Abstract

ALFIA (Automated Lymphatic Function Imaging Analysis), an algorithm providing quantitative analysis of investigational near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic images, is described. Images from nine human subjects were analyzed for apparent lymphatic propagation velocities and propulsion periods using manual analysis and ALFIA. While lymphatic propulsion was more easily detected using ALFIA than with manual analysis, statistical analyses indicate no significant difference in the apparent lymphatic velocities although ALFIA tended to calculate longer propulsion periods. With the base ALFIA algorithms validated, further automation can now proceed to provide a clinically relevant analytic tool for quantitatively assessing lymphatic function in humans.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (2)

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Non-invasive, dynamic imaging of murine intestinal motility,” Neurogastroenterol. Motil.23(9), 881–e344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Lawenda, T. E. Mondry, and P. A. S. Johnstone, “Lymphedema: a primer on the identification and management of a chronic condition in oncologic treatment,” CA Cancer J. Clin.59(1), 8–24 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and J. C. Rasmussen, “Molecular imaging with optics: primer and case for near-infrared fluorescence techniques in personalized medicine,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 041303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Noninvasive quantitative imaging of lymph function in mice,” Lymphat. Res. Biol.5(4), 219–232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. Yilmaz, O. Javed, and M. Shah, “Object tracking: a survey,” ACM Comput. Surv.38(4), 13–es, es (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. Alitalo, T. Tammela, and T. V. Petrova, “Lymphangiogenesis in development and human disease,” Nature438(7070), 946–953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

S. D. Shpilfoygel, R. A. Close, D. J. Valentino, and G. R. Duckwiler, “X-ray videodensitometric methods for blood flow and velocity measurement: a critical review of literature,” Med. Phys.27(9), 2008–2023 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

G. Hellström, W. Fischer-Colbrie, N. G. Wahlgren, and T. Jogestrand, “Carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during physical exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol.81(1), 413–418 (1996).
[PubMed]

Adams, K. E.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aldrich, M. B.

Alitalo, K.

K. Alitalo, T. Tammela, and T. V. Petrova, “Lymphangiogenesis in development and human disease,” Nature438(7070), 946–953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry, M. A.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bercik, P.

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berezin, I.

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cameron, A.

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, W.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Close, R. A.

S. D. Shpilfoygel, R. A. Close, D. J. Valentino, and G. R. Duckwiler, “X-ray videodensitometric methods for blood flow and velocity measurement: a critical review of literature,” Med. Phys.27(9), 2008–2023 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, S. M.

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Covington, K. R.

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

Darne, C.

Demichele, A.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Der, T.

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, G.

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duckwiler, G. R.

S. D. Shpilfoygel, R. A. Close, D. J. Valentino, and G. R. Duckwiler, “X-ray videodensitometric methods for blood flow and velocity measurement: a critical review of literature,” Med. Phys.27(9), 2008–2023 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Z.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fife, C. E.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer-Colbrie, W.

G. Hellström, W. Fischer-Colbrie, N. G. Wahlgren, and T. Jogestrand, “Carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during physical exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol.81(1), 413–418 (1996).
[PubMed]

Guilloid, R.

Hellström, G.

G. Hellström, W. Fischer-Colbrie, N. G. Wahlgren, and T. Jogestrand, “Carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during physical exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol.81(1), 413–418 (1996).
[PubMed]

Hirschi, K.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houston, J. P.

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoy, S.

Huizinga, J. D.

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, T.

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Javed, O.

A. Yilmaz, O. Javed, and M. Shah, “Object tracking: a survey,” ACM Comput. Surv.38(4), 13–es, es (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jogestrand, T.

G. Hellström, W. Fischer-Colbrie, N. G. Wahlgren, and T. Jogestrand, “Carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during physical exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol.81(1), 413–418 (1996).
[PubMed]

Johnstone, P. A. S.

B. D. Lawenda, T. E. Mondry, and P. A. S. Johnstone, “Lymphedema: a primer on the identification and management of a chronic condition in oncologic treatment,” CA Cancer J. Clin.59(1), 8–24 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, A.

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kallan, M. J.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ke, S.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Non-invasive, dynamic imaging of murine intestinal motility,” Neurogastroenterol. Motil.23(9), 881–e344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Noninvasive quantitative imaging of lymph function in mice,” Lymphat. Res. Biol.5(4), 219–232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawenda, B. D.

B. D. Lawenda, T. E. Mondry, and P. A. S. Johnstone, “Lymphedema: a primer on the identification and management of a chronic condition in oncologic treatment,” CA Cancer J. Clin.59(1), 8–24 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, F.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Localio, A. R.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, M. V.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maus, E. A.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

Mawad, M. E.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, L. T.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mondry, T. E.

B. D. Lawenda, T. E. Mondry, and P. A. S. Johnstone, “Lymphedema: a primer on the identification and management of a chronic condition in oncologic treatment,” CA Cancer J. Clin.59(1), 8–24 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norman, S. A.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrova, T. V.

K. Alitalo, T. Tammela, and T. V. Petrova, “Lymphangiogenesis in development and human disease,” Nature438(7070), 946–953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potashnik, S. L.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasmussen, J. C.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and J. C. Rasmussen, “Molecular imaging with optics: primer and case for near-infrared fluorescence techniques in personalized medicine,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 041303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Non-invasive, dynamic imaging of murine intestinal motility,” Neurogastroenterol. Motil.23(9), 881–e344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and J. C. Rasmussen, “Molecular imaging with optics: primer and case for near-infrared fluorescence techniques in personalized medicine,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 041303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Noninvasive quantitative imaging of lymph function in mice,” Lymphat. Res. Biol.5(4), 219–232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, M.

A. Yilmaz, O. Javed, and M. Shah, “Object tracking: a survey,” ACM Comput. Surv.38(4), 13–es, es (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shpilfoygel, S. D.

S. D. Shpilfoygel, R. A. Close, D. J. Valentino, and G. R. Duckwiler, “X-ray videodensitometric methods for blood flow and velocity measurement: a critical review of literature,” Med. Phys.27(9), 2008–2023 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simoes Torpey, H. A.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, L. A.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solin, L. J.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tammela, T.

K. Alitalo, T. Tammela, and T. V. Petrova, “Lymphangiogenesis in development and human disease,” Nature438(7070), 946–953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, I. C.

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentino, D. J.

S. D. Shpilfoygel, R. A. Close, D. J. Valentino, and G. R. Duckwiler, “X-ray videodensitometric methods for blood flow and velocity measurement: a critical review of literature,” Med. Phys.27(9), 2008–2023 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wahlgren, N. G.

G. Hellström, W. Fischer-Colbrie, N. G. Wahlgren, and T. Jogestrand, “Carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during physical exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol.81(1), 413–418 (1996).
[PubMed]

Wang, W.

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, A. L.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yilmaz, A.

A. Yilmaz, O. Javed, and M. Shah, “Object tracking: a survey,” ACM Comput. Surv.38(4), 13–es, es (2006).
[CrossRef]

ACM Comput. Surv. (1)

A. Yilmaz, O. Javed, and M. Shah, “Object tracking: a survey,” ACM Comput. Surv.38(4), 13–es, es (2006).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (1)

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. (1)

I. C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

B. D. Lawenda, T. E. Mondry, and P. A. S. Johnstone, “Lymphedema: a primer on the identification and management of a chronic condition in oncologic treatment,” CA Cancer J. Clin.59(1), 8–24 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

T. Der, P. Bercik, G. Donnelly, T. Jackson, I. Berezin, S. M. Collins, and J. D. Huizinga, “Interstitial cells of cajal and inflammation-induced motor dysfunction in the mouse small intestine,” Gastroenterology119(6), 1590–1599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

G. Hellström, W. Fischer-Colbrie, N. G. Wahlgren, and T. Jogestrand, “Carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during physical exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol.81(1), 413–418 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and J. C. Rasmussen, “Molecular imaging with optics: primer and case for near-infrared fluorescence techniques in personalized medicine,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 041303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol.27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lymphat. Res. Biol. (1)

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Noninvasive quantitative imaging of lymph function in mice,” Lymphat. Res. Biol.5(4), 219–232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

S. D. Shpilfoygel, R. A. Close, D. J. Valentino, and G. R. Duckwiler, “X-ray videodensitometric methods for blood flow and velocity measurement: a critical review of literature,” Med. Phys.27(9), 2008–2023 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

K. Alitalo, T. Tammela, and T. V. Petrova, “Lymphangiogenesis in development and human disease,” Nature438(7070), 946–953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurogastroenterol. Motil. (1)

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Non-invasive, dynamic imaging of murine intestinal motility,” Neurogastroenterol. Motil.23(9), 881–e344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Transl Oncol (1)

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

Other (3)

H. W. Lim and N. A. Soter, Clinical Photomedicine (Marcel Dekker, 1993).

R. Bellman and S. E. Dreyfus, Applied Dynamic Programming (Princeton University Press, 1962).

R. H. Bartels, J. C. Beatty, and B. A. Barsky, An introduction to splines for use in computer graphics and geometric modeling (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc, 1987).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (3980 KB)     

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Series of images illustrating the propagation of a bolus of fluorescent lymph (identified by ellipse) through a lymphatic vessel in the right shin of a 43 year old female (subject 8). The round shape near the right edge of the calf is a band-aid which covers an injection site at that location. These images are frames taken from Media 1 available online.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Basic schematic of the near-infrared fluorescence imaging system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quantification of the lymphatic contractile functional parameters, apparent lymphatic propagation velocity and propulsion period. (A) Two regions of interest are selected on lymphatic vessel and the distance between the two is determined. (B) The fluorescent intensity profiles are then plotted and the transit time calculated as the time between the maximum intensities of the peaks corresponding to the same bolus of lymph. The propulsion period is the time between successive propulsion events in the same ROI.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plots illustrating the impact of the propagation of boluses of fluorescent lymph, adjustment of instrumentation settings, and subject movement, on the fluorescent intensity profile of three regions of interest (ROIs). The ROIs correspond to the ellipses in Fig. 1 while the start time in Media 1 corresponds to ~83s on this plot.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Analysis workflow of ALFIA. (B) An aggregated image is generated to facilitate vessel identification. (C) The lymphatic vessels are manually identified and annotated. (D) A flow map of fluorescent intensity as a function of distance (d) and time (t) is generated and (E) the flow lines of lymph propagation are manually annotated and automatically adjusted to select the maximal intensity value near the ends. The velocity (Δd/Δt) and propulsion periods are then calculated and exported to a spreadsheet.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Salient points (yellow dots) are sampled from the reference frame I1. A set of image patches (cyan boxes) centered at the salient points are used to represent the image appearance of the subject. Transformation Tj, j = 2, . . ., J, is estimated by minimizing Eq. (2), which encodes the intensity consistency constraints and the translation smoothness constraint.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Flow map computation on a vessel. The value of a pixel in the flow map is computed by averaging the intensity of a small region (circles) on a specific position of the vessel and in a specific image frame. If the region includes a lymph bolus (square), the value of the pixel will be higher. The x axis is the time (tj) that the images were acquired and the y axis is the position or distance of each region from the first region selected on the vessel.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Images illustrating vessel annotation with (bottom row) and without (middle) subject stabilization.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Vessel enhanced, aggregated images of the lymphatics with (C) and without (B) subject stabilization and the corresponding flow maps (E and D respectively) for the left most vessel. (A) is a snapshot of the lymphatics at a single point in time. (B) Note the appearance of phantom lymphatic vessels (arrowhead) due to motion artifacts in the unstablized aggregated image and (C) the reduction of noise artifact and clear delineation of dim lymphatic vessels (arrow) in the stabilized image as compared to (A). Note also the shortened (arrowhead) flow line and the introduction of an additional flow line (arrow), which corresponds to a neighboring lymphatic vessel, in (D) resulting from subject movement.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Plots of the average (A) apparent propagation velocity and (B) propulsion period for each of the nine subjects imaged in this study as well as the overall averages for all participants. The number superimposed on each bar denotes the number of measurements included in each average.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Plots of the average (A) apparent propagation velocity and (B) propulsion period as a function of limb diagnosis. The number superimposed on each bar denotes the number of measurements included in each average.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

v= d ROI2 d ROI1 Δt
E( { T j } )=α j=2 J E I ( Q 1 , Q j )+β j=2 J E I ( Q j1 , Q j )+ j=2 J E s ( T j1 , T j ) ,
M( n,j )= 1 | N( u n , v n ) | ( u,v )N( u n , v n ) I j ( u,v ) ,

Metrics