Abstract

We present analysis tools which are formulated using wide-field interferometric phase microscopy measurements, and show their ability to uniquely quantify the life cycle of live cancer cells. These parameters are based directly on the optical path delay profile of the sample and do not necessitate decoupling the refractive index and the thickness in the cell interferometric phase profile, and thus can be calculated using a single-frame acquisition. To demonstrate the use of these parameters, we have constructed a wide-field interferometric phase microscopy setup and closely traced the full lifecycle of HeLa cancer cells. These initial results show the potential of the parameters to distinguish between the different phases of the cell lifecycle, as well others biological phenomena.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. T. Rinehart, and A. Wax, “Quantitative analysis of biological cells using digital holographic microscopy,” in Holography, Research and Technologies, J. Rosen, ed. (InTech, 2011), pp. 219–236.
  2. G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 060503 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry A73A(10), 895–903 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Müthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036009 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Rappaz, P. Marquet, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, C. Depeursinge, and P. J. Magistretti, “Measurement of the integral refractive index and dynamic cell morphometry of living cells with digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express13(23), 9361–9373 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods4(9), 717–719 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Charrière, A. Marian, F. Montfort, J. Kuehn, T. Colomb, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Cell refractive index tomography by digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.31(2), 178–180 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Kemper, D. Carl, J. Schnekenburger, I. Bredebusch, M. Schäfer, W. Domschke, and G. von Bally, “Investigation of living pancreas tumor cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 034005 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett.31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Barer, “Interference microscopy and mass determination,” Nature169(4296), 366–367 (1952).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. T. Shaked, J. D. Finan, F. Guilak, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase microscopy of articular chondrocyte dynamics by wide-field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 010505 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, N. Bursac, and A. Wax, “Whole-cell-analysis of live cardiomyocytes using wide-field interferometric phase microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(2), 706–719 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. B. Weitzman, “Growing without a size checkpoint,” J. Biol.2(1), 3 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging of nanoscale cell structure and dynamics,” Methods Cell Biol.90, 87–115 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. I. Moon, M. Daneshpanah, A. Anand, and B. Javidi, “Cell identification computational 3-D holographic microscopy,” Opt. Photon. News22(6), 18–23 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. C. Ghiglia‏ and M. D. Pritt‏, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).
  19. B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Mir, H. Ding, Z. Wang, J. Reedy, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Blood screening using diffraction phase cytometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 027016 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. Wadell, “Volume, shape and roundness of quartz particles,” J. Geol.43(3), 250–280 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. K. Porter, “Allometry of mammalian cellular oxygen consumption,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci.58(5), 815–822 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. J. Tortora and S. R. Grabowski, Principal of Anatomy and Physiology (Wiley, 2003).
  25. P. B. Canham and A. C. Burton, “Distribution of size and shape in population of normal human normal red cells,” Circ. Res.12, 405–422 (1968).
  26. P. N. Rao and J. Engelberg, “HeLa cells: effects of temperature on the life cycle,” Science148(3673), 1092–1094 (1965).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. M. Mitchison, The Biology of the Cell Cycle (Cambridge University Press, 1971).
  28. R. J. Kaufman, “Overview of vector design for mammalian gene expression,” Methods Mol. Biol.62, 287–300 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  29. H. W. Fisher and T. W. Cooper, “Electron microscope studies of the microvilli of HeLa cells,” J. Cell Biol.34(2), 569–576 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. G. M. Cooper, “The events of M phase,” in The Cell: A Molecular Approach (Sunderland, MA, Sinauer, 2000).
  32. E. Boucrot and T. Kirchhausen, “Mammalian cells change volume during mitosis,” PLoS ONE3(1), e1477 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

I. Moon, M. Daneshpanah, A. Anand, and B. Javidi, “Cell identification computational 3-D holographic microscopy,” Opt. Photon. News22(6), 18–23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. Mir, H. Ding, Z. Wang, J. Reedy, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Blood screening using diffraction phase cytometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 027016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Shaked, J. D. Finan, F. Guilak, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase microscopy of articular chondrocyte dynamics by wide-field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 010505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, N. Bursac, and A. Wax, “Whole-cell-analysis of live cardiomyocytes using wide-field interferometric phase microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(2), 706–719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Müthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging of nanoscale cell structure and dynamics,” Methods Cell Biol.90, 87–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry A73A(10), 895–903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boucrot and T. Kirchhausen, “Mammalian cells change volume during mitosis,” PLoS ONE3(1), e1477 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 060503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, P. Marquet, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, C. Depeursinge, and P. J. Magistretti, “Measurement of the integral refractive index and dynamic cell morphometry of living cells with digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express13(23), 9361–9373 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. B. Weitzman, “Growing without a size checkpoint,” J. Biol.2(1), 3 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

R. K. Porter, “Allometry of mammalian cellular oxygen consumption,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci.58(5), 815–822 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

R. J. Kaufman, “Overview of vector design for mammalian gene expression,” Methods Mol. Biol.62, 287–300 (1997).
[PubMed]

1968

P. B. Canham and A. C. Burton, “Distribution of size and shape in population of normal human normal red cells,” Circ. Res.12, 405–422 (1968).

1967

H. W. Fisher and T. W. Cooper, “Electron microscope studies of the microvilli of HeLa cells,” J. Cell Biol.34(2), 569–576 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965

P. N. Rao and J. Engelberg, “HeLa cells: effects of temperature on the life cycle,” Science148(3673), 1092–1094 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1952

R. Barer, “Interference microscopy and mass determination,” Nature169(4296), 366–367 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1935

H. Wadell, “Volume, shape and roundness of quartz particles,” J. Geol.43(3), 250–280 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Anand, A.

I. Moon, M. Daneshpanah, A. Anand, and B. Javidi, “Cell identification computational 3-D holographic microscopy,” Opt. Photon. News22(6), 18–23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett.31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 060503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakkenist, C. J.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbul, A.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry A73A(10), 895–903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barer, R.

R. Barer, “Interference microscopy and mass determination,” Nature169(4296), 366–367 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashir, R.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauwens, A.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Müthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bednarz, M.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Best, C. A.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 060503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Best-Popescu, C.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bista, R. K.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boucrot, E.

E. Boucrot and T. Kirchhausen, “Mammalian cells change volume during mitosis,” PLoS ONE3(1), e1477 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, R. E.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bredebusch, I.

B. Kemper, D. Carl, J. Schnekenburger, I. Bredebusch, M. Schäfer, W. Domschke, and G. von Bally, “Investigation of living pancreas tumor cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 034005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bursac, N.

Burton, A. C.

P. B. Canham and A. C. Burton, “Distribution of size and shape in population of normal human normal red cells,” Circ. Res.12, 405–422 (1968).

Canham, P. B.

P. B. Canham and A. C. Burton, “Distribution of size and shape in population of normal human normal red cells,” Circ. Res.12, 405–422 (1968).

Cano, E.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carl, D.

B. Kemper, D. Carl, J. Schnekenburger, I. Bredebusch, M. Schäfer, W. Domschke, and G. von Bally, “Investigation of living pancreas tumor cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 034005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charrière, F.

Choi, S.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Charrière, A. Marian, F. Montfort, J. Kuehn, T. Colomb, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Cell refractive index tomography by digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.31(2), 178–180 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, T. W.

H. W. Fisher and T. W. Cooper, “Electron microscope studies of the microvilli of HeLa cells,” J. Cell Biol.34(2), 569–576 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuche, E.

Daneshpanah, M.

I. Moon, M. Daneshpanah, A. Anand, and B. Javidi, “Cell identification computational 3-D holographic microscopy,” Opt. Photon. News22(6), 18–23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett.31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 060503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deflores, L.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry A73A(10), 895–903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Charrière, A. Marian, F. Montfort, J. Kuehn, T. Colomb, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Cell refractive index tomography by digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.31(2), 178–180 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, P. Marquet, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, C. Depeursinge, and P. J. Magistretti, “Measurement of the integral refractive index and dynamic cell morphometry of living cells with digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express13(23), 9361–9373 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, H.

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, H. Ding, Z. Wang, J. Reedy, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Blood screening using diffraction phase cytometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 027016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Domschke, W.

B. Kemper, D. Carl, J. Schnekenburger, I. Bredebusch, M. Schäfer, W. Domschke, and G. von Bally, “Investigation of living pancreas tumor cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 034005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, Y.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry A73A(10), 895–903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, P. Marquet, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, C. Depeursinge, and P. J. Magistretti, “Measurement of the integral refractive index and dynamic cell morphometry of living cells with digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express13(23), 9361–9373 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engelberg, J.

P. N. Rao and J. Engelberg, “HeLa cells: effects of temperature on the life cycle,” Science148(3673), 1092–1094 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang-Yen, C.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett.31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 060503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finan, J. D.

N. T. Shaked, J. D. Finan, F. Guilak, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase microscopy of articular chondrocyte dynamics by wide-field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 010505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, H. W.

H. W. Fisher and T. W. Cooper, “Electron microscope studies of the microvilli of HeLa cells,” J. Cell Biol.34(2), 569–576 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillette, M. U.

Golding, I.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guilak, F.

N. T. Shaked, J. D. Finan, F. Guilak, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase microscopy of articular chondrocyte dynamics by wide-field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 010505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartman, D. J.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett.31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 060503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Javidi, B.

I. Moon, M. Daneshpanah, A. Anand, and B. Javidi, “Cell identification computational 3-D holographic microscopy,” Opt. Photon. News22(6), 18–23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Karch, H.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Müthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufman, R. J.

R. J. Kaufman, “Overview of vector design for mammalian gene expression,” Methods Mol. Biol.62, 287–300 (1997).
[PubMed]

Kemper, B.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Müthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kemper, D. Carl, J. Schnekenburger, I. Bredebusch, M. Schäfer, W. Domschke, and G. von Bally, “Investigation of living pancreas tumor cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 034005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ketelhut, S.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Müthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirchhausen, T.

E. Boucrot and T. Kirchhausen, “Mammalian cells change volume during mitosis,” PLoS ONE3(1), e1477 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korenstein, R.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry A73A(10), 895–903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuehn, J.

Kühn, J.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langehanenberg, P.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Müthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lue, N.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett.31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magistretti, P. J.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry A73A(10), 895–903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, P. Marquet, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, C. Depeursinge, and P. J. Magistretti, “Measurement of the integral refractive index and dynamic cell morphometry of living cells with digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express13(23), 9361–9373 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marian, A.

Marquet, P.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry A73A(10), 895–903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Charrière, A. Marian, F. Montfort, J. Kuehn, T. Colomb, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Cell refractive index tomography by digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.31(2), 178–180 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, P. Marquet, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, C. Depeursinge, and P. J. Magistretti, “Measurement of the integral refractive index and dynamic cell morphometry of living cells with digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express13(23), 9361–9373 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millet, L. J.

Mir, M.

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, H. Ding, Z. Wang, J. Reedy, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Blood screening using diffraction phase cytometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 027016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montfort, F.

Moon, I.

I. Moon, M. Daneshpanah, A. Anand, and B. Javidi, “Cell identification computational 3-D holographic microscopy,” Opt. Photon. News22(6), 18–23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Müthing, J.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Müthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y. K.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, H. Ding, Z. Wang, J. Reedy, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Blood screening using diffraction phase cytometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 027016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging of nanoscale cell structure and dynamics,” Methods Cell Biol.90, 87–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett.31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 060503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porter, R. K.

R. K. Porter, “Allometry of mammalian cellular oxygen consumption,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci.58(5), 815–822 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasanth, S. G.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, P. N.

P. N. Rao and J. Engelberg, “HeLa cells: effects of temperature on the life cycle,” Science148(3673), 1092–1094 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rappaz, B.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry A73A(10), 895–903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, P. Marquet, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, C. Depeursinge, and P. J. Magistretti, “Measurement of the integral refractive index and dynamic cell morphometry of living cells with digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express13(23), 9361–9373 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reedy, J.

M. Mir, H. Ding, Z. Wang, J. Reedy, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Blood screening using diffraction phase cytometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 027016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. A.

Satterwhite, L. L.

Schäfer, M.

B. Kemper, D. Carl, J. Schnekenburger, I. Bredebusch, M. Schäfer, W. Domschke, and G. von Bally, “Investigation of living pancreas tumor cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 034005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnekenburger, J.

B. Kemper, D. Carl, J. Schnekenburger, I. Bredebusch, M. Schäfer, W. Domschke, and G. von Bally, “Investigation of living pancreas tumor cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 034005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaked, N. T.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, N. Bursac, and A. Wax, “Whole-cell-analysis of live cardiomyocytes using wide-field interferometric phase microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(2), 706–719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Shaked, J. D. Finan, F. Guilak, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase microscopy of articular chondrocyte dynamics by wide-field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 010505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simanis, V.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staton, K.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tangella, K.

M. Mir, H. Ding, Z. Wang, J. Reedy, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Blood screening using diffraction phase cytometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 027016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unarunotai, S.

Uttam, S.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, A.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Müthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Bally, G.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Müthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kemper, D. Carl, J. Schnekenburger, I. Bredebusch, M. Schäfer, W. Domschke, and G. von Bally, “Investigation of living pancreas tumor cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 034005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadell, H.

H. Wadell, “Volume, shape and roundness of quartz particles,” J. Geol.43(3), 250–280 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, H. Ding, Z. Wang, J. Reedy, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Blood screening using diffraction phase cytometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 027016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, N. Bursac, and A. Wax, “Whole-cell-analysis of live cardiomyocytes using wide-field interferometric phase microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(2), 706–719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Shaked, J. D. Finan, F. Guilak, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase microscopy of articular chondrocyte dynamics by wide-field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 010505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitzman, J. B.

J. B. Weitzman, “Growing without a size checkpoint,” J. Biol.2(1), 3 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express

Cell. Mol. Life Sci.

R. K. Porter, “Allometry of mammalian cellular oxygen consumption,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci.58(5), 815–822 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circ. Res.

P. B. Canham and A. C. Burton, “Distribution of size and shape in population of normal human normal red cells,” Circ. Res.12, 405–422 (1968).

Cytometry A

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry A73A(10), 895–903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biol.

J. B. Weitzman, “Growing without a size checkpoint,” J. Biol.2(1), 3 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

N. T. Shaked, J. D. Finan, F. Guilak, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase microscopy of articular chondrocyte dynamics by wide-field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 010505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Müthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 060503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kemper, D. Carl, J. Schnekenburger, I. Bredebusch, M. Schäfer, W. Domschke, and G. von Bally, “Investigation of living pancreas tumor cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 034005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, H. Ding, Z. Wang, J. Reedy, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Blood screening using diffraction phase cytometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 027016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Bista, S. Uttam, P. Wang, K. Staton, S. Choi, C. J. Bakkenist, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 070503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell Biol.

H. W. Fisher and T. W. Cooper, “Electron microscope studies of the microvilli of HeLa cells,” J. Cell Biol.34(2), 569–576 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Geol.

H. Wadell, “Volume, shape and roundness of quartz particles,” J. Geol.43(3), 250–280 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Methods Cell Biol.

G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging of nanoscale cell structure and dynamics,” Methods Cell Biol.90, 87–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Methods Mol. Biol.

R. J. Kaufman, “Overview of vector design for mammalian gene expression,” Methods Mol. Biol.62, 287–300 (1997).
[PubMed]

Nat. Methods

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

R. Barer, “Interference microscopy and mass determination,” Nature169(4296), 366–367 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Photon. News

I. Moon, M. Daneshpanah, A. Anand, and B. Javidi, “Cell identification computational 3-D holographic microscopy,” Opt. Photon. News22(6), 18–23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

PLoS ONE

E. Boucrot and T. Kirchhausen, “Mammalian cells change volume during mitosis,” PLoS ONE3(1), e1477 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

P. N. Rao and J. Engelberg, “HeLa cells: effects of temperature on the life cycle,” Science148(3673), 1092–1094 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. M. Mitchison, The Biology of the Cell Cycle (Cambridge University Press, 1971).

G. J. Tortora and S. R. Grabowski, Principal of Anatomy and Physiology (Wiley, 2003).

G. M. Cooper, “The events of M phase,” in The Cell: A Molecular Approach (Sunderland, MA, Sinauer, 2000).

D. C. Ghiglia‏ and M. D. Pritt‏, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. T. Rinehart, and A. Wax, “Quantitative analysis of biological cells using digital holographic microscopy,” in Holography, Research and Technologies, J. Rosen, ed. (InTech, 2011), pp. 219–236.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (4018 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Wide-field IPM system with heat control. BS – beam splitter, MO – microscope objective, A – retro-reflector for beam-path adjustments, M – mirror, L – lens, P – temperature probe, H – heat source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Full lifecycle of HeLa cells, visualized by the OPD profile (Media 1, 3.92 MB); (b) OPD stability measurement during the 20-hour experiment in the box marked in Fig. 2(a). The standard deviation of the OPD fluctuations was only 2.16 nm, indicating on the validity of the recorded biological phenomena.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OPD profiles of HeLa cells during G1 phase.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase sphericity index values during the cell lifecycle (R2 = 0.971).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dry-mass parameters during a life cycle of HeLa cells: (a) Dry mass (R2 = 0.9486); (b) Dry mass average density (R2 = 0.975).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Areal parameters during a lifecycle of HeLa cells: (a) Phase surface area (R2 = 0.9638); (b) Projected area (R2 = 0.9638); (c) Phase surface area to volume ratio (R2 = 0.9781); (d) The ratio between the phase surface area and the projected area (R2 = 0.9724).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

OPD profiles of HeLa cells during S phase.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Statistical phase-based parameters during a life cycle of HeLa cells: (a) Phase kurtosis (R2 = 0.901); (b) Phase skewness (R2 = 0.9151); (c) Phase variance (R2 = 0.9752).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

OPD profiles of HeLa cells during G2 phase (a-c) and M phase (d-i). (d) Prophase stage; (e) The beginning of metaphase stage; (f) The end of metaphase stage; (g) The beginning of anaphase stage; (h) The beginning of telophase stage; (i) Cytokinesis stage.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Two of the parameters measured for the upper cell in Figs. 3, 7 and Media 1 during its partial life cycle (until apoptosis occurs): (a) Dry mass (R2 = 0.8928); (b) Phase skewness (R2 = 0.9223).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Three chosen parameters measured for two additional cells: (a,d) Dry mass (R2 = 0.9344 for the upper graph and R2 = 0.8961 for the lower graph); (b,e) Phase skewness (R2 = 0.87 for the upper graph and R2 = 0.8471 for the lower graph); (c) Phase variance (R2 = 0.9801 for the upper graph and R2 = 0.954 for the lower graph).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Combined measurements on 10 cells: (a) Dry mass; (b) Growth rate;(c) Phase skewness during S phase; (d) Phase variance during M phase. Each circle represents a value for a different cell. Horizontal line represents the average of all values in each group. In some cases, we neglected up to two values due a measurement error or due to a lack of data. All p values are found by Wilcoxon test.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

φ(x,y)= 2π λ [( n ¯ c (x,y) n m )× h c (x,y)+ n m h m ],
n ¯ c (x,y)= 1 h c 0 h n c (x,y,z)dz .
OP D c (x,y)=[ n ¯ c (x,y) n m ]× h c (x,y).
M= 1 α S c OP D c (x,y)ds = S c α ×<OP D c >,
σ M = 1 α OP D c (x,y),
σ ¯ M = M S c .
V φ = S c OP D c (x,y)ds .
S A φ = Sc dA + S c = Sc (1+δ h x 2 +δ h y 2 ) 1/2 dxdy+ S c ,
SAV= S A φ V φ .
SDM= S A φ M .
PAR= S c V φ .
ψ= π 1/3 × (6×OP D c ) 2/3 S A φ .
σ φ = 1 n1 i=1 n (OP D c (n) μ OP D c ) 2 ,
Kurtosi s φ = i=1 n (OP D c (n) μ OP D c ) 4 σ φ 4 .
Skewnes s φ = i=1 n (OP D c (n) μ OP D c ) 3 σ φ 3 .
ε= r max r min r max + r min ,

Metrics