Abstract

Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a procedure routinely performed to diagnose peripheral pulmonary lesions. However, TBNA is associated with a low diagnostic yield due to inappropriate needle placement. We have developed a flexible transbronchial optical frequency domain imaging (TB-OFDI) catheter that functions as a “smart needle” to confirm the needle placement within the target lesion prior to biopsy. The TB-OFDI smart needle consists of a flexible and removable OFDI catheter (430 µm dia.) that operates within a standard 21-gauge TBNA needle. The OFDI imaging core is based on an angle polished ball lens design with a working distance of 160 µm from the catheter sheath and a spot size of 25 µm. To demonstrate the potential of the TB-OFDI smart needle for transbronchial imaging, an inflated excised swine lung was imaged through a standard bronchoscope. Cross-sectional and longitudinal OFDI results reveal the detailed network of alveoli in the lung parenchyma suggesting that the TB-OFDI smart needle may be a useful tool for guiding biopsy acquisition to increase the diagnostic yield.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

2011

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Liang, J. Wierwille, T. Moreira, G. Schwartzbauer, M. S. Jafri, C. M. Tang, and Y. Chen, “A forward-imaging needle-type OCT probe for image guided stereotactic procedures,” Opt. Express19(27), 26283–26294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Mariotto, K. R. Yabroff, Y. Shao, E. J. Feuer, and M. L. Brown, “Projections of the cost of cancer care in the United States: 2010–2020,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.103(2), 117–128 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y Wu, J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. A. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

E. J. Min, J. Na, S. Y. Ryu, and B. H. Lee, “Single-body lensed-fiber scanning probe actuated by magnetic force for optical imaging,” Opt. Lett.34(12), 1897–1899 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, “Common path optical coherence tomography with fibre bundle probe,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Han, M. V. Sarunic, J. Wu, M. Humayun, and C. H. Yang, “Handheld forward-imaging needle endoscope for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography inspection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 020505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, Y. X. Mao, N. Munce, B. Standish, W. Kucharczyk, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1791–1793 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2000

X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, T. Ko, C. Pitris, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging needle for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.25(20), 1520–1522 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Baaklini, M. A. Reinoso, A. B. Gorin, A. Sharafkaneh, and P. Manian, “Diagnostic yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules,” Chest117(4), 1049–1054 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. J.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baaklini, W. A.

W. A. Baaklini, M. A. Reinoso, A. B. Gorin, A. Sharafkaneh, and P. Manian, “Diagnostic yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules,” Chest117(4), 1049–1054 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldwin, C.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, M. L.

A. B. Mariotto, K. R. Yabroff, Y. Shao, E. J. Feuer, and M. L. Brown, “Projections of the cost of cancer care in the United States: 2010–2020,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.103(2), 117–128 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canto, M. I. F.

Y Wu, J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. A. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chaney, E. J.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chudoba, C.

Coxson, H. O.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curatolo, A.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Eastwood, P. R.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

et,

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuer, E. J.

A. B. Mariotto, K. R. Yabroff, Y. Shao, E. J. Feuer, and M. L. Brown, “Projections of the cost of cancer care in the United States: 2010–2020,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.103(2), 117–128 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fung, K. M.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gazdar, A.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giday, S. A.

Y Wu, J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. A. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gorin, A. B.

W. A. Baaklini, M. A. Reinoso, A. B. Gorin, A. Sharafkaneh, and P. Manian, “Diagnostic yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules,” Chest117(4), 1049–1054 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J. H.

J. H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, “Common path optical coherence tomography with fibre bundle probe,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S.

S. Han, M. V. Sarunic, J. Wu, M. Humayun, and C. H. Yang, “Handheld forward-imaging needle endoscope for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography inspection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 020505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, A.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, D. R.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honda, H.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Humayun, M.

S. Han, M. V. Sarunic, J. Wu, M. Humayun, and C. H. Yang, “Handheld forward-imaging needle endoscope for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography inspection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 020505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huo, L.

Y Wu, J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. A. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. H.

Y Wu, J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. A. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ichinose, S.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Ikeda, N.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jafri, M. S.

Kang, J. U.

J. H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, “Common path optical coherence tomography with fibre bundle probe,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, H.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, Y.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keddissi, J. I.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Kinasewitz, G. T.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirk, R. W.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

Kucharczyk, W.

Kuo, W. C.

Lam, S.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauwers, G. Y.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. H.

Leigh, M. S.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lennon, A. A.

Y Wu, J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. A. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

leRiche, J.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Y Wu, J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. A. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. D.

Liang, C. P.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, D. Y.

Liu, X.

J. H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, “Common path optical coherence tomography with fibre bundle probe,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenser, D.

MacAulay, C.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manian, P.

W. A. Baaklini, M. A. Reinoso, A. B. Gorin, A. Sharafkaneh, and P. Manian, “Diagnostic yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules,” Chest117(4), 1049–1054 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mao, Y. X.

Marcon, N. E.

Mariotto, A. B.

A. B. Mariotto, K. R. Yabroff, Y. Shao, E. J. Feuer, and M. L. Brown, “Projections of the cost of cancer care in the United States: 2010–2020,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.103(2), 117–128 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

Mayo, J. R.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McWilliams, A.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McWilliams, A. M.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, R. G.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, E. J.

Mino-Kenudson, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreira, T.

Munce, N.

Na, J.

Nishioka, N. S.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noble, P. B.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padvorac, J.

Y Wu, J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. A. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quiney, B.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quirk, B. C.

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinoso, M. A.

W. A. Baaklini, M. A. Reinoso, A. B. Gorin, A. Sharafkaneh, and P. Manian, “Diagnostic yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules,” Chest117(4), 1049–1054 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, S. Y.

Sampson, D. D.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

S. Han, M. V. Sarunic, J. Wu, M. Humayun, and C. H. Yang, “Handheld forward-imaging needle endoscope for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography inspection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 020505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartzbauer, G.

Shao, Y.

A. B. Mariotto, K. R. Yabroff, Y. Shao, E. J. Feuer, and M. L. Brown, “Projections of the cost of cancer care in the United States: 2010–2020,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.103(2), 117–128 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharafkaneh, A.

W. A. Baaklini, M. A. Reinoso, A. B. Gorin, A. Sharafkaneh, and P. Manian, “Diagnostic yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules,” Chest117(4), 1049–1054 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shemonski, N. D.

Shin, E. J.

Y Wu, J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. A. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shishkov, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sin, D. D.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, C. G.

J. H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, “Common path optical coherence tomography with fibre bundle probe,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spillman, D. R.

Standish, B.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, Y. X. Mao, N. Munce, B. Standish, W. Kucharczyk, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1791–1793 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, C. M.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuboi, M.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, A. I.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I. A.

Walsh, J. H.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wierwille, J.

Wilson, B. C.

Wu, J.

S. Han, M. V. Sarunic, J. Wu, M. Humayun, and C. H. Yang, “Handheld forward-imaging needle endoscope for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography inspection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 020505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y

Y Wu, J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. A. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.

Y Wu, J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. A. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xing, L.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yabroff, K. R.

A. B. Mariotto, K. R. Yabroff, Y. Shao, E. J. Feuer, and M. L. Brown, “Projections of the cost of cancer care in the United States: 2010–2020,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.103(2), 117–128 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yachimski, P. S.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

S. Han, M. V. Sarunic, J. Wu, M. Humayun, and C. H. Yang, “Handheld forward-imaging needle endoscope for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography inspection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 020505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, V.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, V. X. D.

Yang, X.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zysk, A. M.

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express

Chest

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Baaklini, M. A. Reinoso, A. B. Gorin, A. Sharafkaneh, and P. Manian, “Diagnostic yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules,” Chest117(4), 1049–1054 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett.

J. H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, “Common path optical coherence tomography with fibre bundle probe,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y Wu, J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. A. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Han, M. V. Sarunic, J. Wu, M. Humayun, and C. H. Yang, “Handheld forward-imaging needle endoscope for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography inspection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 020505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Natl. Cancer Inst.

A. B. Mariotto, K. R. Yabroff, Y. Shao, E. J. Feuer, and M. L. Brown, “Projections of the cost of cancer care in the United States: 2010–2020,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.103(2), 117–128 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lung Cancer

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

America Cancer Society, “Cancer facts and figures 2010” (ACS, 2010).

S. Altekruse, C. Kosary, M. Krapcho, N. Neyman, R. Aminou, W. Waldron, J. Ruhl, N. Howlader, Z. Tatalovich, and H. Cho, “SEER cancer statistics review” (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, 2010).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the TB-OFDI distal end. (b) Photograph of the polished ball-lens optical core. (c) Photograph of the flexible OFDI catheter insert. The inner optical core, which is encased in a nitinol driveshaft, is located within the sealed, optically transparent polyimide sheath.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Original TBNA needle (top) and the modified TBNA needle (bottom) with a portion of the proximal assembly removed to increase the workable length. (b) Complete TB-OFDI smart needle with the OFDI catheter residing within the 21-gauge TBNA needle (inset).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic demonstrates the functionality of the TB-OFDI smart needle. (a) The TBNA needle is placed in the lung tissue. (b) The OFDI catheter is advanced within the needle. (c) The TBNA needle is withdrawn exposing the OFDI catheter for imaging.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Output beam diameter of the imaging core (blue and dark cyan) and catheter (black and red). (b) and (c) Measured output beam profile of the imaging core, and the complete catheter respectively. (d) Measured beam intensity as a function of the distance from the surface of the ball lens. White scale bar indicates 50 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-sectional (a) and longitudinal (b) OFDI images of the inflated swine lung parenchyma obtained with the TB-OFDI imaging needle. (a) 5.6 mm × 5.6 mm circumferential cross-sectional OFDI image of lung parenchyma with clear visualization of alveoli. (B) An 8.2mm × 5.6 mm YZ longitudinal reconstruction obtained from the location identified in ‘a’ (yellow dashed line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photograph of 21-gauge TBNA needle with dulled tip.

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