Abstract

Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a functional extension of OCT. In addition to imaging based on tissue reflectivity, PS-OCT also enables depth-resolved mapping of sample polarization properties such as phase-retardation, birefringent axis orientation, Stokes vectors, and degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU). In this study, PS-OCT was used to investigate the polarization properties of melanin. In-vitro measurements in samples with varying melanin concentrations revealed polarization scrambling, i.e. depolarization of backscattered light. Polarization scrambling in the PS-OCT images was more pronounced for higher melanin concentrations and correlated with the concentration of the melanin granules in the phantoms. Moreover, in-vivo PS-OCT was performed in the retinas of normal subjects and individuals with albinism. Unlike in the normal eye, polarization scrambling in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was less pronounced or even not observable in PS-OCT images of albinos. These results indicate that the depolarizing appearance of pigmented structures like, for instance, the RPE is likely to be caused by the melanin granules contained in these cells.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

2011

M. Ahmad, S. Alali, A. Kim, M. F. G. Wood, M. Ikram, and I. A. Vitkin, “Do different turbid media with matched bulk optical properties also exhibit similar polarization properties?” Biomed. Opt. Express2(12), 3248–3258 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Walther, M. Gaertner, P. Cimalla, A. Burkhardt, L. Kirsten, S. Meissner, and E. Koch, “Optical coherence tomography in biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2721–2743 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marschall, B. Sander, M. Mogensen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen, “Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2699–2720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, D. Lara, S. Nizari, E. M. Normando, L. Guo, A. R. Wegener, A. Tufail, F. W. Fitzke, F. G. Holz, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Localisation and significance of in vivo near-infrared autofluorescent signal in retinal imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(8), 1134–1139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, C. A. Puliafito, and S. Jiao, “Simultaneous in vivo imaging of melanin and lipofuscin in the retina with photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and autofluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 080504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides tissue inherent contrast based on depolarization,” Proc. SPIE7554, 75541M, 75541M-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Res.50(8), 810–817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schütze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jiao, M. S. Jiang, J. M. Hu, A. Fawzi, Q. F. Zhou, K. K. Shung, C. A. Puliafito, and H. F. Zhang, “Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy for in vivo retinal imaging,” Opt. Express18(4), 3967–3972 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurements of depolarization distribution in the healthy human macula by polarization sensitive OCT,” J Biophotonics2(6-7), 426–434 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Chong, S. Farsiu, S. F. Freedman, N. Sarin, A. F. Koreishi, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Abnormal foveal morphology in ocular albinism imaged with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.127(1), 37–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

C. N. Keilhauer and F. C. Delori, “Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of the fundus: visualization of ocular melanin,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3556–3564 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express12(14), 3236–3244 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett.29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1257–1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Two-dimensional depth-resolved Mueller matrix of biological tissue measured with double-beam polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 101–103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 359–371 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 350–358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

1999

1998

1997

1995

M. I. Mishchenko and J. W. Hovenier, “Depolarization of light backscattered by randomly oriented nonspherical particles,” Opt. Lett.20(12), 1356–1358 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

H. Mietz, W. R. Green, S. M. Wolff, and G. P. Abundo, “Foveal hypoplasia in complete oculocutaneous albinism. A histopathologic study,” Retina12(3), 254–260 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(6), 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.27(2), 145–152 (1986).
[PubMed]

1984

L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand, and S. Eldridge, “Aging human RPE: morphometric analysis of macular, equatorial, and peripheral cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.25(2), 195–200 (1984).
[PubMed]

Abundo, G. P.

H. Mietz, W. R. Green, S. M. Wolff, and G. P. Abundo, “Foveal hypoplasia in complete oculocutaneous albinism. A histopathologic study,” Retina12(3), 254–260 (1992).
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Ahlers, C.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schütze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
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Ahmad, M.

Alali, S.

Andersen, P. E.

S. Marschall, B. Sander, M. Mogensen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen, “Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2699–2720 (2011).
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Baumann, B.

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express20(9), 10218–10230 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schütze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
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B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides tissue inherent contrast based on depolarization,” Proc. SPIE7554, 75541M, 75541M-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurements of depolarization distribution in the healthy human macula by polarization sensitive OCT,” J Biophotonics2(6-7), 426–434 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, S. O.

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides tissue inherent contrast based on depolarization,” Proc. SPIE7554, 75541M, 75541M-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bilonick, R. A.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
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Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Burkhardt, A.

J. Walther, M. Gaertner, P. Cimalla, A. Burkhardt, L. Kirsten, S. Meissner, and E. Koch, “Optical coherence tomography in biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2721–2743 (2011).
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Carroll, J.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Res.50(8), 810–817 (2010).
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Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Chen, R.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
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Chen, T. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
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B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
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Choi, W.

Choma, M. A.

Chong, G. T.

G. T. Chong, S. Farsiu, S. F. Freedman, N. Sarin, A. F. Koreishi, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Abnormal foveal morphology in ocular albinism imaged with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.127(1), 37–44 (2009).
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Cimalla, P.

J. Walther, M. Gaertner, P. Cimalla, A. Burkhardt, L. Kirsten, S. Meissner, and E. Koch, “Optical coherence tomography in biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2721–2743 (2011).
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Colston, B. W.

Cordeiro, M. F.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, D. Lara, S. Nizari, E. M. Normando, L. Guo, A. R. Wegener, A. Tufail, F. W. Fitzke, F. G. Holz, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Localisation and significance of in vivo near-infrared autofluorescent signal in retinal imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(8), 1134–1139 (2011).
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Da Silva, L. B.

de Boer, J. F.

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett.29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
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B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
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J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
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J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 359–371 (2002).
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J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of the depth-resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.24(5), 300–302 (1999).
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J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(12), 934–936 (1997).
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Delori, F. C.

C. N. Keilhauer and F. C. Delori, “Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of the fundus: visualization of ocular melanin,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3556–3564 (2006).
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J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.27(2), 145–152 (1986).
[PubMed]

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(2), 239–303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dubis, A. M.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Res.50(8), 810–817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

Eldridge, S.

L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand, and S. Eldridge, “Aging human RPE: morphometric analysis of macular, equatorial, and peripheral cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.25(2), 195–200 (1984).
[PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
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Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Everett, M. J.

Farsiu, S.

G. T. Chong, S. Farsiu, S. F. Freedman, N. Sarin, A. F. Koreishi, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Abnormal foveal morphology in ocular albinism imaged with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.127(1), 37–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fawzi, A.

Feeney-Burns, L.

L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand, and S. Eldridge, “Aging human RPE: morphometric analysis of macular, equatorial, and peripheral cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.25(2), 195–200 (1984).
[PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(2), 239–303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
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C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express9(13), 780–790 (2001).
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Findl, O.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitch, K. A.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.27(2), 145–152 (1986).
[PubMed]

Fitzke, F. W.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, D. Lara, S. Nizari, E. M. Normando, L. Guo, A. R. Wegener, A. Tufail, F. W. Fitzke, F. G. Holz, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Localisation and significance of in vivo near-infrared autofluorescent signal in retinal imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(8), 1134–1139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freedman, S. F.

G. T. Chong, S. Farsiu, S. F. Freedman, N. Sarin, A. F. Koreishi, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Abnormal foveal morphology in ocular albinism imaged with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.127(1), 37–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express20(9), 10218–10230 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(6), 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaertner, M.

J. Walther, M. Gaertner, P. Cimalla, A. Burkhardt, L. Kirsten, S. Meissner, and E. Koch, “Optical coherence tomography in biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2721–2743 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geitzenauer, W.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetzinger, E.

Golbaz, I.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gotzinger, E.

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides tissue inherent contrast based on depolarization,” Proc. SPIE7554, 75541M, 75541M-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, E.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schütze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurements of depolarization distribution in the healthy human macula by polarization sensitive OCT,” J Biophotonics2(6-7), 426–434 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, W. R.

H. Mietz, W. R. Green, S. M. Wolff, and G. P. Abundo, “Foveal hypoplasia in complete oculocutaneous albinism. A histopathologic study,” Retina12(3), 254–260 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, D. Lara, S. Nizari, E. M. Normando, L. Guo, A. R. Wegener, A. Tufail, F. W. Fitzke, F. G. Holz, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Localisation and significance of in vivo near-infrared autofluorescent signal in retinal imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(8), 1134–1139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(6), 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heimann, K.

U. Schraermeyer and K. Heimann, “Current understanding on the role of retinal pigment epithelium and its pigmentation,” Pigment Cell Res.12(4), 219–236 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilderbrand, E. S.

L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand, and S. Eldridge, “Aging human RPE: morphometric analysis of macular, equatorial, and peripheral cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.25(2), 195–200 (1984).
[PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides tissue inherent contrast based on depolarization,” Proc. SPIE7554, 75541M, 75541M-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schütze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurements of depolarization distribution in the healthy human macula by polarization sensitive OCT,” J Biophotonics2(6-7), 426–434 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1257–1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express12(14), 3236–3244 (2004).
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R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
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A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(2), 239–303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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Holz, F. G.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, D. Lara, S. Nizari, E. M. Normando, L. Guo, A. R. Wegener, A. Tufail, F. W. Fitzke, F. G. Holz, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Localisation and significance of in vivo near-infrared autofluorescent signal in retinal imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(8), 1134–1139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hovenier, J. W.

Hu, J. M.

Huang, D.

Ikram, M.

Iwasaki, T.

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

G. T. Chong, S. Farsiu, S. F. Freedman, N. Sarin, A. F. Koreishi, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Abnormal foveal morphology in ocular albinism imaged with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.127(1), 37–44 (2009).
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M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
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Jiang, M. S.

Jiao, S.

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, C. A. Puliafito, and S. Jiao, “Simultaneous in vivo imaging of melanin and lipofuscin in the retina with photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and autofluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 080504 (2011).
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S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 350–358 (2002).
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S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Two-dimensional depth-resolved Mueller matrix of biological tissue measured with double-beam polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 101–103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, S. L.

Jørgensen, T. M.

S. Marschall, B. Sander, M. Mogensen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen, “Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2699–2720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Keilhauer, C. N.

C. N. Keilhauer and F. C. Delori, “Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of the fundus: visualization of ocular melanin,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3556–3564 (2006).
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Kirsten, L.

J. Walther, M. Gaertner, P. Cimalla, A. Burkhardt, L. Kirsten, S. Meissner, and E. Koch, “Optical coherence tomography in biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2721–2743 (2011).
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Ko, T. H.

Koch, E.

J. Walther, M. Gaertner, P. Cimalla, A. Burkhardt, L. Kirsten, S. Meissner, and E. Koch, “Optical coherence tomography in biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2721–2743 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konegger, T.

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides tissue inherent contrast based on depolarization,” Proc. SPIE7554, 75541M, 75541M-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koreishi, A. F.

G. T. Chong, S. Farsiu, S. F. Freedman, N. Sarin, A. F. Koreishi, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Abnormal foveal morphology in ocular albinism imaged with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.127(1), 37–44 (2009).
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Kowalczyk, A.

Lara, D.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, D. Lara, S. Nizari, E. M. Normando, L. Guo, A. R. Wegener, A. Tufail, F. W. Fitzke, F. G. Holz, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Localisation and significance of in vivo near-infrared autofluorescent signal in retinal imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(8), 1134–1139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(2), 239–303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

Leydolt, C.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litschauer, M.

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides tissue inherent contrast based on depolarization,” Proc. SPIE7554, 75541M, 75541M-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Makita, S.

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
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S. Marschall, B. Sander, M. Mogensen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen, “Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2699–2720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Res.50(8), 810–817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Walther, M. Gaertner, P. Cimalla, A. Burkhardt, L. Kirsten, S. Meissner, and E. Koch, “Optical coherence tomography in biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2721–2743 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michels, S.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Mietz, W. R. Green, S. M. Wolff, and G. P. Abundo, “Foveal hypoplasia in complete oculocutaneous albinism. A histopathologic study,” Retina12(3), 254–260 (1992).
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Mishchenko, M. I.

Miura, M.

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mogensen, M.

S. Marschall, B. Sander, M. Mogensen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen, “Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2699–2720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monson, B. K.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Nizari, S.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, D. Lara, S. Nizari, E. M. Normando, L. Guo, A. R. Wegener, A. Tufail, F. W. Fitzke, F. G. Holz, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Localisation and significance of in vivo near-infrared autofluorescent signal in retinal imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(8), 1134–1139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Normando, E. M.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, D. Lara, S. Nizari, E. M. Normando, L. Guo, A. R. Wegener, A. Tufail, F. W. Fitzke, F. G. Holz, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Localisation and significance of in vivo near-infrared autofluorescent signal in retinal imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(8), 1134–1139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ostler, S.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Res.50(8), 810–817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides tissue inherent contrast based on depolarization,” Proc. SPIE7554, 75541M, 75541M-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schütze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurements of depolarization distribution in the healthy human macula by polarization sensitive OCT,” J Biophotonics2(6-7), 426–434 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1257–1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express12(14), 3236–3244 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Prager, F.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, C. A. Puliafito, and S. Jiao, “Simultaneous in vivo imaging of melanin and lipofuscin in the retina with photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and autofluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 080504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jiao, M. S. Jiang, J. M. Hu, A. Fawzi, Q. F. Zhou, K. K. Shung, C. A. Puliafito, and H. F. Zhang, “Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy for in vivo retinal imaging,” Opt. Express18(4), 3967–3972 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rha, J.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Res.50(8), 810–817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sander, B.

S. Marschall, B. Sander, M. Mogensen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen, “Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2699–2720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarin, N.

G. T. Chong, S. Farsiu, S. F. Freedman, N. Sarin, A. F. Koreishi, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Abnormal foveal morphology in ocular albinism imaged with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.127(1), 37–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattmann, H.

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides tissue inherent contrast based on depolarization,” Proc. SPIE7554, 75541M, 75541M-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schütze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlanitz, F.

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schütze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schütze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

Schmitz-Valckenberg, S.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, D. Lara, S. Nizari, E. M. Normando, L. Guo, A. R. Wegener, A. Tufail, F. W. Fitzke, F. G. Holz, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Localisation and significance of in vivo near-infrared autofluorescent signal in retinal imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(8), 1134–1139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoenenberger, K.

Schraermeyer, U.

U. Schraermeyer and K. Heimann, “Current understanding on the role of retinal pigment epithelium and its pigmentation,” Pigment Cell Res.12(4), 219–236 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Simader, C.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PS-OCT imaging and retinal pigmentation. (A) Reflectivity B-scan image showing the retinal layers. (B) Corresponding degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU) B-scan image. DOPU values close to 1 can be observed in most retinal layers. Lower DOPU values indicate depolarization and can be observed in the pigmented RPE and choroid. See section 2.3 for a detailed description of DOPU calculations. (C) OCT fundus projection image of a volumetric PS-OCT data set of the macula. The red arrow indicates the location of the B-scan image shown in (A). The orange “x” marks the fovea in (C-E). (D) DOPUmin map showing the minimal DOPU value for every A-scan. The color scale encodes DOPUmin values ranging from 0 (blue) to 1 (red). The most severe depolarization can be observed close to the fovea. (E) Thickness map of segmented depolarizing pixels with DOPU < 0.7. The color scale ranges from 0 to 39 pixels per A-line. Pixel height: 3.22 µm in air. (F) Wide-field infrared scanning laser ophthalmoscope image. The dotted box indicates the location of the PS-OCT scan. (G) Corresponding fundus autofluorescence image at 488 nm showing the retinal lipofuscin distribution having a minimum at the fovea. (H) Near-infrared autofluorescence image at 787 nm showing the retinal melanin distribution peaking at the fovea. Grey scale bar for the scanning laser ophthalmoscope image and the autofluorescence images is shown below (F-H). Scale bar dimensions in micrometers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Melanin granule samples. (A-C) Scanning electron micrographs of the melanin granules at different magnifications. (D) Size distribution measured with DLS. A narrow size distribution centered at a particle radius of ~530 nm was measured. (E) Melanin suspension. (F) Transmission electron micrograph of the retina at the level of the RPE. Acronyms: BM Bruch's membrane, OS outer segment. (Image reprinted from ref [32]. with permission from Prof. Michael F. Marmor from the Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PS-OCT measurements of melanin samples. (A, B) Reflectivity B-scan images for melanin concentrations Cmel of 1:60 and 1:3, respectively. (C, D) Corresponding DOPU images showing increasing average DOPU for decreasing melanin concentration. Scale bars dimensions in micrometers. (E) DOPU vs. melanin concentration. For melanin suspensions ranging from 1:100 to 1:1, average DOPU values measured within the melanin suspensions are plotted. A trend from high to low DOPU values can be observed when the concentration is increasing. The dashed brown line is a logarithmic fit to the data: DOPU = B∙ln(Cmel) – A, where A = −0.1408 and B = −0.144.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retinal PS-OCT imaging in a normal subject. (A) Reflectivity B-scan image of the fovea region. (B) Corresponding phase retardation B-scan image (color scale: 0° – 90°). (C) DOPU image (color scale: 0 – 1). (D–F) Details of (A), (B), and (C), respectively. While the photoreceptor interfaces can be observed as thin layers in (A) and (D), the RPE exhibits a fuzzy appearance. In the phase retardation images (B) and (E), polarization scrambling can be observed in the RPE as blue, green, and even orange dots. Accordingly, the RPE exhibits low values in the DOPU images (C) and (F). The inner retinal layers present rather uniform polarization characteristics and hence DOPU values close to 1. Scale bar dimensions in micrometers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PS-OCT imaging in the retina of albino patient 1. (A, D) Reflectivity B-scan images. The RPE/BM complex showing two distinct layers. (B, E) Corresponding phase retardation images. Compared to the normal retina in Fig. 4, there is less polarization scrambling in the RPE. (C, F) DOPU images. In comparison to the respective images in Fig. 4, the DOPU values in the polarization scrambling layer indicate less depolarization. Scale bar dimensions in micrometers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PS-OCT imaging in the retina of albino patient 2. (A, D) Reflectivity B-scan images. At the level of the RPE/BM complex, the BM stands out as a thin hyperreflective line, while the RPE is less visible. (B, E) Corresponding phase retardation images. The RPE/BM complex completely lacks its polarization scrambling characteristic. It appears blue, just like the polarization preserving photoreceptor layer. (C, F) DOPU images. In agreement with the bluish appearance of the RPE/BM complex in the phase retardation image, rather uniform polarization, i.e. high DOPU values, can be observed in this structure. Both the usually polarization scrambling RPE and the inner retinal layers have a similar, orange/reddish shade. Scale bar dimensions in micrometers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

PS-OCT measurements of suspensions containing polystyrene microparticles with a mean diameter of 1.1 µm. (A) Latex bead suspension. (B) DOPU vs. latex bead concentration. For microparticle suspensions with volume concentrations ranging from 1:100 to 1:10, average DOPU values measured within the suspensions are plotted. A trend from high to low DOPU values can be observed when the concentration is increasing. (C, D) Reflectivity and DOPU B-scan images for a latex bead concentration of 1:20. See Fig. 3 for color bar of (D). Image size: 1.00 (x) × 0.25 (z) mm2.

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