Abstract

High quality imaging through sub-millimeter endoscopic probes provides clinicians with valuable diagnostics capabilities in hard to reach locations within the body. Spectrally encoded endoscopy (SEE) has been shown promising for such task; however, challenging probe fabrication and high speckle noise had prevented its testing in in vivo studies. Here we demonstrate a novel miniature SEE probe which incorporates some of the recent progress in spectrally encoded technology into a compact and robust endoscopic system. A high-quality miniature diffraction grating was fabricated using automated femtosecond laser cutting from a large bulk grating. Using one spectrally encoded channel for imaging and a separate channel for incoherent illumination, the new system has large depth of field, negligible back reflections and well controlled speckle noise which depends on the core diameter of the illumination fiber. Moreover, by using a larger imaging channel, higher groove density grating, shorter wavelength and broader spectrum, the new endoscopic system now allow significant improvements in almost all imaging parameter compared to previous systems, through an ultra-miniature endoscopic probe.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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2011 (1)

2010 (3)

S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9755–9764 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Abramov, L. Minai, and D. Yelin, “Multiple-channel spectrally encoded imaging,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14745–14751 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice 23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally-encoded color imaging,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15239–15247 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. T. Kester, T. Christenson, R. R. Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Low cost, high performance, self-aligning miniature optical systems,” Appl. Opt. 48(18), 3375–3384 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, “Update on coronary angioscopy: review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque,” J. Interv. Cardiol. 19(1), 17–25 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. 12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, “Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast,” Cancer 101(10), 2164–2169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, M. Shiskov, and G. J. Tearney, “A GRISM-based probe for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(2), 120–124 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut 52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded miniature endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 412–414 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. D. Jho, R. L. Carrau, Y. Ko, and M. A. Daly, “Endoscopic pituitary surgery: an early experience,” Surg. Neurol. 47(3), 213–222, discussion 222–223 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1984 (1)

M. V. Sivak and D. E. Fleischer, “Colonoscopy with a VideoEndoscope: preliminary experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 30(1), 1–5 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

D. C. Zavala, “Diagnostic fiberoptic bronchoscopy: Techniques and results of biopsy in 600 patients,” Chest 68(1), 12–19 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1961 (1)

B. I. Hirschowitz, “Endoscopic examination of the stomach and duodenal cap with the fiberscope,” Lancet 278(7186), 1074–1078 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abela, G. S.

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, “Update on coronary angioscopy: review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque,” J. Interv. Cardiol. 19(1), 17–25 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abramov, A.

Aziz, D.

Aziz, K.

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, “Update on coronary angioscopy: review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque,” J. Interv. Cardiol. 19(1), 17–25 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banks, P. S.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[Crossref]

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9755–9764 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice 23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally-encoded color imaging,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15239–15247 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice 23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, J. J. Rosowsky, and G. J. Tearney, “Doppler imaging using spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14836–14844 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Volumetric sub-surface imaging using spectrally encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1748–1757 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2432–2444 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, M. Shiskov, and G. J. Tearney, “A GRISM-based probe for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(2), 120–124 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded miniature endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 412–414 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brill, M. H.

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[Crossref]

Broide, E.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut 52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrau, R. L.

H. D. Jho, R. L. Carrau, Y. Ko, and M. A. Daly, “Endoscopic pituitary surgery: an early experience,” Surg. Neurol. 47(3), 213–222, discussion 222–223 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christenson, T.

Daly, M. A.

H. D. Jho, R. L. Carrau, Y. Ko, and M. A. Daly, “Endoscopic pituitary surgery: an early experience,” Surg. Neurol. 47(3), 213–222, discussion 222–223 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daxhelet, X.

Delaney, P. M.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice 23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dickensheets, D. L.

Fairman, H. S.

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[Crossref]

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fich, L.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut 52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fireman, Z.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut 52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, T.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. 12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischer, D. E.

M. V. Sivak and D. E. Fleischer, “Colonoscopy with a VideoEndoscope: preliminary experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 30(1), 1–5 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujii, M.

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, “Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast,” Cancer 101(10), 2164–2169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gmitro, A. F.

Godbout, N.

Goodman, J. W.

Hartnick, C. J.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice 23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hemmendinger, H.

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hirschowitz, B. I.

B. I. Hirschowitz, “Endoscopic examination of the stomach and duodenal cap with the fiberscope,” Lancet 278(7186), 1074–1078 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishibashi, F.

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, “Update on coronary angioscopy: review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque,” J. Interv. Cardiol. 19(1), 17–25 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobs, V. R.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. 12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jho, H. D.

H. D. Jho, R. L. Carrau, Y. Ko, and M. A. Daly, “Endoscopic pituitary surgery: an early experience,” Surg. Neurol. 47(3), 213–222, discussion 222–223 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, D.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally-encoded color imaging,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15239–15247 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawakami, Y.

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, “Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast,” Cancer 101(10), 2164–2169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kester, R. T.

Kiechle, M.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. 12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

Ko, Y.

H. D. Jho, R. L. Carrau, Y. Ko, and M. A. Daly, “Endoscopic pituitary surgery: an early experience,” Surg. Neurol. 47(3), 213–222, discussion 222–223 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kopelman, Y.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut 52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kortum, R. R.

Lauwers, G. Y.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemire-Renaud, S.

Leuin, S. C.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice 23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahajna, E.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut 52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsunaga, T.

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, “Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast,” Cancer 101(10), 2164–2169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLaren, W. J.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minai, L.

Mino-Kenudson, M.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morneau, D.

Motz, J. T.

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2432–2444 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, T.

T. Nakamura and A. Terano, “Capsule endoscopy: past, present, and future,” J. Gastroenterol. 43(2), 93–99 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Namba, K.

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, “Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast,” Cancer 101(10), 2164–2169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice 23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paepke, S.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. 12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perry, M. D.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pitris, C.

C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, M. Shiskov, and G. J. Tearney, “A GRISM-based probe for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(2), 120–124 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plattner, B.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. 12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polglase, A. L.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puricelli, W. P.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rawson, E. G.

Rivard, M.

Rizvi, I.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosowsky, J. J.

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[Crossref]

Scapa, E.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut 52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seibel, E. J.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapiro, M.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut 52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

Shiskov, M.

Sivak, M. V.

M. V. Sivak and D. E. Fleischer, “Colonoscopy with a VideoEndoscope: preliminary experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 30(1), 1–5 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skinner, S. A.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smithwick, Q. Y. J.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sternberg, A.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut 52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strupler, M.

Stuart, B. C.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[Crossref]

Suter, M. J.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice 23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice 23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally-encoded color imaging,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15239–15247 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, J. J. Rosowsky, and G. J. Tearney, “Doppler imaging using spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14836–14844 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Volumetric sub-surface imaging using spectrally encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1748–1757 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2432–2444 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, M. Shiskov, and G. J. Tearney, “A GRISM-based probe for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(2), 120–124 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded miniature endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 412–414 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terano, A.

T. Nakamura and A. Terano, “Capsule endoscopy: past, present, and future,” J. Gastroenterol. 43(2), 93–99 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tkaczyk, T. S.

Vakoc, B. J.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice 23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verpillat, F.

Waxman, S.

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, “Update on coronary angioscopy: review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque,” J. Interv. Cardiol. 19(1), 17–25 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, W. M.

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2432–2444 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yachimski, P. S.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yanovsky, V.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yelin, D.

Yoo, H.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Zavala, D. C.

D. C. Zavala, “Diagnostic fiberoptic bronchoscopy: Techniques and results of biopsy in 600 patients,” Chest 68(1), 12–19 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Cancer (1)

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, “Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast,” Cancer 101(10), 2164–2169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chest (1)

D. C. Zavala, “Diagnostic fiberoptic bronchoscopy: Techniques and results of biopsy in 600 patients,” Chest 68(1), 12–19 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (1)

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (3)

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak and D. E. Fleischer, “Colonoscopy with a VideoEndoscope: preliminary experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 30(1), 1–5 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gut (1)

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut 52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Gastroenterol. (1)

T. Nakamura and A. Terano, “Capsule endoscopy: past, present, and future,” J. Gastroenterol. 43(2), 93–99 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Interv. Cardiol. (1)

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, “Update on coronary angioscopy: review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque,” J. Interv. Cardiol. 19(1), 17–25 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. (1)

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. 12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Voice (1)

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice 23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lancet (1)

B. I. Hirschowitz, “Endoscopic examination of the stomach and duodenal cap with the fiberscope,” Lancet 278(7186), 1074–1078 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Science (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surg. Neurol. (1)

H. D. Jho, R. L. Carrau, Y. Ko, and M. A. Daly, “Endoscopic pituitary surgery: an early experience,” Surg. Neurol. 47(3), 213–222, discussion 222–223 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (Springer, 2008).

J. Y. Hardeberg, Acquisition and Reproduction of Color Images: Colorimetric and Multispectral Approaches (Dissertation.com, 2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cutting of a miniature diffraction grating from a large silica transmission grating using focused intense Ti:sapphire pulses. (b) Dual-channel SEE probe assembly. SMF—single-mode fiber. MMF—multi-mode fiber. (c) Schematic drawing of the dual-channel SEE system. Bottom-left inset—measured spectrum from a white sample (blue curve) compared to the source spectrum (dashed green curve). Bottom-middle inset—a close-up photograph of the distal end of the dual-channel probe. Bottom-right inset—schematic of the relative positions of the illumination spot and the spectrally encoded imaged line. L1 and L2—achromatic lenses. G—diffraction grating. EMCCD—electron-multiplying charge coupled device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Image of a 1951 USAF scattering resolution target using a 200 μm diameter core illumination fiber. (b) Magnified views of region of interest using illumination fibers with varying core diameters. Higher magnification views of the corresponding regions marked by dashed rectangles are shown in the bottom panels. (c) Speckle contrast for different illumination core diameters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Imaging of a volunteer’s finger at 1 kHz line rate. Scale bar represents 1 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Color image of a paper print using data from three scans per sample location. The inset shows a magnified region of interest marked by a dashed rectangle. (b) CIE-xy 1931 chromaticity diagram with 3 gamut triangles corresponding to sample locations I, II, III marked in the inset of (a). (c) Same as (a), using data from four scans per sample location. (d) CIE-xy 1931 chromaticity diagram with three gamut quadrilaterals corresponding to sample locations I, II, III marked in the inset of (c). The sRGB gamut range is within the grey triangles in (b) and (d). (e) A digital photograph of the sample. Scale bars represent 1 mm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Imaging parameters of the SEE system and probe

Equations (1)

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X= 1 L i=1 N x ¯ ( λ i )r( λ i ) Y= 1 L i=1 N y ¯ ( λ i )r( λ i ) Z= 1 L i=1 N z ¯ ( λ i )r( λ i ) L= i y ¯ ( λ i )  ,

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