Abstract

High quality imaging through sub-millimeter endoscopic probes provides clinicians with valuable diagnostics capabilities in hard to reach locations within the body. Spectrally encoded endoscopy (SEE) has been shown promising for such task; however, challenging probe fabrication and high speckle noise had prevented its testing in in vivo studies. Here we demonstrate a novel miniature SEE probe which incorporates some of the recent progress in spectrally encoded technology into a compact and robust endoscopic system. A high-quality miniature diffraction grating was fabricated using automated femtosecond laser cutting from a large bulk grating. Using one spectrally encoded channel for imaging and a separate channel for incoherent illumination, the new system has large depth of field, negligible back reflections and well controlled speckle noise which depends on the core diameter of the illumination fiber. Moreover, by using a larger imaging channel, higher groove density grating, shorter wavelength and broader spectrum, the new endoscopic system now allow significant improvements in almost all imaging parameter compared to previous systems, through an ultra-miniature endoscopic probe.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (1)

2010 (3)

S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express18(10), 9755–9764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Abramov, L. Minai, and D. Yelin, “Multiple-channel spectrally encoded imaging,” Opt. Express18(14), 14745–14751 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Kester, T. Christenson, R. R. Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Low cost, high performance, self-aligning miniature optical systems,” Appl. Opt.48(18), 3375–3384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally-encoded color imaging,” Opt. Express17(17), 15239–15247 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, “Update on coronary angioscopy: review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque,” J. Interv. Cardiol.19(1), 17–25 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol.12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, “Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast,” Cancer101(10), 2164–2169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett.29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, M. Shiskov, and G. J. Tearney, “A GRISM-based probe for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express11(2), 120–124 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med.30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded miniature endoscopy,” Opt. Lett.27(6), 412–414 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys.85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl.22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Jho, R. L. Carrau, Y. Ko, and M. A. Daly, “Endoscopic pituitary surgery: an early experience,” Surg. Neurol.47(3), 213–222, discussion 222–223 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1984 (1)

M. V. Sivak and D. E. Fleischer, “Colonoscopy with a VideoEndoscope: preliminary experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc.30(1), 1–5 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

D. C. Zavala, “Diagnostic fiberoptic bronchoscopy: Techniques and results of biopsy in 600 patients,” Chest68(1), 12–19 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1961 (1)

B. I. Hirschowitz, “Endoscopic examination of the stomach and duodenal cap with the fiberscope,” Lancet278(7186), 1074–1078 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abela, G. S.

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, “Update on coronary angioscopy: review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque,” J. Interv. Cardiol.19(1), 17–25 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramov, A.

Aziz, D.

Aziz, K.

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, “Update on coronary angioscopy: review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque,” J. Interv. Cardiol.19(1), 17–25 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banks, P. S.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys.85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express18(10), 9755–9764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally-encoded color imaging,” Opt. Express17(17), 15239–15247 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Volumetric sub-surface imaging using spectrally encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express16(3), 1748–1757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, J. J. Rosowsky, and G. J. Tearney, “Doppler imaging using spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express16(19), 14836–14844 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express15(5), 2432–2444 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett.29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, M. Shiskov, and G. J. Tearney, “A GRISM-based probe for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express11(2), 120–124 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded miniature endoscopy,” Opt. Lett.27(6), 412–414 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brill, M. H.

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl.22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Broide, E.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrau, R. L.

H. D. Jho, R. L. Carrau, Y. Ko, and M. A. Daly, “Endoscopic pituitary surgery: an early experience,” Surg. Neurol.47(3), 213–222, discussion 222–223 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christenson, T.

Daly, M. A.

H. D. Jho, R. L. Carrau, Y. Ko, and M. A. Daly, “Endoscopic pituitary surgery: an early experience,” Surg. Neurol.47(3), 213–222, discussion 222–223 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daxhelet, X.

Delaney, P. M.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickensheets, D. L.

Fairman, H. S.

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl.22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys.85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fich, L.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fireman, Z.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, T.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol.12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischer, D. E.

M. V. Sivak and D. E. Fleischer, “Colonoscopy with a VideoEndoscope: preliminary experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc.30(1), 1–5 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, M.

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, “Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast,” Cancer101(10), 2164–2169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmitro, A. F.

Godbout, N.

Goodman, J. W.

Hartnick, C. J.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemmendinger, H.

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl.22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hirschowitz, B. I.

B. I. Hirschowitz, “Endoscopic examination of the stomach and duodenal cap with the fiberscope,” Lancet278(7186), 1074–1078 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishibashi, F.

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, “Update on coronary angioscopy: review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque,” J. Interv. Cardiol.19(1), 17–25 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, V. R.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol.12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jho, H. D.

H. D. Jho, R. L. Carrau, Y. Ko, and M. A. Daly, “Endoscopic pituitary surgery: an early experience,” Surg. Neurol.47(3), 213–222, discussion 222–223 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, D.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally-encoded color imaging,” Opt. Express17(17), 15239–15247 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawakami, Y.

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, “Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast,” Cancer101(10), 2164–2169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kester, R. T.

Kiechle, M.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol.12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

Ko, Y.

H. D. Jho, R. L. Carrau, Y. Ko, and M. A. Daly, “Endoscopic pituitary surgery: an early experience,” Surg. Neurol.47(3), 213–222, discussion 222–223 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopelman, Y.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kortum, R. R.

Lauwers, G. Y.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemire-Renaud, S.

Leuin, S. C.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahajna, E.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsunaga, T.

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, “Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast,” Cancer101(10), 2164–2169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaren, W. J.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minai, L.

Mino-Kenudson, M.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morneau, D.

Motz, J. T.

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express15(5), 2432–2444 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, T.

T. Nakamura and A. Terano, “Capsule endoscopy: past, present, and future,” J. Gastroenterol.43(2), 93–99 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Namba, K.

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, “Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast,” Cancer101(10), 2164–2169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paepke, S.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol.12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, M. D.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys.85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, M. Shiskov, and G. J. Tearney, “A GRISM-based probe for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express11(2), 120–124 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plattner, B.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol.12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polglase, A. L.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puricelli, W. P.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rawson, E. G.

Rivard, M.

Rizvi, I.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosowsky, J. J.

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys.85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scapa, E.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibel, E. J.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med.30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, M.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

Shiskov, M.

Sivak, M. V.

M. V. Sivak and D. E. Fleischer, “Colonoscopy with a VideoEndoscope: preliminary experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc.30(1), 1–5 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skinner, S. A.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smithwick, Q. Y. J.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med.30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sternberg, A.

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strupler, M.

Stuart, B. C.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys.85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suter, M. J.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally-encoded color imaging,” Opt. Express17(17), 15239–15247 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Volumetric sub-surface imaging using spectrally encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express16(3), 1748–1757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, J. J. Rosowsky, and G. J. Tearney, “Doppler imaging using spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express16(19), 14836–14844 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express15(5), 2432–2444 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett.29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, M. Shiskov, and G. J. Tearney, “A GRISM-based probe for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express11(2), 120–124 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded miniature endoscopy,” Opt. Lett.27(6), 412–414 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terano, A.

T. Nakamura and A. Terano, “Capsule endoscopy: past, present, and future,” J. Gastroenterol.43(2), 93–99 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tkaczyk, T. S.

Vakoc, B. J.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verpillat, F.

Waxman, S.

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, “Update on coronary angioscopy: review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque,” J. Interv. Cardiol.19(1), 17–25 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, W. M.

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express15(5), 2432–2444 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yachimski, P. S.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanovsky, V.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys.85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yelin, D.

Yoo, H.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Zavala, D. C.

D. C. Zavala, “Diagnostic fiberoptic bronchoscopy: Techniques and results of biopsy in 600 patients,” Chest68(1), 12–19 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Cancer (1)

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, “Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast,” Cancer101(10), 2164–2169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chest (1)

D. C. Zavala, “Diagnostic fiberoptic bronchoscopy: Techniques and results of biopsy in 600 patients,” Chest68(1), 12–19 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (1)

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl.22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (3)

M. V. Sivak and D. E. Fleischer, “Colonoscopy with a VideoEndoscope: preliminary experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc.30(1), 1–5 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gut (1)

Z. Fireman, E. Mahajna, E. Broide, M. Shapiro, L. Fich, A. Sternberg, Y. Kopelman, and E. Scapa, “Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut52(3), 390–392 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys.85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Gastroenterol. (1)

T. Nakamura and A. Terano, “Capsule endoscopy: past, present, and future,” J. Gastroenterol.43(2), 93–99 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Interv. Cardiol. (1)

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, “Update on coronary angioscopy: review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque,” J. Interv. Cardiol.19(1), 17–25 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. (1)

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol.12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Voice (1)

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Preliminary evaluation of noninvasive microscopic imaging techniques for the study of vocal fold development,” J. Voice23(3), 269–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancet (1)

B. I. Hirschowitz, “Endoscopic examination of the stomach and duodenal cap with the fiberscope,” Lancet278(7186), 1074–1078 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med.30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Science (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surg. Neurol. (1)

H. D. Jho, R. L. Carrau, Y. Ko, and M. A. Daly, “Endoscopic pituitary surgery: an early experience,” Surg. Neurol.47(3), 213–222, discussion 222–223 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (Springer, 2008).

J. Y. Hardeberg, Acquisition and Reproduction of Color Images: Colorimetric and Multispectral Approaches (Dissertation.com, 2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cutting of a miniature diffraction grating from a large silica transmission grating using focused intense Ti:sapphire pulses. (b) Dual-channel SEE probe assembly. SMF—single-mode fiber. MMF—multi-mode fiber. (c) Schematic drawing of the dual-channel SEE system. Bottom-left inset—measured spectrum from a white sample (blue curve) compared to the source spectrum (dashed green curve). Bottom-middle inset—a close-up photograph of the distal end of the dual-channel probe. Bottom-right inset—schematic of the relative positions of the illumination spot and the spectrally encoded imaged line. L1 and L2—achromatic lenses. G—diffraction grating. EMCCD—electron-multiplying charge coupled device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Image of a 1951 USAF scattering resolution target using a 200 μm diameter core illumination fiber. (b) Magnified views of region of interest using illumination fibers with varying core diameters. Higher magnification views of the corresponding regions marked by dashed rectangles are shown in the bottom panels. (c) Speckle contrast for different illumination core diameters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Imaging of a volunteer’s finger at 1 kHz line rate. Scale bar represents 1 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Color image of a paper print using data from three scans per sample location. The inset shows a magnified region of interest marked by a dashed rectangle. (b) CIE-xy 1931 chromaticity diagram with 3 gamut triangles corresponding to sample locations I, II, III marked in the inset of (a). (c) Same as (a), using data from four scans per sample location. (d) CIE-xy 1931 chromaticity diagram with three gamut quadrilaterals corresponding to sample locations I, II, III marked in the inset of (c). The sRGB gamut range is within the grey triangles in (b) and (d). (e) A digital photograph of the sample. Scale bars represent 1 mm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Imaging parameters of the SEE system and probe

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

X= 1 L i=1 N x ¯ ( λ i )r( λ i ) Y= 1 L i=1 N y ¯ ( λ i )r( λ i ) Z= 1 L i=1 N z ¯ ( λ i )r( λ i ) L= i y ¯ ( λ i )  ,

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