Abstract

A procedure for computer analyzing an optical coherence tomography (OCT) image of normal and precancerous oral mucosae is demonstrated to reasonably plot the boundary between epithelium (EP) and lamina propria (LP) layers, determine the EP thickness, and estimate the range of dysplastic cell distribution based on standard deviation (SD) mapping. In this study, 54 normal oral mucosa, 39 oral mild dysplasia, and 44 oral moderate dysplasia OCT images are processed for evaluating the diagnosis statistics. Based on SD mapping in an OCT image, it is found that the laterally average range percentages of 70% SD maximum level in the EP layer is a reasonably good threshold for differentiating moderate dysplasia from mild dysplasia oral lesion based on the OCT image analysis. The sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis statistics can reach 82 and 90%, respectively.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. DeCoro and P. Wilder-Smith, “Potential of optical coherence tomography for early diagnosis of oral malignancies,” Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther.10(3), 321–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jerjes, T. Upile, B. Conn, Z. Hamdoon, C. S. Betz, G. McKenzie, H. Radhi, M. Vourvachis, M. El Maaytah, A. Sandison, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “In vitro examination of suspicious oral lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.48(1), 18–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kim, P. Wilder-Smith, Y. C. Ahn, L. H. L. Liaw, Z. Chen, and Y. J. Kwon, “Enhanced detection of early-stage oral cancer in vivo by optical coherence tomography using multimodal delivery of gold nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ozawa, Y. Sumi, C. Chong, and T. Kurabayashi, “Evaluation of oral vascular anomalies using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.47(8), 622–626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Lee, M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yang, M.-T. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, C.-K. Lee, C.-H. Yu, H.-M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, C.-C. Chang, Y.-M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Effective indicators for diagnosis of oral cancer using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(20), 15847–15862 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. G. Aalders, M. Triesscheijn, M. Ruevekamp, M. de Bruin, P. Baas, D. J. Faber, and F. A. Stewart, “Doppler optical coherence tomography to monitor the effect of photodynamic therapy on tissue morphology and perfusion,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 044011 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2005,” CA Cancer J. Clin.55(1), 10–30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

E. S. Matheny, N. M. Hanna, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, P. Wilder-Smith, R. Mina-Araghi, and M. Brenner, “Optical coherence tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(5), 978–981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1271–1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. Lingen, E. M. Sturgis, and M. S. Kies, “Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in nonsmokers: clinical and biologic characteristics and implications for management,” Curr. Opin. Oncol.13(3), 176–182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aalders, M. C. G.

M. C. G. Aalders, M. Triesscheijn, M. Ruevekamp, M. de Bruin, P. Baas, D. J. Faber, and F. A. Stewart, “Doppler optical coherence tomography to monitor the effect of photodynamic therapy on tissue morphology and perfusion,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 044011 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. C.

C. S. Kim, P. Wilder-Smith, Y. C. Ahn, L. H. L. Liaw, Z. Chen, and Y. J. Kwon, “Enhanced detection of early-stage oral cancer in vivo by optical coherence tomography using multimodal delivery of gold nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alizadeh-Naderi, R.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1271–1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, W. B.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baas, P.

M. C. G. Aalders, M. Triesscheijn, M. Ruevekamp, M. de Bruin, P. Baas, D. J. Faber, and F. A. Stewart, “Doppler optical coherence tomography to monitor the effect of photodynamic therapy on tissue morphology and perfusion,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 044011 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betz, C. S.

W. Jerjes, T. Upile, B. Conn, Z. Hamdoon, C. S. Betz, G. McKenzie, H. Radhi, M. Vourvachis, M. El Maaytah, A. Sandison, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “In vitro examination of suspicious oral lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.48(1), 18–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beydoun, H.

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Matheny, N. M. Hanna, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, P. Wilder-Smith, R. Mina-Araghi, and M. Brenner, “Optical coherence tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(5), 978–981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-C.

Chen, H. M.

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Lee, M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-M.

Chen, T. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kim, P. Wilder-Smith, Y. C. Ahn, L. H. L. Liaw, Z. Chen, and Y. J. Kwon, “Enhanced detection of early-stage oral cancer in vivo by optical coherence tomography using multimodal delivery of gold nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Matheny, N. M. Hanna, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, P. Wilder-Smith, R. Mina-Araghi, and M. Brenner, “Optical coherence tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(5), 978–981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, C. P.

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Lee, M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, C.-P.

Chong, C.

N. Ozawa, Y. Sumi, C. Chong, and T. Kurabayashi, “Evaluation of oral vascular anomalies using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.47(8), 622–626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, A. L.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1271–1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conn, B.

W. Jerjes, T. Upile, B. Conn, Z. Hamdoon, C. S. Betz, G. McKenzie, H. Radhi, M. Vourvachis, M. El Maaytah, A. Sandison, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “In vitro examination of suspicious oral lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.48(1), 18–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crumley, R. L.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Bruin, M.

M. C. G. Aalders, M. Triesscheijn, M. Ruevekamp, M. de Bruin, P. Baas, D. J. Faber, and F. A. Stewart, “Doppler optical coherence tomography to monitor the effect of photodynamic therapy on tissue morphology and perfusion,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 044011 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeCoro, M.

M. DeCoro and P. Wilder-Smith, “Potential of optical coherence tomography for early diagnosis of oral malignancies,” Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther.10(3), 321–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El Maaytah, M.

W. Jerjes, T. Upile, B. Conn, Z. Hamdoon, C. S. Betz, G. McKenzie, H. Radhi, M. Vourvachis, M. El Maaytah, A. Sandison, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “In vitro examination of suspicious oral lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.48(1), 18–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Naggar, A. K.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1271–1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Epstein, J.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faber, D. J.

M. C. G. Aalders, M. Triesscheijn, M. Ruevekamp, M. de Bruin, P. Baas, D. J. Faber, and F. A. Stewart, “Doppler optical coherence tomography to monitor the effect of photodynamic therapy on tissue morphology and perfusion,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 044011 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuer, E. J.

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2005,” CA Cancer J. Clin.55(1), 10–30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghafoor, A.

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2005,” CA Cancer J. Clin.55(1), 10–30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1271–1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamdoon, Z.

W. Jerjes, T. Upile, B. Conn, Z. Hamdoon, C. S. Betz, G. McKenzie, H. Radhi, M. Vourvachis, M. El Maaytah, A. Sandison, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “In vitro examination of suspicious oral lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.48(1), 18–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer-Wilson, M. J.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, N. M.

E. S. Matheny, N. M. Hanna, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, P. Wilder-Smith, R. Mina-Araghi, and M. Brenner, “Optical coherence tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(5), 978–981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hopper, C.

W. Jerjes, T. Upile, B. Conn, Z. Hamdoon, C. S. Betz, G. McKenzie, H. Radhi, M. Vourvachis, M. El Maaytah, A. Sandison, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “In vitro examination of suspicious oral lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.48(1), 18–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, R. P.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jay, A.

W. Jerjes, T. Upile, B. Conn, Z. Hamdoon, C. S. Betz, G. McKenzie, H. Radhi, M. Vourvachis, M. El Maaytah, A. Sandison, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “In vitro examination of suspicious oral lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.48(1), 18–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2005,” CA Cancer J. Clin.55(1), 10–30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jerjes, W.

W. Jerjes, T. Upile, B. Conn, Z. Hamdoon, C. S. Betz, G. McKenzie, H. Radhi, M. Vourvachis, M. El Maaytah, A. Sandison, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “In vitro examination of suspicious oral lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.48(1), 18–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, W. G.

E. S. Matheny, N. M. Hanna, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, P. Wilder-Smith, R. Mina-Araghi, and M. Brenner, “Optical coherence tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(5), 978–981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kies, M. S.

M. Lingen, E. M. Sturgis, and M. S. Kies, “Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in nonsmokers: clinical and biologic characteristics and implications for management,” Curr. Opin. Oncol.13(3), 176–182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C. S.

C. S. Kim, P. Wilder-Smith, Y. C. Ahn, L. H. L. Liaw, Z. Chen, and Y. J. Kwon, “Enhanced detection of early-stage oral cancer in vivo by optical coherence tomography using multimodal delivery of gold nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurabayashi, T.

N. Ozawa, Y. Sumi, C. Chong, and T. Kurabayashi, “Evaluation of oral vascular anomalies using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.47(8), 622–626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, Y. J.

C. S. Kim, P. Wilder-Smith, Y. C. Ahn, L. H. L. Liaw, Z. Chen, and Y. J. Kwon, “Enhanced detection of early-stage oral cancer in vivo by optical coherence tomography using multimodal delivery of gold nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. K.

C. K. Lee, M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-K.

Lee, H. C.

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Lee, M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.-C.

Lee, K.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liaw, L. H. L.

C. S. Kim, P. Wilder-Smith, Y. C. Ahn, L. H. L. Liaw, Z. Chen, and Y. J. Kwon, “Enhanced detection of early-stage oral cancer in vivo by optical coherence tomography using multimodal delivery of gold nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lingen, M.

M. Lingen, E. M. Sturgis, and M. S. Kies, “Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in nonsmokers: clinical and biologic characteristics and implications for management,” Curr. Opin. Oncol.13(3), 176–182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C. W.

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahmood, U.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matheny, E. S.

E. S. Matheny, N. M. Hanna, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, P. Wilder-Smith, R. Mina-Araghi, and M. Brenner, “Optical coherence tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(5), 978–981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKenzie, G.

W. Jerjes, T. Upile, B. Conn, Z. Hamdoon, C. S. Betz, G. McKenzie, H. Radhi, M. Vourvachis, M. El Maaytah, A. Sandison, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “In vitro examination of suspicious oral lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.48(1), 18–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messadi, D.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mina-Araghi, R.

E. S. Matheny, N. M. Hanna, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, P. Wilder-Smith, R. Mina-Araghi, and M. Brenner, “Optical coherence tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(5), 978–981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, M.

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, T.

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2005,” CA Cancer J. Clin.55(1), 10–30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osann, K.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozawa, N.

N. Ozawa, Y. Sumi, C. Chong, and T. Kurabayashi, “Evaluation of oral vascular anomalies using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.47(8), 622–626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radhi, H.

W. Jerjes, T. Upile, B. Conn, Z. Hamdoon, C. S. Betz, G. McKenzie, H. Radhi, M. Vourvachis, M. El Maaytah, A. Sandison, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “In vitro examination of suspicious oral lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.48(1), 18–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1271–1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ridgway, J. M.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruevekamp, M.

M. C. G. Aalders, M. Triesscheijn, M. Ruevekamp, M. de Bruin, P. Baas, D. J. Faber, and F. A. Stewart, “Doppler optical coherence tomography to monitor the effect of photodynamic therapy on tissue morphology and perfusion,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 044011 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samuels, A.

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2005,” CA Cancer J. Clin.55(1), 10–30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandison, A.

W. Jerjes, T. Upile, B. Conn, Z. Hamdoon, C. S. Betz, G. McKenzie, H. Radhi, M. Vourvachis, M. El Maaytah, A. Sandison, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “In vitro examination of suspicious oral lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.48(1), 18–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, J.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shibuya, T.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, F. A.

M. C. G. Aalders, M. Triesscheijn, M. Ruevekamp, M. de Bruin, P. Baas, D. J. Faber, and F. A. Stewart, “Doppler optical coherence tomography to monitor the effect of photodynamic therapy on tissue morphology and perfusion,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 044011 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturgis, E. M.

M. Lingen, E. M. Sturgis, and M. S. Kies, “Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in nonsmokers: clinical and biologic characteristics and implications for management,” Curr. Opin. Oncol.13(3), 176–182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumi, Y.

N. Ozawa, Y. Sumi, C. Chong, and T. Kurabayashi, “Evaluation of oral vascular anomalies using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.47(8), 622–626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thun, M. J.

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2005,” CA Cancer J. Clin.55(1), 10–30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiwari, R. C.

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2005,” CA Cancer J. Clin.55(1), 10–30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Triesscheijn, M.

M. C. G. Aalders, M. Triesscheijn, M. Ruevekamp, M. de Bruin, P. Baas, D. J. Faber, and F. A. Stewart, “Doppler optical coherence tomography to monitor the effect of photodynamic therapy on tissue morphology and perfusion,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 044011 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. T.

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Lee, M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M.-T.

Upile, T.

W. Jerjes, T. Upile, B. Conn, Z. Hamdoon, C. S. Betz, G. McKenzie, H. Radhi, M. Vourvachis, M. El Maaytah, A. Sandison, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “In vitro examination of suspicious oral lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.48(1), 18–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vourvachis, M.

W. Jerjes, T. Upile, B. Conn, Z. Hamdoon, C. S. Betz, G. McKenzie, H. Radhi, M. Vourvachis, M. El Maaytah, A. Sandison, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “In vitro examination of suspicious oral lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.48(1), 18–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. M.

C. K. Lee, M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.-M.

Ward, E.

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2005,” CA Cancer J. Clin.55(1), 10–30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wigdor, H.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilder-Smith, P.

M. DeCoro and P. Wilder-Smith, “Potential of optical coherence tomography for early diagnosis of oral malignancies,” Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther.10(3), 321–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kim, P. Wilder-Smith, Y. C. Ahn, L. H. L. Liaw, Z. Chen, and Y. J. Kwon, “Enhanced detection of early-stage oral cancer in vivo by optical coherence tomography using multimodal delivery of gold nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Matheny, N. M. Hanna, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, P. Wilder-Smith, R. Mina-Araghi, and M. Brenner, “Optical coherence tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(5), 978–981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, B. J.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Lee, M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yang, M.-T. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, C.-K. Lee, C.-H. Yu, H.-M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, C.-C. Chang, Y.-M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Effective indicators for diagnosis of oral cancer using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(20), 15847–15862 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yang, M.-T. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, C.-K. Lee, C.-H. Yu, H.-M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, C.-C. Chang, Y.-M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Effective indicators for diagnosis of oral cancer using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(20), 15847–15862 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yatagai, T.

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C.-H.

Zhang, J.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.

W. Jerjes, T. Upile, B. Conn, Z. Hamdoon, C. S. Betz, G. McKenzie, H. Radhi, M. Vourvachis, M. El Maaytah, A. Sandison, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “In vitro examination of suspicious oral lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.48(1), 18–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ozawa, Y. Sumi, C. Chong, and T. Kurabayashi, “Evaluation of oral vascular anomalies using optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.47(8), 622–626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

CA Cancer J. Clin.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Histological images of healthy oral mucosa with (a) for original image, (b) for the image of red component, and (c) for SD mapping in the EP layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Histological images of MiD oral mucosa with (a) for original image, (b) for the image of red component, and (c) for SD mapping in the EP layer. The MiD diagnosis is based on the dysplastic cell distribution indicated by the vertical bar in part (a), in which the blue and red portions correspond to the abnormal and normal mucosae, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histological images of MoD oral mucosa with (a) for original image, (b) for the image of red component, and (c) for SD mapping in the EP layer. The MoD diagnosis is based on the dysplastic cell distribution indicated by the vertical bar in part (a), in which the blue and red portions correspond to the abnormal and normal mucosae, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Floating chart indicating the procedure of plotting the air/tissue boundary, the EP/LP boundary, the assigned SD threshold level contour in an OCT image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) OCT image of a MiD oral mucosa sample with the contours of the air/tissue and EP/LP boundaries based on the criterion of SD = 0.5 and SD maximum, respectively. (b) The same OCT image with the boundaries smoothed by the modified moving average method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A-mode scan profiles and their third-order polynomial fittings corresponding the left (red) (a) and right (blue) (b) vertical lines in Fig. 5(a). The arrows in each part indicate the intensity levels of the average of the first 20 pixels and its double level.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) New plot of the EP/LP boundary after the correction based on the fitting in Fig. 6. (b) New EP/LP boundary contour smoothed by the modified moving average method.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) OCT image of a MoD oral mucosa sample with the contours of the air/tissue boundary, the EP/LP boundary, and the contour of 70% SD maximum level in the EP layer. (b) The SD variation profile along the A-mode scan indicated by the vertical line in part (a) and its third-order polynomial fitting curve. (c) The same OCT image as that in part (a) except that the contour of 70% SD maximum level in the EP layer is re-plotted based on the third-order polynomial fitting like the smooth curve shown in part (b).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

OCT images with the analysis results of a healthy oral mucosa case, including (a) for the original OCT image, (b) for demonstrating the SD mapping, and (c) for illustrating the OCT image together with the plotted curves (from top to bottom) of the air/tissue boundary (the red curve), the 70% SD maximum level contour (the blue curve), and the EP/LP boundary (the green curve). D is defined as the thickness percentage of high SD-level range (between the blue and green curves) in the whole EP layer (between the red and green curves) of an A-mode scan line when an SD threshold level is assigned.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Similar to Fig. 9 except for a MoD case.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Similar to Fig. 9 except for a MiD case.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Data distribution of Dave when the SD threshold for dysplastic cell distribution is set at 70%. Here, 137 data points, including 54 normal, 39 MiD, and 44 MoD OCT images, are included.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Three ROC curves for differentiating MiD from normal with various criteria of Dave. Here, the black continuous, blue dash-dotted, and red dashed curves correspond to the conditions of 65, 70, and 75% in SD threshold level, respectively. A circular arc centered at the upper-left corner is drawn to touch the curve of 70% in SD threshold level at a point of 24% in Dave criterion for indicating the optimum conditions.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Three ROC curves for differentiating MoD from normal with various criteria of Dave. Here, the black continuous, blue dash-dotted, and red dashed curves correspond to the conditions of 65, 70, and 75% in SD threshold level, respectively. A circular arc centered at the upper-left corner is drawn to touch the curve of 75% in SD threshold level at a point of 35% in Dave criterion for indicating the optimum conditions.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Data distribution of the Dave difference between either a MiD or MoD sample and its individual normal sample of the same patient when 70% is chosen for the SD threshold level.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Three ROC curves for differentiating MoD from MiD with various criteria of Dave difference. Here, the black continuous, blue dash-dotted, and red dashed curves correspond to the conditions of 65, 70, and 75% in SD threshold level, respectively. A circular arc centered at the upper-left corner is drawn to touch the curve of 70% in SD threshold level at two points of 13 and 16% in Dave difference criterion for indicating the optimum conditions.

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