Abstract

ALFIA (Automated Lymphatic Function Imaging Analysis), an algorithm providing quantitative analysis of investigational near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic images, is described. Images from nine human subjects were analyzed for apparent lymphatic propagation velocities and propulsion periods using manual analysis and ALFIA. While lymphatic propulsion was more easily detected using ALFIA than with manual analysis, statistical analyses indicate no significant difference in the apparent lymphatic velocities although ALFIA tended to calculate longer propulsion periods. With the base ALFIA algorithms validated, further automation can now proceed to provide a clinically relevant analytic tool for quantitatively assessing lymphatic function in humans.

© 2012 OSA

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S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Non-invasive, dynamic imaging of murine intestinal motility,” Neurogastroenterol. Motil.23(9), 881–e344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Lawenda, T. E. Mondry, and P. A. S. Johnstone, “Lymphedema: a primer on the identification and management of a chronic condition in oncologic treatment,” CA Cancer J. Clin.59(1), 8–24 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and J. C. Rasmussen, “Molecular imaging with optics: primer and case for near-infrared fluorescence techniques in personalized medicine,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 041303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Noninvasive quantitative imaging of lymph function in mice,” Lymphat. Res. Biol.5(4), 219–232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. Yilmaz, O. Javed, and M. Shah, “Object tracking: a survey,” ACM Comput. Surv.38(4), 13–es, es (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. Alitalo, T. Tammela, and T. V. Petrova, “Lymphangiogenesis in development and human disease,” Nature438(7070), 946–953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

S. D. Shpilfoygel, R. A. Close, D. J. Valentino, and G. R. Duckwiler, “X-ray videodensitometric methods for blood flow and velocity measurement: a critical review of literature,” Med. Phys.27(9), 2008–2023 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

G. Hellström, W. Fischer-Colbrie, N. G. Wahlgren, and T. Jogestrand, “Carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during physical exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol.81(1), 413–418 (1996).
[PubMed]

Adams, K. E.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aldrich, M. B.

Alitalo, K.

K. Alitalo, T. Tammela, and T. V. Petrova, “Lymphangiogenesis in development and human disease,” Nature438(7070), 946–953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry, M. A.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bercik, P.

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berezin, I.

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cameron, A.

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, W.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Close, R. A.

S. D. Shpilfoygel, R. A. Close, D. J. Valentino, and G. R. Duckwiler, “X-ray videodensitometric methods for blood flow and velocity measurement: a critical review of literature,” Med. Phys.27(9), 2008–2023 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, S. M.

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Covington, K. R.

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

Darne, C.

Demichele, A.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Der, T.

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, G.

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duckwiler, G. R.

S. D. Shpilfoygel, R. A. Close, D. J. Valentino, and G. R. Duckwiler, “X-ray videodensitometric methods for blood flow and velocity measurement: a critical review of literature,” Med. Phys.27(9), 2008–2023 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Z.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fife, C. E.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer-Colbrie, W.

G. Hellström, W. Fischer-Colbrie, N. G. Wahlgren, and T. Jogestrand, “Carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during physical exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol.81(1), 413–418 (1996).
[PubMed]

Guilloid, R.

Hellström, G.

G. Hellström, W. Fischer-Colbrie, N. G. Wahlgren, and T. Jogestrand, “Carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during physical exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol.81(1), 413–418 (1996).
[PubMed]

Hirschi, K.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houston, J. P.

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoy, S.

Huizinga, J. D.

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, T.

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Javed, O.

A. Yilmaz, O. Javed, and M. Shah, “Object tracking: a survey,” ACM Comput. Surv.38(4), 13–es, es (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jogestrand, T.

G. Hellström, W. Fischer-Colbrie, N. G. Wahlgren, and T. Jogestrand, “Carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during physical exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol.81(1), 413–418 (1996).
[PubMed]

Johnstone, P. A. S.

B. D. Lawenda, T. E. Mondry, and P. A. S. Johnstone, “Lymphedema: a primer on the identification and management of a chronic condition in oncologic treatment,” CA Cancer J. Clin.59(1), 8–24 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, A.

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kallan, M. J.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ke, S.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Non-invasive, dynamic imaging of murine intestinal motility,” Neurogastroenterol. Motil.23(9), 881–e344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Noninvasive quantitative imaging of lymph function in mice,” Lymphat. Res. Biol.5(4), 219–232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawenda, B. D.

B. D. Lawenda, T. E. Mondry, and P. A. S. Johnstone, “Lymphedema: a primer on the identification and management of a chronic condition in oncologic treatment,” CA Cancer J. Clin.59(1), 8–24 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, F.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Localio, A. R.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, M. V.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maus, E. A.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

Mawad, M. E.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, L. T.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mondry, T. E.

B. D. Lawenda, T. E. Mondry, and P. A. S. Johnstone, “Lymphedema: a primer on the identification and management of a chronic condition in oncologic treatment,” CA Cancer J. Clin.59(1), 8–24 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norman, S. A.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrova, T. V.

K. Alitalo, T. Tammela, and T. V. Petrova, “Lymphangiogenesis in development and human disease,” Nature438(7070), 946–953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potashnik, S. L.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasmussen, J. C.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and J. C. Rasmussen, “Molecular imaging with optics: primer and case for near-infrared fluorescence techniques in personalized medicine,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 041303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Non-invasive, dynamic imaging of murine intestinal motility,” Neurogastroenterol. Motil.23(9), 881–e344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and J. C. Rasmussen, “Molecular imaging with optics: primer and case for near-infrared fluorescence techniques in personalized medicine,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 041303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Noninvasive quantitative imaging of lymph function in mice,” Lymphat. Res. Biol.5(4), 219–232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, M.

A. Yilmaz, O. Javed, and M. Shah, “Object tracking: a survey,” ACM Comput. Surv.38(4), 13–es, es (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shpilfoygel, S. D.

S. D. Shpilfoygel, R. A. Close, D. J. Valentino, and G. R. Duckwiler, “X-ray videodensitometric methods for blood flow and velocity measurement: a critical review of literature,” Med. Phys.27(9), 2008–2023 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simoes Torpey, H. A.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, L. A.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solin, L. J.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tammela, T.

K. Alitalo, T. Tammela, and T. V. Petrova, “Lymphangiogenesis in development and human disease,” Nature438(7070), 946–953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, I. C.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentino, D. J.

S. D. Shpilfoygel, R. A. Close, D. J. Valentino, and G. R. Duckwiler, “X-ray videodensitometric methods for blood flow and velocity measurement: a critical review of literature,” Med. Phys.27(9), 2008–2023 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wahlgren, N. G.

G. Hellström, W. Fischer-Colbrie, N. G. Wahlgren, and T. Jogestrand, “Carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during physical exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol.81(1), 413–418 (1996).
[PubMed]

Wang, W.

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, A. L.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yilmaz, A.

A. Yilmaz, O. Javed, and M. Shah, “Object tracking: a survey,” ACM Comput. Surv.38(4), 13–es, es (2006).
[CrossRef]

ACM Comput. Surv. (1)

A. Yilmaz, O. Javed, and M. Shah, “Object tracking: a survey,” ACM Comput. Surv.38(4), 13–es, es (2006).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (1)

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. (1)

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

B. D. Lawenda, T. E. Mondry, and P. A. S. Johnstone, “Lymphedema: a primer on the identification and management of a chronic condition in oncologic treatment,” CA Cancer J. Clin.59(1), 8–24 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

G. Hellström, W. Fischer-Colbrie, N. G. Wahlgren, and T. Jogestrand, “Carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during physical exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol.81(1), 413–418 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and J. C. Rasmussen, “Molecular imaging with optics: primer and case for near-infrared fluorescence techniques in personalized medicine,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 041303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lymphat. Res. Biol. (1)

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Noninvasive quantitative imaging of lymph function in mice,” Lymphat. Res. Biol.5(4), 219–232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

S. D. Shpilfoygel, R. A. Close, D. J. Valentino, and G. R. Duckwiler, “X-ray videodensitometric methods for blood flow and velocity measurement: a critical review of literature,” Med. Phys.27(9), 2008–2023 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

K. Alitalo, T. Tammela, and T. V. Petrova, “Lymphangiogenesis in development and human disease,” Nature438(7070), 946–953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurogastroenterol. Motil. (1)

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Non-invasive, dynamic imaging of murine intestinal motility,” Neurogastroenterol. Motil.23(9), 881–e344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Transl Oncol (1)

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

Other (3)

H. W. Lim and N. A. Soter, Clinical Photomedicine (Marcel Dekker, 1993).

R. Bellman and S. E. Dreyfus, Applied Dynamic Programming (Princeton University Press, 1962).

R. H. Bartels, J. C. Beatty, and B. A. Barsky, An introduction to splines for use in computer graphics and geometric modeling (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc, 1987).

Supplementary Material (1)

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