Abstract

We present a theoretical framework for strain estimation in optical coherence elastography (OCE), based on a statistical analysis of displacement measurements obtained from a mechanically loaded sample. We define strain sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio and dynamic range, and derive estimates of strain using three methods: finite difference, ordinary least squares and weighted least squares, the latter implemented for the first time in OCE. We compare theoretical predictions with experimental results and demonstrate a ~12 dB improvement in strain sensitivity using weighted least squares compared to finite difference strain estimation and a ~4 dB improvement over ordinary least squares strain estimation. We present strain images (i.e., elastograms) of tissue-mimicking phantoms and excised porcine airway, demonstrating in each case clear contrast based on the sample’s elasticity.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (2)

B. F. Kennedy, A. Curatolo, T. R. Hillman, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

R. K. Wang, S. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for mapping tissue microstrains in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. J. Ko, W. Tan, R. Stack, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence elastography of engineered and developing tissue,” Tissue Eng.12(1), 63–73 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, Z. H. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

B. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express13(11), 3931–3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, W. C. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. S. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. E. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

F. Kallel and J. Ophir, “A least-squares strain estimator for elastography,” Ultrason. Imaging19(3), 195–208 (1997).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Varghese and J. Ophir, “A theoretical framework for performance characterization of elastography: the strain filter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control44(1), 164–172 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

I. Cespedes, M. Insana, and J. Ophir, “Theoretical bounds on strain estimation in elastography,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control42(5), 969–972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. K. Rains, J. L. Bert, C. R. Roberts, and P. D. Paré, “Mechanical properties of human tracheal cartilage,” J. Appl. Physiol.72(1), 219–225 (1992).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

Alam, S. K.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrov, S. A.

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. J.

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bamber, J.

A. Grimwood, L. Garcia, J. Bamber, J. Holmes, P. Woolliams, P. Tomlins, and Q. A. Pankhurst, “Elastographic contrast generation in optical coherence tomography from a localized shear stress,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(18), 5515–5528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Bert, J. L.

J. K. Rains, J. L. Bert, C. R. Roberts, and P. D. Paré, “Mechanical properties of human tracheal cartilage,” J. Appl. Physiol.72(1), 219–225 (1992).
[PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, W. C. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. S. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. E. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Cespedes, I.

I. Cespedes, M. Insana, and J. Ophir, “Theoretical bounds on strain estimation in elastography,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control42(5), 969–972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Céspedes, I.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, R. C.

Chaney, E. J.

Chau, A. H.

Chen, Z.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colt, H.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crecea, V.

Curatolo, A.

de Boer, J.

El-Abbadi, N. H.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fatemi, M.

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, L.

A. Grimwood, L. Garcia, J. Bamber, J. Holmes, P. Woolliams, P. Tomlins, and Q. A. Pankhurst, “Elastographic contrast generation in optical coherence tomography from a localized shear stress,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(18), 5515–5528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garra, B.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerstmann, D. K.

Götzinger, E.

Greenleaf, J. F.

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimwood, A.

A. Grimwood, L. Garcia, J. Bamber, J. Holmes, P. Woolliams, P. Tomlins, and Q. A. Pankhurst, “Elastographic contrast generation in optical coherence tomography from a localized shear stress,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(18), 5515–5528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, N.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, T. R.

Hinds, M.

R. K. Wang, S. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for mapping tissue microstrains in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Holmes, J.

A. Grimwood, L. Garcia, J. Bamber, J. Holmes, P. Woolliams, P. Tomlins, and Q. A. Pankhurst, “Elastographic contrast generation in optical coherence tomography from a localized shear stress,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(18), 5515–5528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Insana, M.

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Cespedes, M. Insana, and J. Ophir, “Theoretical bounds on strain estimation in elastography,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control42(5), 969–972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

John, R.

Jung, W. G.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaazempur-Mofrad, M. R.

Kallel, F.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kallel and J. Ophir, “A least-squares strain estimator for elastography,” Ultrason. Imaging19(3), 195–208 (1997).
[PubMed]

Karl, W. C.

Kennedy, B. F.

B. F. Kennedy, A. Curatolo, T. R. Hillman, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography by speckle correlation of angle-dependent B-scans,” Opt. Lett.35(12), 1998–2000 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by strain compounding,” Opt. Lett.35(14), 2445–2447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, X. Liang, B. F. Kennedy, R. John, D. D. Sampson, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express18(25), 25519–25534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khalil, A. S.

Kirkpatrick, S.

R. K. Wang, S. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for mapping tissue microstrains in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

R. K. Wang, Z. H. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ko, H. J.

H. J. Ko, W. Tan, R. Stack, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence elastography of engineered and developing tissue,” Tissue Eng.12(1), 63–73 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konofagou, E.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Krouskop, T.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

Ma, Z. H.

R. K. Wang, Z. H. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mahmood, U.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

Mina-Araghi, R.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Nadkarni, S.

Oldenburg, A. L.

Ophir, J.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kallel and J. Ophir, “A least-squares strain estimator for elastography,” Ultrason. Imaging19(3), 195–208 (1997).
[PubMed]

T. Varghese and J. Ophir, “A theoretical framework for performance characterization of elastography: the strain filter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control44(1), 164–172 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Cespedes, M. Insana, and J. Ophir, “Theoretical bounds on strain estimation in elastography,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control42(5), 969–972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pankhurst, Q. A.

A. Grimwood, L. Garcia, J. Bamber, J. Holmes, P. Woolliams, P. Tomlins, and Q. A. Pankhurst, “Elastographic contrast generation in optical coherence tomography from a localized shear stress,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(18), 5515–5528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paré, P. D.

J. K. Rains, J. L. Bert, C. R. Roberts, and P. D. Paré, “Mechanical properties of human tracheal cartilage,” J. Appl. Physiol.72(1), 219–225 (1992).
[PubMed]

Park, B.

Patel, N. A.

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ponnekanti, H.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quirk, B. C.

Rains, J. K.

J. K. Rains, J. L. Bert, C. R. Roberts, and P. D. Paré, “Mechanical properties of human tracheal cartilage,” J. Appl. Physiol.72(1), 219–225 (1992).
[PubMed]

Roberts, C. R.

J. K. Rains, J. L. Bert, C. R. Roberts, and P. D. Paré, “Mechanical properties of human tracheal cartilage,” J. Appl. Physiol.72(1), 219–225 (1992).
[PubMed]

Rogowska, J.

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

B. F. Kennedy, A. Curatolo, T. R. Hillman, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, X. Liang, B. F. Kennedy, R. John, D. D. Sampson, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express18(25), 25519–25534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography by speckle correlation of angle-dependent B-scans,” Opt. Lett.35(12), 1998–2000 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by strain compounding,” Opt. Lett.35(14), 2445–2447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

Saunders, C. M.

B. F. Kennedy, A. Curatolo, T. R. Hillman, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

Shishkov, M.

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stack, R.

H. J. Ko, W. Tan, R. Stack, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence elastography of engineered and developing tissue,” Tissue Eng.12(1), 63–73 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Tan, W.

H. J. Ko, W. Tan, R. Stack, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence elastography of engineered and developing tissue,” Tissue Eng.12(1), 63–73 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, W. C. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. S. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. E. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlins, P.

A. Grimwood, L. Garcia, J. Bamber, J. Holmes, P. Woolliams, P. Tomlins, and Q. A. Pankhurst, “Elastographic contrast generation in optical coherence tomography from a localized shear stress,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(18), 5515–5528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varghese, T.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Varghese and J. Ophir, “A theoretical framework for performance characterization of elastography: the strain filter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control44(1), 164–172 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, S. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for mapping tissue microstrains in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, Z. H. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Woolliams, P.

A. Grimwood, L. Garcia, J. Bamber, J. Holmes, P. Woolliams, P. Tomlins, and Q. A. Pankhurst, “Elastographic contrast generation in optical coherence tomography from a localized shear stress,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(18), 5515–5528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdi, Y.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. K. Wang, Z. H. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, S. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for mapping tissue microstrains in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heart (1)

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (2)

I. Cespedes, M. Insana, and J. Ophir, “Theoretical bounds on strain estimation in elastography,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control42(5), 969–972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Varghese and J. Ophir, “A theoretical framework for performance characterization of elastography: the strain filter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control44(1), 164–172 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

J. K. Rains, J. L. Bert, C. R. Roberts, and P. D. Paré, “Mechanical properties of human tracheal cartilage,” J. Appl. Physiol.72(1), 219–225 (1992).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

B. F. Kennedy, A. Curatolo, T. R. Hillman, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

J. M. Schmitt, “OCT elastography: imaging microscopic deformation and strain of tissue,” Opt. Express3(6), 199–211 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, W. C. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. S. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. E. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liang, A. L. Oldenburg, V. Crecea, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical micro-scale mapping of dynamic biomechanical tissue properties,” Opt. Express16(15), 11052–11065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, X. Liang, B. F. Kennedy, R. John, D. D. Sampson, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express18(25), 25519–25534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liang, S. G. Adie, R. John, and S. A. Boppart, “Dynamic spectral-domain optical coherence elastography for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express18(13), 14183–14190 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express13(11), 3931–3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grimwood, L. Garcia, J. Bamber, J. Holmes, P. Woolliams, P. Tomlins, and Q. A. Pankhurst, “Elastographic contrast generation in optical coherence tomography from a localized shear stress,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(18), 5515–5528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H (1)

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Respiration (1)

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tissue Eng. (1)

H. J. Ko, W. Tan, R. Stack, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence elastography of engineered and developing tissue,” Tissue Eng.12(1), 63–73 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultrason. Imaging (2)

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kallel and J. Ophir, “A least-squares strain estimator for elastography,” Ultrason. Imaging19(3), 195–208 (1997).
[PubMed]

Other (6)

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

J. I. Jackson and L. J. Thomas, “Ultrasound-based strain rate estimation of moving, fully developed speckle,” in 2001 IEEE Ultrasonic Symposium (IEEE, 2001), Vol. 2, pp. 1593–1596.

J. Fox, Applied Regression Analysis, Linear Models and Related Methods (Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif., 1997).

C. Tomasi and R. Manduchi, “Bilateral filtering for gray and color images,” in Sixth International Conference on Computer Vision, 1998 (IEEE, 1998), 839–846.

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2008).

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, New York, 1998).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical predictions of strain estimation using FD (dashed red) and OLS (solid blue) methods: (a) sensitivity; and (b) SNR versus strain axial resolution. (c) SNR versus change in displacement, Δd, in one resolution element.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of the OCE system; RB: rigid boundary; RA: ring actuator; SM: scanning mirror; BS: beam splitter; RM: reference mirror; SLD: superluminescent diode; (b) Saw-tooth pattern of lateral scanning beam synchronized with motion of ring actuator. (c) The measured phase difference with no lateral scanning and (d) with lateral scanning.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Strain sensitivity; (b) mean strain; and (c) strain SNR of Phantom 1. Experimental results are presented for FD (red dots), OLS (blue dots), WLS (green dots), and GS-WLS (black dots) strain estimation. Theoretical results are presented for FD (red line) and OLS (blue line) strain estimation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phantom 2: (a) OCT structural image; and (b) FD; (c) OLS; (d) WLS; and (e) GS-WLS elastograms. In (f)-(j), corresponding lateral traces are shown for the depth indicated by the blue arrow in (a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) OCT structural image; and (b) GS-WLS elastogram of Phantom 3. (c) OCT structural image; and (d) GS-WLS elastogram of a thin section of excised porcine airway with layers as labeled in (c).

Equations (33)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Y= σ ε b = F A Δl l 0 ,
ε l = Δd Δz ,
I (j) = { ( z i , a i (j) exp(ι φ i (j) ))| z i =(i1)δz+ z 1 R, a i (j) R + , φ i (j) [π,π) } i=1 N ,
D= { ( z i , d i )| d i = λ( ϕ i (2) ϕ i (1) ) 4πn = λΔ ϕ i 4πn } i=1 N ,
σ Δ φ i = 1 SN R OC T i .
ε i f = d i+m1 d i z i+m1 z i = Δd Δz .
σ Ε i f 2 = σ D i 2 + σ D i+m1 2 2cov( D i , D i+m1 ) Δ z 2 ,
σ Ε i f 2 = 2 σ D 2 Δ z 2 .
μ Ε i f =ε.
d=ε(z z i1 )+c.
R= j=i i+m1 [ d j ε( z j z i1 )c ] 2 .
ε i o = ( j=i i+m1 1 )( j=i i+m1 ( z j z i1 ) d j )( j=i i+m1 ( z j z i1 ) )( j=i i+m1 d j ) ( j=i i+m1 1 )( j=i i+m1 ( z j z i1 ) 2 ) ( j=i i+m1 ( z j z i1 ) ) 2 ,
ε i o = j=i i+m1 ( κ 0 ( z j z i1 ) κ 1 κ 0 κ 2 κ 1 2 ) d j ,
κ x = j=i i+m1 ( z j z i1 ) x ,  x=0,1,2.
ε i o = j=i i+m1 ( κ 0 (ji+1)δz κ 1 κ 0 κ 2 κ 1 2 ) d j .
κ 0 = j=i i+m1 ( (ji+1)δz ) 0 =m,
κ 1 = j=i i+m1 ( (ji+1)δz ) 1 = m(m+1) 2 δz,
κ 2 = j=i i+m1 ( (ji+1)δz ) 2 = m(m+1)(2m+1) 6 δ z 2 .
ε i o = j=i i+m1 ( 6(2(ji)m+1) δz( m 3 m) ) d j .
μ Ε i o = j=i i+m1 ( 6(2(ji)m+1) δz( m 3 m) ) μ D j .
μ Ε i o = j=i i+m1 ( 6(2(ji)m+1) δz( m 3 m) ) ( ε(ji+1)δz+c )=ε.
σ Ε i o 2 = j=i i+m1 ( 6(2(ji)m+1) δz( m 3 m) ) 2 σ D 2 = 12 σ D 2 δ z 2 ( m 3 m) 12 σ D 2 Δ z 2 m .
S Ε i f/o = σ Ε i f/o .
SN R Ε i f/o = μ Ε i f/o σ Ε i f/o .
D R Ε i f/o = ( Δ d max Δz ) σ Ε i f/o = λ 4n σ Ε i f/o Δz .
S Ε i f = 2 σ D Δz ;
SN R Ε i f = μ Ε i f Δz 2 σ D ; and
D R Ε i f = λ 32 σ D n .
S Ε i o = 12 σ D Δz m ;
SN R Ε i o = μ Ε i o Δz m 12 σ D ; and
D R Ε i o = λ m 192 σ D n .
ε i w = ( j=i i+m1 w j )( j=i i+m1 w j ( z j z i1 ) d j )( j=i i+m1 w j ( z j z i1 ) )( j=i i+m1 w j d j ) ( j=i i+m1 w j )( j=i i+m1 w j ( z j z i1 ) 2 ) ( j=i i+m1 w j ( z j z i1 ) ) 2 ,
w j = 1 σ D j 2 .

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