. BDI can be devastating, leading to chronic morbidity, high mortality, and prolonged hospitalization. In addition, it is the most frequent injury resulting in litigation and the most likely injury associated with a successful medical malpractice claim against surgeons. This study introduces a novel method for conveniently and rapidly indicating the anatomical location of CBD during LC by the direct fiber-optic illumination of 532-nm diode-pumped solid state laser through a microstructured plastic optical fiber to avoid the wrong identification of CBD and the injury from mistakenly cutting the CBD that can lead to permanent and even life threatening consequences. Six porcine were used for preliminary intra-CBD illumination experiments via laparotomy and direct duodenal incision to insert the invented CBD illumination laser catheter with nonharmful but satisfactory visual optical density.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. R. Fletcher, M. S. T. Hobbs, P. Tan, L. J. Valinsky, R. L. Hockey, T. J. Pikora, M. W. Knuiman, H. J. Sheiner, and A. Edis, “Complications of cholecystectomy: risks of the laparoscopic approach and protective effects of operative cholangiography: a population-based study,” Ann. Surg.229(4), 449–457 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. R. Savassi-Rocha, S. R. Almeida, M. D. Sanches, M. A. C. Andrade, J. T. Frerreira, M. T. C. Diniz, and A. L. S. Rocha, “Iatrogenic bile duct injuries,” Surg. Endosc.17(9), 1356–1361 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. J. Roslyn, G. S. Binns, E. F. X. Hughes, K. Saunders-Kirkwood, M. J. Zinner, and J. A. Cates, “Open cholecystectomy. A contemporary analysis of 42,474 patients,” Ann. Surg.218(2), 129–137 (1993).
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. B. Melton, K. D. Lillemoe, J. L. Cameron, P. A. Sauter, J. Coleman, and C. J. Yeo, “Major bile duct injuries associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy: effect of surgical repair on quality of life,” Ann. Surg.235(6), 888–895 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. Boerma, E. A. J. Rauws, Y. C. A. Keulemans, J. J. G. H. Bergman, H. Obertop, K. Huibregtse, and D. J. Gouma, “Impaired quality of life 5 years after bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective analysis,” Ann. Surg.234(6), 750–757 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. E. Moore, I. D. Feurer, M. D. Holzman, L. J. Wudel, C. Strickland, D. L. Gorden, R. Chari, J. K. Wright, and C. W. Pinson, “Long-term detrimental effect of bile duct injury on health-related quality of life,” Arch. Surg.139(5), 476–482 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (4)

B. Alkhaffaf and B. Decadt, “15 years of litigation following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in England,” Ann. Surg.251(4), 682–685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Sanjay, C. Kulli, F. M. Polignano, and I. S. Tait, “Optimal surgical technique, use of intra-operative cholangiography (IOC), and management of acute gallbladder disease: the results of a nation-wide survey in the UK and Ireland,” Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl.92(4), 302–306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Figueiredo, C. Siegel, M. Nahrendorf, and R. Weissleder, “Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC) in mouse models of bile duct injury,” World J. Surg.34(2), 336–343 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, M. Ijichi, J. Kaneko, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg.97(9), 1369–1377 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography using indocyanine green for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an initial experience,” Arch. Surg.144(4), 381–382 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Honda, T. Iwanaga, M. Kurata, F. Watanabe, H. Satoh, and K. Iwasaki, “The critical view of safety in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is optimized by exposing the inner layer of the subserosal layer,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg.16(4), 445–449 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Massarweh, A. Devlin, R. G. Symons, J. A. Broeckel Elrod, and D. R. Flum, “Risk tolerance and bile duct injury: surgeon characteristics, risk-taking preference, and common bile duct injuries,” J. Am. Coll. Surg.209(1), 17–24 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

E. de Santibañes, V. Ardiles, A. Gadano, M. Palavecino, J. Pekolj, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation: the last measure in the treatment of bile duct injuries,” World J. Surg.32(8), 1714–1721 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. R. Wijsmuller, M. Leegwater, L. Tseng, H. J. Smaal, G. J. Kleinrensink, and J. F. Lange, “Optimizing the critical view of safety in laparoscopic cholecystectomy by clipping and transecting the cystic artery before the cystic duct,” Br. J. Surg.94(4), 473–474 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. Nickkholgh, S. Soltaniyekta, and H. Kalbasi, “Routine versus selective intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a survey of 2,130 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Surg. Endosc.20(6), 868–874 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Wenner, P. Whitwam, D. Turner, A. Chadha, and J. Degani, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and management of biliary tract stones in a freestanding ambulatory surgery center,” JSLS10(1), 47–51 (2006).
[PubMed]

E. C. H. Lai and W. Y. Lau, “Mirizzi syndrome: history, present and future development,” ANZ J. Surg.76(4), 251–257 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

V. Mahatharadol, “Bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 1522 cases,” Hepatogastroenterology51(55), 12–14 (2004).
[PubMed]

D. E. Moore, I. D. Feurer, M. D. Holzman, L. J. Wudel, C. Strickland, D. L. Gorden, R. Chari, J. K. Wright, and C. W. Pinson, “Long-term detrimental effect of bile duct injury on health-related quality of life,” Arch. Surg.139(5), 476–482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

J. R. Francoeur, K. Wiseman, A. K. Buczkowski, S. W. Chung, and C. H. Scudamore, “Surgeons’ anonymous response after bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” Am. J. Surg.185(5), 468–475 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rojas-Ortega, D. Arizpe-Bravo, E. R. Marín López, R. Cesin-Sánchez, G. R. S. Roman, and C. Gómez, “Transcystic common bile duct exploration in the management of patients with choledocholithiasis,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.7(4), 492–496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Flum, A. Cheadle, C. Prela, E. P. Dellinger, and L. Chan, “Bile duct injury during cholecystectomy and survival in medicare beneficiaries,” JAMA290(16), 2168–2173 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Flum, E. P. Dellinger, A. Cheadle, L. Chan, and T. Koepsell, “Intraoperative cholangiography and risk of common bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” JAMA289(13), 1639–1644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Savassi-Rocha, S. R. Almeida, M. D. Sanches, M. A. C. Andrade, J. T. Frerreira, M. T. C. Diniz, and A. L. S. Rocha, “Iatrogenic bile duct injuries,” Surg. Endosc.17(9), 1356–1361 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

J. Bingener-Casey, M. L. Richards, W. E. Strodel, W. H. Schwesinger, and K. R. Sirinek, “Reasons for conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy: a 10-year review,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.6(6), 800–805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. B. Melton, K. D. Lillemoe, J. L. Cameron, P. A. Sauter, J. Coleman, and C. J. Yeo, “Major bile duct injuries associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy: effect of surgical repair on quality of life,” Ann. Surg.235(6), 888–895 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. de Santibañes, J. Pekolj, L. McCormack, J. Nefa, J. Mattera, J. Sívori, C. Bonofiglio, A. Gadano, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation for the sequelae of intra-operative bile duct injury,” HPB (Oxford)4(3), 111–115 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Strasberg, “Avoidance of biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg.9(5), 543–547 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tokumura, A. Umezawa, H. Cao, N. Sakamoto, Y. Imaoka, A. Ouchi, and K. Yamamoto, “Laparoscopic management of common bile duct stones: transcystic approach and choledochotomy,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg.9(2), 206–212 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

S. B. Archer, D. W. Brown, C. D. Smith, G. D. Branum, and J. G. Hunter, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: results of a national survey,” Ann. Surg.234(4), 549–559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Boerma, E. A. J. Rauws, Y. C. A. Keulemans, J. J. G. H. Bergman, H. Obertop, K. Huibregtse, and D. J. Gouma, “Impaired quality of life 5 years after bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective analysis,” Ann. Surg.234(6), 750–757 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Flum, T. Koepsell, P. Heagerty, M. Sinanan, and E. P. Dellinger, “Common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the use of intraoperative cholangiography: adverse outcome or preventable error?” Arch. Surg.136(11), 1287–1292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Ahrendt and H. A. Pitt, “Surgical therapy of iatrogenic lesions of biliary tract,” World J. Surg.25(10), 1360–1365 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. Calvete, L. Sabater, B. Camps, A. Verdú, A. Gomez-Portilla, J. Martín, M. A. Torrico, B. Flor, N. Cassinello, and S. Lledó, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: myth or reality of the learning curve?” Surg. Endosc.14(7), 608–611 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Suzuki, S. Akaishi, T. Rikiyama, T. Naitoh, M. M. Rahman, and S. Matsuno, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Calot’s triangle, and variations in cystic arterial supply,” Surg. Endosc.14(2), 141–144 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. R. Fletcher, M. S. T. Hobbs, P. Tan, L. J. Valinsky, R. L. Hockey, T. J. Pikora, M. W. Knuiman, H. J. Sheiner, and A. Edis, “Complications of cholecystectomy: risks of the laparoscopic approach and protective effects of operative cholangiography: a population-based study,” Ann. Surg.229(4), 449–457 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

B. V. MacFadyen, R. Vecchio, A. E. Ricardo, and C. R. Mathis, “Bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The United States experience,” Surg. Endosc.12(4), 315–321 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Windsor and J. Pong, “Laparoscopic biliary injury: more than a learning curve problem,” Aust. N. Z. J. Surg.68(3), 186–189 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Carroll, M. Birth, and E. H. Phillips, “Common bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy that result in litigation,” Surg. Endosc.12(4), 310–314 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

J.-F. Gigot, J. Etienne, R. Aerts, E. Wibin, B. Dallemagne, F. Deweer, D. Fortunati, M. Legrand, L. Vereecken, J.-M. Doumont, P. Van Reepinghen, and C. Beguin, “The dramatic reality of biliary tract injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. an anonymous multicenter Belgian survey of 65 patients,” Surg. Endosc.11(12), 1171–1178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Adamsen, O. H. Hansen, P. Funch-Jensen, S. Schulze, J. G. Stage, and P. Wara, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective nationwide series,” J. Am. Coll. Surg.184(6), 571–578 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (3)

D. C. Wherry, M. R. Marohn, M. P. Malanoski, S. P. Hetz, and N. M. Rich, “An external audit of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the steady state performed in medical treatment facilities of the Department of Defense,” Ann. Surg.224(2), 145–154 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Richardson, G. Bell, G. M. Fullarton, and West of Scotland Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Audit Group, “Incidence and nature of bile duct injuries following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 5913 cases,” Br. J. Surg.83(10), 1356–1360 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kullman, K. Borch, E. Lindström, J. Svanvik, and B. Anderberg, “Management of bile duct stones in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: appraisal of routine operative cholangiography and endoscopic treatment,” Eur. J. Surg.162(11), 873–880 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (3)

W. C. Chapman, A. Halevy, L. H. Blumgart, and I. S. Benjamin, “Postcholecystectomy bile duct strictures. Management and outcome in 130 patients,” Arch. Surg.130(6), 597–604 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Stewart and L. W. Way, “Bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Factors that influence the results of treatment,” Arch. Surg.130(10), 1123–1128, discussion 1129 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Strasberg, M. Hertl, and N. J. Soper, “An analysis of the problem of biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” J. Am. Coll. Surg.180(1), 101–125 (1995).
[PubMed]

1994 (2)

K. A. Kern, “Medicolegal analysis of bile duct injury during open cholecystectomy and abdominal surgery,” Am. J. Surg.168(3), 217–222 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Soper and L. M. Brunt, “The case for routine operative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Surg. Clin. North Am.74(4), 953–959 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993 (1)

J. J. Roslyn, G. S. Binns, E. F. X. Hughes, K. Saunders-Kirkwood, M. J. Zinner, and J. A. Cates, “Open cholecystectomy. A contemporary analysis of 42,474 patients,” Ann. Surg.218(2), 129–137 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

A. M. Davidoff, T. N. Pappas, E. A. Murray, D. J. Hilleren, R. D. Johnson, M. E. Baker, G. E. Newman, P. B. Cotton, and W. C. Meyers, “Mechanisms of major biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 196–202 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adamsen, S.

S. Adamsen, O. H. Hansen, P. Funch-Jensen, S. Schulze, J. G. Stage, and P. Wara, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective nationwide series,” J. Am. Coll. Surg.184(6), 571–578 (1997).
[PubMed]

Aerts, R.

J.-F. Gigot, J. Etienne, R. Aerts, E. Wibin, B. Dallemagne, F. Deweer, D. Fortunati, M. Legrand, L. Vereecken, J.-M. Doumont, P. Van Reepinghen, and C. Beguin, “The dramatic reality of biliary tract injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. an anonymous multicenter Belgian survey of 65 patients,” Surg. Endosc.11(12), 1171–1178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahrendt, S. A.

S. A. Ahrendt and H. A. Pitt, “Surgical therapy of iatrogenic lesions of biliary tract,” World J. Surg.25(10), 1360–1365 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akaishi, S.

M. Suzuki, S. Akaishi, T. Rikiyama, T. Naitoh, M. M. Rahman, and S. Matsuno, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Calot’s triangle, and variations in cystic arterial supply,” Surg. Endosc.14(2), 141–144 (2000).
[PubMed]

Alkhaffaf, B.

B. Alkhaffaf and B. Decadt, “15 years of litigation following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in England,” Ann. Surg.251(4), 682–685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almeida, S. R.

P. R. Savassi-Rocha, S. R. Almeida, M. D. Sanches, M. A. C. Andrade, J. T. Frerreira, M. T. C. Diniz, and A. L. S. Rocha, “Iatrogenic bile duct injuries,” Surg. Endosc.17(9), 1356–1361 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderberg, B.

E. Kullman, K. Borch, E. Lindström, J. Svanvik, and B. Anderberg, “Management of bile duct stones in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: appraisal of routine operative cholangiography and endoscopic treatment,” Eur. J. Surg.162(11), 873–880 (1996).
[PubMed]

Andrade, M. A. C.

P. R. Savassi-Rocha, S. R. Almeida, M. D. Sanches, M. A. C. Andrade, J. T. Frerreira, M. T. C. Diniz, and A. L. S. Rocha, “Iatrogenic bile duct injuries,” Surg. Endosc.17(9), 1356–1361 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Archer, S. B.

S. B. Archer, D. W. Brown, C. D. Smith, G. D. Branum, and J. G. Hunter, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: results of a national survey,” Ann. Surg.234(4), 549–559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ardiles, V.

E. de Santibañes, V. Ardiles, A. Gadano, M. Palavecino, J. Pekolj, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation: the last measure in the treatment of bile duct injuries,” World J. Surg.32(8), 1714–1721 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arizpe-Bravo, D.

S. Rojas-Ortega, D. Arizpe-Bravo, E. R. Marín López, R. Cesin-Sánchez, G. R. S. Roman, and C. Gómez, “Transcystic common bile duct exploration in the management of patients with choledocholithiasis,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.7(4), 492–496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, M. E.

A. M. Davidoff, T. N. Pappas, E. A. Murray, D. J. Hilleren, R. D. Johnson, M. E. Baker, G. E. Newman, P. B. Cotton, and W. C. Meyers, “Mechanisms of major biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 196–202 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandai, Y.

T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, M. Ijichi, J. Kaneko, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg.97(9), 1369–1377 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography using indocyanine green for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an initial experience,” Arch. Surg.144(4), 381–382 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beguin, C.

J.-F. Gigot, J. Etienne, R. Aerts, E. Wibin, B. Dallemagne, F. Deweer, D. Fortunati, M. Legrand, L. Vereecken, J.-M. Doumont, P. Van Reepinghen, and C. Beguin, “The dramatic reality of biliary tract injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. an anonymous multicenter Belgian survey of 65 patients,” Surg. Endosc.11(12), 1171–1178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, G.

M. C. Richardson, G. Bell, G. M. Fullarton, and West of Scotland Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Audit Group, “Incidence and nature of bile duct injuries following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 5913 cases,” Br. J. Surg.83(10), 1356–1360 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benjamin, I. S.

W. C. Chapman, A. Halevy, L. H. Blumgart, and I. S. Benjamin, “Postcholecystectomy bile duct strictures. Management and outcome in 130 patients,” Arch. Surg.130(6), 597–604 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, J. J. G. H.

D. Boerma, E. A. J. Rauws, Y. C. A. Keulemans, J. J. G. H. Bergman, H. Obertop, K. Huibregtse, and D. J. Gouma, “Impaired quality of life 5 years after bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective analysis,” Ann. Surg.234(6), 750–757 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bingener-Casey, J.

J. Bingener-Casey, M. L. Richards, W. E. Strodel, W. H. Schwesinger, and K. R. Sirinek, “Reasons for conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy: a 10-year review,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.6(6), 800–805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binns, G. S.

J. J. Roslyn, G. S. Binns, E. F. X. Hughes, K. Saunders-Kirkwood, M. J. Zinner, and J. A. Cates, “Open cholecystectomy. A contemporary analysis of 42,474 patients,” Ann. Surg.218(2), 129–137 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birth, M.

B. J. Carroll, M. Birth, and E. H. Phillips, “Common bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy that result in litigation,” Surg. Endosc.12(4), 310–314 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blumgart, L. H.

W. C. Chapman, A. Halevy, L. H. Blumgart, and I. S. Benjamin, “Postcholecystectomy bile duct strictures. Management and outcome in 130 patients,” Arch. Surg.130(6), 597–604 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boerma, D.

D. Boerma, E. A. J. Rauws, Y. C. A. Keulemans, J. J. G. H. Bergman, H. Obertop, K. Huibregtse, and D. J. Gouma, “Impaired quality of life 5 years after bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective analysis,” Ann. Surg.234(6), 750–757 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonofiglio, C.

E. de Santibañes, J. Pekolj, L. McCormack, J. Nefa, J. Mattera, J. Sívori, C. Bonofiglio, A. Gadano, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation for the sequelae of intra-operative bile duct injury,” HPB (Oxford)4(3), 111–115 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borch, K.

E. Kullman, K. Borch, E. Lindström, J. Svanvik, and B. Anderberg, “Management of bile duct stones in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: appraisal of routine operative cholangiography and endoscopic treatment,” Eur. J. Surg.162(11), 873–880 (1996).
[PubMed]

Branum, G. D.

S. B. Archer, D. W. Brown, C. D. Smith, G. D. Branum, and J. G. Hunter, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: results of a national survey,” Ann. Surg.234(4), 549–559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broeckel Elrod, J. A.

N. N. Massarweh, A. Devlin, R. G. Symons, J. A. Broeckel Elrod, and D. R. Flum, “Risk tolerance and bile duct injury: surgeon characteristics, risk-taking preference, and common bile duct injuries,” J. Am. Coll. Surg.209(1), 17–24 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. W.

S. B. Archer, D. W. Brown, C. D. Smith, G. D. Branum, and J. G. Hunter, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: results of a national survey,” Ann. Surg.234(4), 549–559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunt, L. M.

N. J. Soper and L. M. Brunt, “The case for routine operative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Surg. Clin. North Am.74(4), 953–959 (1994).
[PubMed]

Buczkowski, A. K.

J. R. Francoeur, K. Wiseman, A. K. Buczkowski, S. W. Chung, and C. H. Scudamore, “Surgeons’ anonymous response after bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” Am. J. Surg.185(5), 468–475 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calvete, J.

J. Calvete, L. Sabater, B. Camps, A. Verdú, A. Gomez-Portilla, J. Martín, M. A. Torrico, B. Flor, N. Cassinello, and S. Lledó, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: myth or reality of the learning curve?” Surg. Endosc.14(7), 608–611 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cameron, J. L.

G. B. Melton, K. D. Lillemoe, J. L. Cameron, P. A. Sauter, J. Coleman, and C. J. Yeo, “Major bile duct injuries associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy: effect of surgical repair on quality of life,” Ann. Surg.235(6), 888–895 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camps, B.

J. Calvete, L. Sabater, B. Camps, A. Verdú, A. Gomez-Portilla, J. Martín, M. A. Torrico, B. Flor, N. Cassinello, and S. Lledó, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: myth or reality of the learning curve?” Surg. Endosc.14(7), 608–611 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

H. Tokumura, A. Umezawa, H. Cao, N. Sakamoto, Y. Imaoka, A. Ouchi, and K. Yamamoto, “Laparoscopic management of common bile duct stones: transcystic approach and choledochotomy,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg.9(2), 206–212 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, B. J.

B. J. Carroll, M. Birth, and E. H. Phillips, “Common bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy that result in litigation,” Surg. Endosc.12(4), 310–314 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cassinello, N.

J. Calvete, L. Sabater, B. Camps, A. Verdú, A. Gomez-Portilla, J. Martín, M. A. Torrico, B. Flor, N. Cassinello, and S. Lledó, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: myth or reality of the learning curve?” Surg. Endosc.14(7), 608–611 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cates, J. A.

J. J. Roslyn, G. S. Binns, E. F. X. Hughes, K. Saunders-Kirkwood, M. J. Zinner, and J. A. Cates, “Open cholecystectomy. A contemporary analysis of 42,474 patients,” Ann. Surg.218(2), 129–137 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cesin-Sánchez, R.

S. Rojas-Ortega, D. Arizpe-Bravo, E. R. Marín López, R. Cesin-Sánchez, G. R. S. Roman, and C. Gómez, “Transcystic common bile duct exploration in the management of patients with choledocholithiasis,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.7(4), 492–496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chadha, A.

D. E. Wenner, P. Whitwam, D. Turner, A. Chadha, and J. Degani, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and management of biliary tract stones in a freestanding ambulatory surgery center,” JSLS10(1), 47–51 (2006).
[PubMed]

Chan, L.

D. R. Flum, A. Cheadle, C. Prela, E. P. Dellinger, and L. Chan, “Bile duct injury during cholecystectomy and survival in medicare beneficiaries,” JAMA290(16), 2168–2173 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Flum, E. P. Dellinger, A. Cheadle, L. Chan, and T. Koepsell, “Intraoperative cholangiography and risk of common bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” JAMA289(13), 1639–1644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, W. C.

W. C. Chapman, A. Halevy, L. H. Blumgart, and I. S. Benjamin, “Postcholecystectomy bile duct strictures. Management and outcome in 130 patients,” Arch. Surg.130(6), 597–604 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chari, R.

D. E. Moore, I. D. Feurer, M. D. Holzman, L. J. Wudel, C. Strickland, D. L. Gorden, R. Chari, J. K. Wright, and C. W. Pinson, “Long-term detrimental effect of bile duct injury on health-related quality of life,” Arch. Surg.139(5), 476–482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheadle, A.

D. R. Flum, E. P. Dellinger, A. Cheadle, L. Chan, and T. Koepsell, “Intraoperative cholangiography and risk of common bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” JAMA289(13), 1639–1644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Flum, A. Cheadle, C. Prela, E. P. Dellinger, and L. Chan, “Bile duct injury during cholecystectomy and survival in medicare beneficiaries,” JAMA290(16), 2168–2173 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, S. W.

J. R. Francoeur, K. Wiseman, A. K. Buczkowski, S. W. Chung, and C. H. Scudamore, “Surgeons’ anonymous response after bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” Am. J. Surg.185(5), 468–475 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciardullo, M.

E. de Santibañes, V. Ardiles, A. Gadano, M. Palavecino, J. Pekolj, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation: the last measure in the treatment of bile duct injuries,” World J. Surg.32(8), 1714–1721 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. de Santibañes, J. Pekolj, L. McCormack, J. Nefa, J. Mattera, J. Sívori, C. Bonofiglio, A. Gadano, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation for the sequelae of intra-operative bile duct injury,” HPB (Oxford)4(3), 111–115 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, J.

G. B. Melton, K. D. Lillemoe, J. L. Cameron, P. A. Sauter, J. Coleman, and C. J. Yeo, “Major bile duct injuries associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy: effect of surgical repair on quality of life,” Ann. Surg.235(6), 888–895 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cotton, P. B.

A. M. Davidoff, T. N. Pappas, E. A. Murray, D. J. Hilleren, R. D. Johnson, M. E. Baker, G. E. Newman, P. B. Cotton, and W. C. Meyers, “Mechanisms of major biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 196–202 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dallemagne, B.

J.-F. Gigot, J. Etienne, R. Aerts, E. Wibin, B. Dallemagne, F. Deweer, D. Fortunati, M. Legrand, L. Vereecken, J.-M. Doumont, P. Van Reepinghen, and C. Beguin, “The dramatic reality of biliary tract injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. an anonymous multicenter Belgian survey of 65 patients,” Surg. Endosc.11(12), 1171–1178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidoff, A. M.

A. M. Davidoff, T. N. Pappas, E. A. Murray, D. J. Hilleren, R. D. Johnson, M. E. Baker, G. E. Newman, P. B. Cotton, and W. C. Meyers, “Mechanisms of major biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 196–202 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Santibañes, E.

E. de Santibañes, V. Ardiles, A. Gadano, M. Palavecino, J. Pekolj, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation: the last measure in the treatment of bile duct injuries,” World J. Surg.32(8), 1714–1721 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. de Santibañes, J. Pekolj, L. McCormack, J. Nefa, J. Mattera, J. Sívori, C. Bonofiglio, A. Gadano, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation for the sequelae of intra-operative bile duct injury,” HPB (Oxford)4(3), 111–115 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decadt, B.

B. Alkhaffaf and B. Decadt, “15 years of litigation following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in England,” Ann. Surg.251(4), 682–685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degani, J.

D. E. Wenner, P. Whitwam, D. Turner, A. Chadha, and J. Degani, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and management of biliary tract stones in a freestanding ambulatory surgery center,” JSLS10(1), 47–51 (2006).
[PubMed]

Dellinger, E. P.

D. R. Flum, E. P. Dellinger, A. Cheadle, L. Chan, and T. Koepsell, “Intraoperative cholangiography and risk of common bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” JAMA289(13), 1639–1644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Flum, A. Cheadle, C. Prela, E. P. Dellinger, and L. Chan, “Bile duct injury during cholecystectomy and survival in medicare beneficiaries,” JAMA290(16), 2168–2173 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Flum, T. Koepsell, P. Heagerty, M. Sinanan, and E. P. Dellinger, “Common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the use of intraoperative cholangiography: adverse outcome or preventable error?” Arch. Surg.136(11), 1287–1292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devlin, A.

N. N. Massarweh, A. Devlin, R. G. Symons, J. A. Broeckel Elrod, and D. R. Flum, “Risk tolerance and bile duct injury: surgeon characteristics, risk-taking preference, and common bile duct injuries,” J. Am. Coll. Surg.209(1), 17–24 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deweer, F.

J.-F. Gigot, J. Etienne, R. Aerts, E. Wibin, B. Dallemagne, F. Deweer, D. Fortunati, M. Legrand, L. Vereecken, J.-M. Doumont, P. Van Reepinghen, and C. Beguin, “The dramatic reality of biliary tract injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. an anonymous multicenter Belgian survey of 65 patients,” Surg. Endosc.11(12), 1171–1178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diniz, M. T. C.

P. R. Savassi-Rocha, S. R. Almeida, M. D. Sanches, M. A. C. Andrade, J. T. Frerreira, M. T. C. Diniz, and A. L. S. Rocha, “Iatrogenic bile duct injuries,” Surg. Endosc.17(9), 1356–1361 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doumont, J.-M.

J.-F. Gigot, J. Etienne, R. Aerts, E. Wibin, B. Dallemagne, F. Deweer, D. Fortunati, M. Legrand, L. Vereecken, J.-M. Doumont, P. Van Reepinghen, and C. Beguin, “The dramatic reality of biliary tract injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. an anonymous multicenter Belgian survey of 65 patients,” Surg. Endosc.11(12), 1171–1178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edis, A.

D. R. Fletcher, M. S. T. Hobbs, P. Tan, L. J. Valinsky, R. L. Hockey, T. J. Pikora, M. W. Knuiman, H. J. Sheiner, and A. Edis, “Complications of cholecystectomy: risks of the laparoscopic approach and protective effects of operative cholangiography: a population-based study,” Ann. Surg.229(4), 449–457 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etienne, J.

J.-F. Gigot, J. Etienne, R. Aerts, E. Wibin, B. Dallemagne, F. Deweer, D. Fortunati, M. Legrand, L. Vereecken, J.-M. Doumont, P. Van Reepinghen, and C. Beguin, “The dramatic reality of biliary tract injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. an anonymous multicenter Belgian survey of 65 patients,” Surg. Endosc.11(12), 1171–1178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feurer, I. D.

D. E. Moore, I. D. Feurer, M. D. Holzman, L. J. Wudel, C. Strickland, D. L. Gorden, R. Chari, J. K. Wright, and C. W. Pinson, “Long-term detrimental effect of bile duct injury on health-related quality of life,” Arch. Surg.139(5), 476–482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figueiredo, J. L.

J. L. Figueiredo, C. Siegel, M. Nahrendorf, and R. Weissleder, “Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC) in mouse models of bile duct injury,” World J. Surg.34(2), 336–343 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fletcher, D. R.

D. R. Fletcher, M. S. T. Hobbs, P. Tan, L. J. Valinsky, R. L. Hockey, T. J. Pikora, M. W. Knuiman, H. J. Sheiner, and A. Edis, “Complications of cholecystectomy: risks of the laparoscopic approach and protective effects of operative cholangiography: a population-based study,” Ann. Surg.229(4), 449–457 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flor, B.

J. Calvete, L. Sabater, B. Camps, A. Verdú, A. Gomez-Portilla, J. Martín, M. A. Torrico, B. Flor, N. Cassinello, and S. Lledó, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: myth or reality of the learning curve?” Surg. Endosc.14(7), 608–611 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flum, D. R.

N. N. Massarweh, A. Devlin, R. G. Symons, J. A. Broeckel Elrod, and D. R. Flum, “Risk tolerance and bile duct injury: surgeon characteristics, risk-taking preference, and common bile duct injuries,” J. Am. Coll. Surg.209(1), 17–24 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Flum, A. Cheadle, C. Prela, E. P. Dellinger, and L. Chan, “Bile duct injury during cholecystectomy and survival in medicare beneficiaries,” JAMA290(16), 2168–2173 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Flum, E. P. Dellinger, A. Cheadle, L. Chan, and T. Koepsell, “Intraoperative cholangiography and risk of common bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” JAMA289(13), 1639–1644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Flum, T. Koepsell, P. Heagerty, M. Sinanan, and E. P. Dellinger, “Common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the use of intraoperative cholangiography: adverse outcome or preventable error?” Arch. Surg.136(11), 1287–1292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortunati, D.

J.-F. Gigot, J. Etienne, R. Aerts, E. Wibin, B. Dallemagne, F. Deweer, D. Fortunati, M. Legrand, L. Vereecken, J.-M. Doumont, P. Van Reepinghen, and C. Beguin, “The dramatic reality of biliary tract injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. an anonymous multicenter Belgian survey of 65 patients,” Surg. Endosc.11(12), 1171–1178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francoeur, J. R.

J. R. Francoeur, K. Wiseman, A. K. Buczkowski, S. W. Chung, and C. H. Scudamore, “Surgeons’ anonymous response after bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” Am. J. Surg.185(5), 468–475 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frerreira, J. T.

P. R. Savassi-Rocha, S. R. Almeida, M. D. Sanches, M. A. C. Andrade, J. T. Frerreira, M. T. C. Diniz, and A. L. S. Rocha, “Iatrogenic bile duct injuries,” Surg. Endosc.17(9), 1356–1361 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fullarton, G. M.

M. C. Richardson, G. Bell, G. M. Fullarton, and West of Scotland Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Audit Group, “Incidence and nature of bile duct injuries following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 5913 cases,” Br. J. Surg.83(10), 1356–1360 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Funch-Jensen, P.

S. Adamsen, O. H. Hansen, P. Funch-Jensen, S. Schulze, J. G. Stage, and P. Wara, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective nationwide series,” J. Am. Coll. Surg.184(6), 571–578 (1997).
[PubMed]

Gadano, A.

E. de Santibañes, V. Ardiles, A. Gadano, M. Palavecino, J. Pekolj, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation: the last measure in the treatment of bile duct injuries,” World J. Surg.32(8), 1714–1721 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. de Santibañes, J. Pekolj, L. McCormack, J. Nefa, J. Mattera, J. Sívori, C. Bonofiglio, A. Gadano, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation for the sequelae of intra-operative bile duct injury,” HPB (Oxford)4(3), 111–115 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gigot, J.-F.

J.-F. Gigot, J. Etienne, R. Aerts, E. Wibin, B. Dallemagne, F. Deweer, D. Fortunati, M. Legrand, L. Vereecken, J.-M. Doumont, P. Van Reepinghen, and C. Beguin, “The dramatic reality of biliary tract injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. an anonymous multicenter Belgian survey of 65 patients,” Surg. Endosc.11(12), 1171–1178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez, C.

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D. Boerma, E. A. J. Rauws, Y. C. A. Keulemans, J. J. G. H. Bergman, H. Obertop, K. Huibregtse, and D. J. Gouma, “Impaired quality of life 5 years after bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective analysis,” Ann. Surg.234(6), 750–757 (2001).
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H. Tokumura, A. Umezawa, H. Cao, N. Sakamoto, Y. Imaoka, A. Ouchi, and K. Yamamoto, “Laparoscopic management of common bile duct stones: transcystic approach and choledochotomy,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg.9(2), 206–212 (2002).
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T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, M. Ijichi, J. Kaneko, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg.97(9), 1369–1377 (2010).
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T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography using indocyanine green for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an initial experience,” Arch. Surg.144(4), 381–382 (2009).
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G. Honda, T. Iwanaga, M. Kurata, F. Watanabe, H. Satoh, and K. Iwasaki, “The critical view of safety in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is optimized by exposing the inner layer of the subserosal layer,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg.16(4), 445–449 (2009).
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A. M. Davidoff, T. N. Pappas, E. A. Murray, D. J. Hilleren, R. D. Johnson, M. E. Baker, G. E. Newman, P. B. Cotton, and W. C. Meyers, “Mechanisms of major biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 196–202 (1992).
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A. Nickkholgh, S. Soltaniyekta, and H. Kalbasi, “Routine versus selective intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a survey of 2,130 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Surg. Endosc.20(6), 868–874 (2006).
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T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, M. Ijichi, J. Kaneko, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg.97(9), 1369–1377 (2010).
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A. R. Wijsmuller, M. Leegwater, L. Tseng, H. J. Smaal, G. J. Kleinrensink, and J. F. Lange, “Optimizing the critical view of safety in laparoscopic cholecystectomy by clipping and transecting the cystic artery before the cystic duct,” Br. J. Surg.94(4), 473–474 (2007).
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D. R. Fletcher, M. S. T. Hobbs, P. Tan, L. J. Valinsky, R. L. Hockey, T. J. Pikora, M. W. Knuiman, H. J. Sheiner, and A. Edis, “Complications of cholecystectomy: risks of the laparoscopic approach and protective effects of operative cholangiography: a population-based study,” Ann. Surg.229(4), 449–457 (1999).
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D. R. Flum, E. P. Dellinger, A. Cheadle, L. Chan, and T. Koepsell, “Intraoperative cholangiography and risk of common bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” JAMA289(13), 1639–1644 (2003).
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D. R. Flum, T. Koepsell, P. Heagerty, M. Sinanan, and E. P. Dellinger, “Common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the use of intraoperative cholangiography: adverse outcome or preventable error?” Arch. Surg.136(11), 1287–1292 (2001).
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T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, M. Ijichi, J. Kaneko, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg.97(9), 1369–1377 (2010).
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T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography using indocyanine green for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an initial experience,” Arch. Surg.144(4), 381–382 (2009).
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G. B. Melton, K. D. Lillemoe, J. L. Cameron, P. A. Sauter, J. Coleman, and C. J. Yeo, “Major bile duct injuries associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy: effect of surgical repair on quality of life,” Ann. Surg.235(6), 888–895 (2002).
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E. Kullman, K. Borch, E. Lindström, J. Svanvik, and B. Anderberg, “Management of bile duct stones in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: appraisal of routine operative cholangiography and endoscopic treatment,” Eur. J. Surg.162(11), 873–880 (1996).
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J. Calvete, L. Sabater, B. Camps, A. Verdú, A. Gomez-Portilla, J. Martín, M. A. Torrico, B. Flor, N. Cassinello, and S. Lledó, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: myth or reality of the learning curve?” Surg. Endosc.14(7), 608–611 (2000).
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B. V. MacFadyen, R. Vecchio, A. E. Ricardo, and C. R. Mathis, “Bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The United States experience,” Surg. Endosc.12(4), 315–321 (1998).
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D. C. Wherry, M. R. Marohn, M. P. Malanoski, S. P. Hetz, and N. M. Rich, “An external audit of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the steady state performed in medical treatment facilities of the Department of Defense,” Ann. Surg.224(2), 145–154 (1996).
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D. C. Wherry, M. R. Marohn, M. P. Malanoski, S. P. Hetz, and N. M. Rich, “An external audit of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the steady state performed in medical treatment facilities of the Department of Defense,” Ann. Surg.224(2), 145–154 (1996).
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J. Calvete, L. Sabater, B. Camps, A. Verdú, A. Gomez-Portilla, J. Martín, M. A. Torrico, B. Flor, N. Cassinello, and S. Lledó, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: myth or reality of the learning curve?” Surg. Endosc.14(7), 608–611 (2000).
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M. Suzuki, S. Akaishi, T. Rikiyama, T. Naitoh, M. M. Rahman, and S. Matsuno, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Calot’s triangle, and variations in cystic arterial supply,” Surg. Endosc.14(2), 141–144 (2000).
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E. de Santibañes, J. Pekolj, L. McCormack, J. Nefa, J. Mattera, J. Sívori, C. Bonofiglio, A. Gadano, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation for the sequelae of intra-operative bile duct injury,” HPB (Oxford)4(3), 111–115 (2002).
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G. B. Melton, K. D. Lillemoe, J. L. Cameron, P. A. Sauter, J. Coleman, and C. J. Yeo, “Major bile duct injuries associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy: effect of surgical repair on quality of life,” Ann. Surg.235(6), 888–895 (2002).
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A. M. Davidoff, T. N. Pappas, E. A. Murray, D. J. Hilleren, R. D. Johnson, M. E. Baker, G. E. Newman, P. B. Cotton, and W. C. Meyers, “Mechanisms of major biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 196–202 (1992).
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A. M. Davidoff, T. N. Pappas, E. A. Murray, D. J. Hilleren, R. D. Johnson, M. E. Baker, G. E. Newman, P. B. Cotton, and W. C. Meyers, “Mechanisms of major biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 196–202 (1992).
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J. L. Figueiredo, C. Siegel, M. Nahrendorf, and R. Weissleder, “Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC) in mouse models of bile duct injury,” World J. Surg.34(2), 336–343 (2010).
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E. de Santibañes, J. Pekolj, L. McCormack, J. Nefa, J. Mattera, J. Sívori, C. Bonofiglio, A. Gadano, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation for the sequelae of intra-operative bile duct injury,” HPB (Oxford)4(3), 111–115 (2002).
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A. M. Davidoff, T. N. Pappas, E. A. Murray, D. J. Hilleren, R. D. Johnson, M. E. Baker, G. E. Newman, P. B. Cotton, and W. C. Meyers, “Mechanisms of major biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 196–202 (1992).
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A. Nickkholgh, S. Soltaniyekta, and H. Kalbasi, “Routine versus selective intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a survey of 2,130 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Surg. Endosc.20(6), 868–874 (2006).
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D. Boerma, E. A. J. Rauws, Y. C. A. Keulemans, J. J. G. H. Bergman, H. Obertop, K. Huibregtse, and D. J. Gouma, “Impaired quality of life 5 years after bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective analysis,” Ann. Surg.234(6), 750–757 (2001).
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H. Tokumura, A. Umezawa, H. Cao, N. Sakamoto, Y. Imaoka, A. Ouchi, and K. Yamamoto, “Laparoscopic management of common bile duct stones: transcystic approach and choledochotomy,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg.9(2), 206–212 (2002).
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E. de Santibañes, V. Ardiles, A. Gadano, M. Palavecino, J. Pekolj, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation: the last measure in the treatment of bile duct injuries,” World J. Surg.32(8), 1714–1721 (2008).
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E. de Santibañes, J. Pekolj, L. McCormack, J. Nefa, J. Mattera, J. Sívori, C. Bonofiglio, A. Gadano, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation for the sequelae of intra-operative bile duct injury,” HPB (Oxford)4(3), 111–115 (2002).
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D. R. Fletcher, M. S. T. Hobbs, P. Tan, L. J. Valinsky, R. L. Hockey, T. J. Pikora, M. W. Knuiman, H. J. Sheiner, and A. Edis, “Complications of cholecystectomy: risks of the laparoscopic approach and protective effects of operative cholangiography: a population-based study,” Ann. Surg.229(4), 449–457 (1999).
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D. E. Moore, I. D. Feurer, M. D. Holzman, L. J. Wudel, C. Strickland, D. L. Gorden, R. Chari, J. K. Wright, and C. W. Pinson, “Long-term detrimental effect of bile duct injury on health-related quality of life,” Arch. Surg.139(5), 476–482 (2004).
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Rahman, M. M.

M. Suzuki, S. Akaishi, T. Rikiyama, T. Naitoh, M. M. Rahman, and S. Matsuno, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Calot’s triangle, and variations in cystic arterial supply,” Surg. Endosc.14(2), 141–144 (2000).
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D. Boerma, E. A. J. Rauws, Y. C. A. Keulemans, J. J. G. H. Bergman, H. Obertop, K. Huibregtse, and D. J. Gouma, “Impaired quality of life 5 years after bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective analysis,” Ann. Surg.234(6), 750–757 (2001).
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Ricardo, A. E.

B. V. MacFadyen, R. Vecchio, A. E. Ricardo, and C. R. Mathis, “Bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The United States experience,” Surg. Endosc.12(4), 315–321 (1998).
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J. L. Figueiredo, C. Siegel, M. Nahrendorf, and R. Weissleder, “Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC) in mouse models of bile duct injury,” World J. Surg.34(2), 336–343 (2010).
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S. Adamsen, O. H. Hansen, P. Funch-Jensen, S. Schulze, J. G. Stage, and P. Wara, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective nationwide series,” J. Am. Coll. Surg.184(6), 571–578 (1997).
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L. Stewart and L. W. Way, “Bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Factors that influence the results of treatment,” Arch. Surg.130(10), 1123–1128, discussion 1129 (1995).
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J. L. Figueiredo, C. Siegel, M. Nahrendorf, and R. Weissleder, “Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC) in mouse models of bile duct injury,” World J. Surg.34(2), 336–343 (2010).
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D. E. Wenner, P. Whitwam, D. Turner, A. Chadha, and J. Degani, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and management of biliary tract stones in a freestanding ambulatory surgery center,” JSLS10(1), 47–51 (2006).
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D. E. Wenner, P. Whitwam, D. Turner, A. Chadha, and J. Degani, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and management of biliary tract stones in a freestanding ambulatory surgery center,” JSLS10(1), 47–51 (2006).
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A. R. Wijsmuller, M. Leegwater, L. Tseng, H. J. Smaal, G. J. Kleinrensink, and J. F. Lange, “Optimizing the critical view of safety in laparoscopic cholecystectomy by clipping and transecting the cystic artery before the cystic duct,” Br. J. Surg.94(4), 473–474 (2007).
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J. R. Francoeur, K. Wiseman, A. K. Buczkowski, S. W. Chung, and C. H. Scudamore, “Surgeons’ anonymous response after bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” Am. J. Surg.185(5), 468–475 (2003).
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D. E. Moore, I. D. Feurer, M. D. Holzman, L. J. Wudel, C. Strickland, D. L. Gorden, R. Chari, J. K. Wright, and C. W. Pinson, “Long-term detrimental effect of bile duct injury on health-related quality of life,” Arch. Surg.139(5), 476–482 (2004).
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D. E. Moore, I. D. Feurer, M. D. Holzman, L. J. Wudel, C. Strickland, D. L. Gorden, R. Chari, J. K. Wright, and C. W. Pinson, “Long-term detrimental effect of bile duct injury on health-related quality of life,” Arch. Surg.139(5), 476–482 (2004).
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H. Tokumura, A. Umezawa, H. Cao, N. Sakamoto, Y. Imaoka, A. Ouchi, and K. Yamamoto, “Laparoscopic management of common bile duct stones: transcystic approach and choledochotomy,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg.9(2), 206–212 (2002).
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J. J. Roslyn, G. S. Binns, E. F. X. Hughes, K. Saunders-Kirkwood, M. J. Zinner, and J. A. Cates, “Open cholecystectomy. A contemporary analysis of 42,474 patients,” Ann. Surg.218(2), 129–137 (1993).
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J. R. Francoeur, K. Wiseman, A. K. Buczkowski, S. W. Chung, and C. H. Scudamore, “Surgeons’ anonymous response after bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” Am. J. Surg.185(5), 468–475 (2003).
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Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl. (1)

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Ann. Surg. (8)

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J. J. Roslyn, G. S. Binns, E. F. X. Hughes, K. Saunders-Kirkwood, M. J. Zinner, and J. A. Cates, “Open cholecystectomy. A contemporary analysis of 42,474 patients,” Ann. Surg.218(2), 129–137 (1993).
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D. C. Wherry, M. R. Marohn, M. P. Malanoski, S. P. Hetz, and N. M. Rich, “An external audit of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the steady state performed in medical treatment facilities of the Department of Defense,” Ann. Surg.224(2), 145–154 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. B. Melton, K. D. Lillemoe, J. L. Cameron, P. A. Sauter, J. Coleman, and C. J. Yeo, “Major bile duct injuries associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy: effect of surgical repair on quality of life,” Ann. Surg.235(6), 888–895 (2002).
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D. Boerma, E. A. J. Rauws, Y. C. A. Keulemans, J. J. G. H. Bergman, H. Obertop, K. Huibregtse, and D. J. Gouma, “Impaired quality of life 5 years after bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective analysis,” Ann. Surg.234(6), 750–757 (2001).
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D. E. Moore, I. D. Feurer, M. D. Holzman, L. J. Wudel, C. Strickland, D. L. Gorden, R. Chari, J. K. Wright, and C. W. Pinson, “Long-term detrimental effect of bile duct injury on health-related quality of life,” Arch. Surg.139(5), 476–482 (2004).
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L. Stewart and L. W. Way, “Bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Factors that influence the results of treatment,” Arch. Surg.130(10), 1123–1128, discussion 1129 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Flum, T. Koepsell, P. Heagerty, M. Sinanan, and E. P. Dellinger, “Common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the use of intraoperative cholangiography: adverse outcome or preventable error?” Arch. Surg.136(11), 1287–1292 (2001).
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Aust. N. Z. J. Surg. (1)

J. A. Windsor and J. Pong, “Laparoscopic biliary injury: more than a learning curve problem,” Aust. N. Z. J. Surg.68(3), 186–189 (1998).
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Br. J. Surg. (3)

M. C. Richardson, G. Bell, G. M. Fullarton, and West of Scotland Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Audit Group, “Incidence and nature of bile duct injuries following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 5913 cases,” Br. J. Surg.83(10), 1356–1360 (1996).
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E. Kullman, K. Borch, E. Lindström, J. Svanvik, and B. Anderberg, “Management of bile duct stones in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: appraisal of routine operative cholangiography and endoscopic treatment,” Eur. J. Surg.162(11), 873–880 (1996).
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V. Mahatharadol, “Bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 1522 cases,” Hepatogastroenterology51(55), 12–14 (2004).
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HPB (Oxford) (1)

E. de Santibañes, J. Pekolj, L. McCormack, J. Nefa, J. Mattera, J. Sívori, C. Bonofiglio, A. Gadano, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation for the sequelae of intra-operative bile duct injury,” HPB (Oxford)4(3), 111–115 (2002).
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JAMA (2)

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Other (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The schematic diagram of a common plastic optical fiber fabricated into a choledochoilluminating drainage device. (b) Upper left: microscopic image of the laser fabricated periodic microstructures. Scale bar: 20 μm. Upper right: picture of light illumination from laser-fabricated microstructure windows. Scale bar: 50 mm. Lower: picture of green laser light emission from the front-end 10-cm length of optical fiber which was featured of periodic microstructures on the cladding portion by picosecond laser micromachining. (c) The optical configuration of illumination unit. Fiber collimator is the combination of a 20× microscope objective and a fiber clamp. (d) The picture of current illumination unit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A common plastic optical fiber without laser-fabricated microstructures and not encapsulated inside an ENBD tube was inserted into the papilla. The measured optical power was 6.9 W/cm2. (b) A plastic optical fiber with laser-fabricated microstructure of light-emission windows but not encapsulated inside an ENBD catheter was passing through the duodenal papilla and entering the CBD. The green emission from microstructure windows of optical fiber clearly illuminates the entire section of CBD under room light. The measured optical power was 42.1 W/cm2. (c) The same optical fiber and optical power in (b) brightened the CBD in the dark.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative intensity analysis by the image processing. The plastic optical fiber with laser-fabricated microstructure of light-emission windows but not encapsulated inside an ENBD catheter was passing through the duodenal papilla and entering the CBD. The laser power was (a) 3, (b) 13.7, (c) 27.5, and (d) 41.1 W/cm2, respectively. (e) shows the quantitative comparison results of the relative intensity of visible green light with respect to different introduced laser power. Insets show the transformed light intensity distribution images as the white dot-line square regions marked in (a)­(d).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) A compact choledochoilluminating catheter was passing through the papilla (as the indication of white arrow) entering the CBD. (b) An optical fiber with laser-fabricated microstructure of light-emission windows encapsulated inside an ENBD catheter was placed in the CBD. The green illumination clearly indicates the CBD under room light (as the indication of yellow arrow). The measured optical power was 10.8 W/cm2.

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