Abstract

Understanding the optical properties of clustered quantum dots (QDs) is essential to the design of QD-based optical phantoms for molecular imaging. Single and clustered core/shell colloidal QDs of dimers, trimers, and tetramers are self-assembled, separated, and preferentially collected using electrospray differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA) with electrostatic deposition. Multimodal optical characterization and analysis of their dynamical photoluminescence (PL) properties enables the long-term evaluation of the physicochemical and optical properties of QDs in a single or a clustered state. A multimodal time-correlated spectroscopic confocal microscope capable of simultaneously measuring the time evolution of PL intensity fluctuation, PL lifetime, and emission spectra reveals the long-term dynamic optical properties of interacting QDs in individual dimeric clusters of QDs. This new method will benefit research into the quantitative interpretation of fluorescence intensity and lifetime results in QD-based molecular imaging techniques. The process of photooxidation leads to coupling of the QDs in a dimer, leading to unique optical properties when compared to an isolated QD. These results guide the design and evaluation of QD-based phantom materials for the validation of the PL measurements for quantitative molecular imaging of biological samples labeled with QD probes.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Howarth, K. Takao, Y. Hayashi, and A. Y. Ting, “Targeting quantum dots to surface proteins in living cells with biotin ligase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(21), 7583–7588 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. V. I. Klimov, “Mechanisms for photogeneration and recombination of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals: implications for lasing and solar energy conversion,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(34), 16827–16845 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Pathak, E. Cao, M. C. Davidson, S. H. Jin, and G. A. Silva, “Quantum dot applications to neuroscience: new tools for probing neurons and glia,” J. Neurosci.26(7), 1893–1895 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. D. True and X. H. Gao, “Quantum dots for molecular pathology: their time has arrived,” J. Mol. Diagn.9(1), 7–11 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells. semiconductor nanocrystals as light harvesters,” J. Phys. Chem. C112, 18737–18753 (2008).
  6. F. Tokumasu, R. M. Fairhurst, G. R. Ostera, N. J. Brittain, J. Hwang, T. E. Wellems, and J. A. Dvorak, “Band 3 modifications in Plasmodium falciparum-infected AA and CC erythrocytes assayed by autocorrelation analysis using quantum dots,” J. Cell Sci.118(5), 1091–1098 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. Balzani, A. Credi, and M. Venturi, “Molecular machines working on surfaces and at interfaces,” ChemPhysChem9(2), 202–220 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z. R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, “Coupling and entangling of quantum states in quantum dot molecules,” Science291(5503), 451–453 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Z. P. Zhou, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, S. H. D. Lacerda, M. H. Zhao, J. A. Fagan, A. Shapiro, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Water-soluble DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon-nanotube/quantum-dot complexes,” Small5(19), 2149–2155 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. I. Klimov, J. A. McGuire, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Rupasov, “Scaling of multiexciton lifetimes in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B77(19), 195324 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41(12), 1810–1819 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Jones, J. Nedeljkovic, R. J. Ellingson, A. J. Nozik, and G. Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(41), 11346–11352 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Zhang, J. He, P. N. Wang, J. Y. Chen, Z. J. Lu, D. R. Lu, J. Guo, C. C. Wang, and W. L. Yang, “Time-dependent photoluminescence blue shift of the quantum dots in living cells: effect of oxidation by singlet oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(41), 13396–13401 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Edgar, M. McKinstry, J. Hwang, A. B. Oppenheim, R. A. Fekete, G. Giulian, C. Merril, K. Nagashima, and S. Adhya, “High-sensitivity bacterial detection using biotin-tagged phage and quantum-dot nanocomplexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4841–4845 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, M. McKinstry, S. H. De Paoli Lacerda, L. F. Pease, M. A. Dobrovolskaia, H. G. Kang, T. D. Read, S. Sozhamannan, and J. S. Hwang, “Quantitative characterization of quantum dot-labeled lambda phage for Escherichia coli detection,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.104(6), 1059–1067 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. G. Kang, F. Tokumasu, M. Clarke, Z. P. Zhou, J. Y. Tang, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Probing dynamic fluorescence properties of single and clustered quantum dots toward quantitative biomedical imaging of cells,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol2(1), 48–58 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Wang, C. Querner, M. D. Fischbein, L. Willis, D. S. Novikov, C. H. Crouch, and M. Drndic, “Blinking statistics correlated with nanoparticle number,” Nano Lett.8(11), 4020–4026 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. X. Y. Wang, J. Y. Zhang, A. Nazzal, and M. Xiao, “Photo-oxidation-enhanced coupling in densely packed CdSe quantum-dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 162–164 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Yu and A. Van Orden, “Enhanced fluorescence intermittency of CdSe-ZnS quantum-dot clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(23), 237402 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. P. Shepherd, K. J. Whitcomb, K. K. Milligan, P. M. Goodwin, M. P. Gelfand, and A. Van Orden, “Fluorescence Intermittency and Energy Transfer in Small Clusters of Semiconductor Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C114, 14831–14837 (2010).
  22. M. Roy, A. Kim, F. Dadani, and B. C. Wilson, “Homogenized tissue phantoms for quantitative evaluation of subsurface fluorescence contrast,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 016013 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. Van den Heuvel, H. C. Gerritsen, A. A. Bol, J. N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(35), 8281–8284 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. R. Krogmeier, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, P. Yim, and J. Hwang, “Probing the dynamic fluorescence properties of single water-soluble quantum dots,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1781–1788 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Y. Nazzal, X. Y. Wang, L. H. Qu, W. Yu, Y. J. Wang, X. G. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Environmental effects on photoluminescence of highly luminescent CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals in polymer thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(18), 5507–5515 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. F. Pease, “Optimizing the yield and selectivity of high purity nanoparticle clusters,” J. Nanopart. Res.13(5), 2157–2172 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, J. L. Hertz, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Packing and size determination of colloidal nanoclusters,” Langmuir26(13), 11384–11390 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. F. Pease, D. I. Lipin, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, L. H. L. Lua, M. J. Tarlov, and A. P. J. Middelberg, “Quantitative characterization of virus-like particles by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation, electrospray differential mobility analysis, and transmission electron microscopy,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(3), 845–855 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. L. F. Pease, J. T. Elliott, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Determination of protein aggregation with differential mobility analysis: application to IgG antibody,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.101(6), 1214–1222 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, L. F. Pease, M. J. Tarlov, and M. R. Zachariah, “Gas-phase ion-mobility characterization of SAM-functionalized Au nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(16), 8483–8490 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Quantifying the surface coverage of conjugate molecules on functionalized nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(46), 17155–17157 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. G. Kang, M. L. Clarke, J. Y. Tang, J. T. Woodward, S. G. Chou, Z. P. Zhou, J. R. Simpson, A. R. H. Walker, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Multimodal, nanoscale, hyperspectral imaging demonstrated on heterostructures of quantum dots and DNA-wrapped single-wall carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano3(11), 3769–3775 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. A. Wiedensohler, “An approximation of the bipolar charge-distribution for particles in the sub-micron size range,” J. Aerosol Sci.19(3), 387–389 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. Anumolu, J. A. Gustafson, J. J. Magda, J. Cappello, H. Ghandehari, and L. F. Pease, “Fabrication of highly uniform nanoparticles from recombinant silk-elastin-like protein polymers for therapeutic agent delivery,” ACS Nano5(7), 5374–5382 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. L. F. Pease, J. I. Feldblyum, S. H. Depaoli Lacaerda, Y. L. Liu, A. R. Hight Walker, R. Anumolu, P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, H. G. Kang, and J. Hwang, “Structural analysis of soft multicomponent nanoparticle clusters,” ACS Nano4(11), 6982–6988 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. J. J. Peterson and D. J. Nesbitt, “Modified power law behavior in quantum dot blinking: a novel role for biexcitons and auger ionization,” Nano Lett.9(1), 338–345 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. G. Schlegel, J. Bohnenberger, I. Potapova, and A. Mews, “Fluorescence decay time of single semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 137401 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, M. Sykora, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, and H. Htoon, “Two types of luminescence blinking revealed by spectroelectrochemistry of single quantum dots,” Nature479(7372), 203–207 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. A. Issac, S. Y. Jin, and T. Q. Lian, “Intermittent electron transfer activity from single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(34), 11280–11281 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. V. Veilleux, D. Lachance-Quirion, K. Doré, D. B. Landry, P. G. Charette, and C. N. Allen, “Strain-induced effects in colloidal quantum dots: lifetime measurements and blinking statistics,” Nanotechnology21(13), 134024 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. Tang, “The effects of anomalous diffusion on power-law blinking statistics of CdSe nanorods,” J. Chem. Phys.129(8), 084709 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

M. Roy, A. Kim, F. Dadani, and B. C. Wilson, “Homogenized tissue phantoms for quantitative evaluation of subsurface fluorescence contrast,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 016013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, “Optimizing the yield and selectivity of high purity nanoparticle clusters,” J. Nanopart. Res.13(5), 2157–2172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Anumolu, J. A. Gustafson, J. J. Magda, J. Cappello, H. Ghandehari, and L. F. Pease, “Fabrication of highly uniform nanoparticles from recombinant silk-elastin-like protein polymers for therapeutic agent delivery,” ACS Nano5(7), 5374–5382 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, M. Sykora, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, and H. Htoon, “Two types of luminescence blinking revealed by spectroelectrochemistry of single quantum dots,” Nature479(7372), 203–207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

V. Veilleux, D. Lachance-Quirion, K. Doré, D. B. Landry, P. G. Charette, and C. N. Allen, “Strain-induced effects in colloidal quantum dots: lifetime measurements and blinking statistics,” Nanotechnology21(13), 134024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Shepherd, K. J. Whitcomb, K. K. Milligan, P. M. Goodwin, M. P. Gelfand, and A. Van Orden, “Fluorescence Intermittency and Energy Transfer in Small Clusters of Semiconductor Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C114, 14831–14837 (2010).

L. F. Pease, J. I. Feldblyum, S. H. Depaoli Lacaerda, Y. L. Liu, A. R. Hight Walker, R. Anumolu, P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, H. G. Kang, and J. Hwang, “Structural analysis of soft multicomponent nanoparticle clusters,” ACS Nano4(11), 6982–6988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, J. L. Hertz, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Packing and size determination of colloidal nanoclusters,” Langmuir26(13), 11384–11390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Kang, F. Tokumasu, M. Clarke, Z. P. Zhou, J. Y. Tang, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Probing dynamic fluorescence properties of single and clustered quantum dots toward quantitative biomedical imaging of cells,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol2(1), 48–58 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Zhou, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, S. H. D. Lacerda, M. H. Zhao, J. A. Fagan, A. Shapiro, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Water-soluble DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon-nanotube/quantum-dot complexes,” Small5(19), 2149–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, D. I. Lipin, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, L. H. L. Lua, M. J. Tarlov, and A. P. J. Middelberg, “Quantitative characterization of virus-like particles by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation, electrospray differential mobility analysis, and transmission electron microscopy,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(3), 845–855 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, M. McKinstry, S. H. De Paoli Lacerda, L. F. Pease, M. A. Dobrovolskaia, H. G. Kang, T. D. Read, S. Sozhamannan, and J. S. Hwang, “Quantitative characterization of quantum dot-labeled lambda phage for Escherichia coli detection,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.104(6), 1059–1067 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Peterson and D. J. Nesbitt, “Modified power law behavior in quantum dot blinking: a novel role for biexcitons and auger ionization,” Nano Lett.9(1), 338–345 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Kang, M. L. Clarke, J. Y. Tang, J. T. Woodward, S. G. Chou, Z. P. Zhou, J. R. Simpson, A. R. H. Walker, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Multimodal, nanoscale, hyperspectral imaging demonstrated on heterostructures of quantum dots and DNA-wrapped single-wall carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano3(11), 3769–3775 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (10)

J. R. Krogmeier, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, P. Yim, and J. Hwang, “Probing the dynamic fluorescence properties of single water-soluble quantum dots,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1781–1788 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Pease, J. T. Elliott, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Determination of protein aggregation with differential mobility analysis: application to IgG antibody,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.101(6), 1214–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, L. F. Pease, M. J. Tarlov, and M. R. Zachariah, “Gas-phase ion-mobility characterization of SAM-functionalized Au nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(16), 8483–8490 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, J. A. McGuire, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Rupasov, “Scaling of multiexciton lifetimes in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B77(19), 195324 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41(12), 1810–1819 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, C. Querner, M. D. Fischbein, L. Willis, D. S. Novikov, C. H. Crouch, and M. Drndic, “Blinking statistics correlated with nanoparticle number,” Nano Lett.8(11), 4020–4026 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells. semiconductor nanocrystals as light harvesters,” J. Phys. Chem. C112, 18737–18753 (2008).

V. Balzani, A. Credi, and M. Venturi, “Molecular machines working on surfaces and at interfaces,” ChemPhysChem9(2), 202–220 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tang, “The effects of anomalous diffusion on power-law blinking statistics of CdSe nanorods,” J. Chem. Phys.129(8), 084709 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Issac, S. Y. Jin, and T. Q. Lian, “Intermittent electron transfer activity from single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(34), 11280–11281 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

L. D. True and X. H. Gao, “Quantum dots for molecular pathology: their time has arrived,” J. Mol. Diagn.9(1), 7–11 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Quantifying the surface coverage of conjugate molecules on functionalized nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(46), 17155–17157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

M. Yu and A. Van Orden, “Enhanced fluorescence intermittency of CdSe-ZnS quantum-dot clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(23), 237402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, “Mechanisms for photogeneration and recombination of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals: implications for lasing and solar energy conversion,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(34), 16827–16845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pathak, E. Cao, M. C. Davidson, S. H. Jin, and G. A. Silva, “Quantum dot applications to neuroscience: new tools for probing neurons and glia,” J. Neurosci.26(7), 1893–1895 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. He, P. N. Wang, J. Y. Chen, Z. J. Lu, D. R. Lu, J. Guo, C. C. Wang, and W. L. Yang, “Time-dependent photoluminescence blue shift of the quantum dots in living cells: effect of oxidation by singlet oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(41), 13396–13401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Edgar, M. McKinstry, J. Hwang, A. B. Oppenheim, R. A. Fekete, G. Giulian, C. Merril, K. Nagashima, and S. Adhya, “High-sensitivity bacterial detection using biotin-tagged phage and quantum-dot nanocomplexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4841–4845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. Howarth, K. Takao, Y. Hayashi, and A. Y. Ting, “Targeting quantum dots to surface proteins in living cells with biotin ligase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(21), 7583–7588 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tokumasu, R. M. Fairhurst, G. R. Ostera, N. J. Brittain, J. Hwang, T. E. Wellems, and J. A. Dvorak, “Band 3 modifications in Plasmodium falciparum-infected AA and CC erythrocytes assayed by autocorrelation analysis using quantum dots,” J. Cell Sci.118(5), 1091–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Y. Nazzal, X. Y. Wang, L. H. Qu, W. Yu, Y. J. Wang, X. G. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Environmental effects on photoluminescence of highly luminescent CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals in polymer thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(18), 5507–5515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

X. Y. Wang, J. Y. Zhang, A. Nazzal, and M. Xiao, “Photo-oxidation-enhanced coupling in densely packed CdSe quantum-dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 162–164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Jones, J. Nedeljkovic, R. J. Ellingson, A. J. Nozik, and G. Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(41), 11346–11352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Schlegel, J. Bohnenberger, I. Potapova, and A. Mews, “Fluorescence decay time of single semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 137401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. Van den Heuvel, H. C. Gerritsen, A. A. Bol, J. N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(35), 8281–8284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z. R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, “Coupling and entangling of quantum states in quantum dot molecules,” Science291(5503), 451–453 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

A. Wiedensohler, “An approximation of the bipolar charge-distribution for particles in the sub-micron size range,” J. Aerosol Sci.19(3), 387–389 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Adhya, S.

R. Edgar, M. McKinstry, J. Hwang, A. B. Oppenheim, R. A. Fekete, G. Giulian, C. Merril, K. Nagashima, and S. Adhya, “High-sensitivity bacterial detection using biotin-tagged phage and quantum-dot nanocomplexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4841–4845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, C. N.

V. Veilleux, D. Lachance-Quirion, K. Doré, D. B. Landry, P. G. Charette, and C. N. Allen, “Strain-induced effects in colloidal quantum dots: lifetime measurements and blinking statistics,” Nanotechnology21(13), 134024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aloni, S.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altoe, V.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anumolu, R.

R. Anumolu, J. A. Gustafson, J. J. Magda, J. Cappello, H. Ghandehari, and L. F. Pease, “Fabrication of highly uniform nanoparticles from recombinant silk-elastin-like protein polymers for therapeutic agent delivery,” ACS Nano5(7), 5374–5382 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, J. I. Feldblyum, S. H. Depaoli Lacaerda, Y. L. Liu, A. R. Hight Walker, R. Anumolu, P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, H. G. Kang, and J. Hwang, “Structural analysis of soft multicomponent nanoparticle clusters,” ACS Nano4(11), 6982–6988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balzani, V.

V. Balzani, A. Credi, and M. Venturi, “Molecular machines working on surfaces and at interfaces,” ChemPhysChem9(2), 202–220 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayer, M.

M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z. R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, “Coupling and entangling of quantum states in quantum dot molecules,” Science291(5503), 451–453 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohnenberger, J.

G. Schlegel, J. Bohnenberger, I. Potapova, and A. Mews, “Fluorescence decay time of single semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 137401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bol, A. A.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. Van den Heuvel, H. C. Gerritsen, A. A. Bol, J. N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(35), 8281–8284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brittain, N. J.

F. Tokumasu, R. M. Fairhurst, G. R. Ostera, N. J. Brittain, J. Hwang, T. E. Wellems, and J. A. Dvorak, “Band 3 modifications in Plasmodium falciparum-infected AA and CC erythrocytes assayed by autocorrelation analysis using quantum dots,” J. Cell Sci.118(5), 1091–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, E.

S. Pathak, E. Cao, M. C. Davidson, S. H. Jin, and G. A. Silva, “Quantum dot applications to neuroscience: new tools for probing neurons and glia,” J. Neurosci.26(7), 1893–1895 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cappello, J.

R. Anumolu, J. A. Gustafson, J. J. Magda, J. Cappello, H. Ghandehari, and L. F. Pease, “Fabrication of highly uniform nanoparticles from recombinant silk-elastin-like protein polymers for therapeutic agent delivery,” ACS Nano5(7), 5374–5382 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charette, P. G.

V. Veilleux, D. Lachance-Quirion, K. Doré, D. B. Landry, P. G. Charette, and C. N. Allen, “Strain-induced effects in colloidal quantum dots: lifetime measurements and blinking statistics,” Nanotechnology21(13), 134024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. Y.

Y. Zhang, J. He, P. N. Wang, J. Y. Chen, Z. J. Lu, D. R. Lu, J. Guo, C. C. Wang, and W. L. Yang, “Time-dependent photoluminescence blue shift of the quantum dots in living cells: effect of oxidation by singlet oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(41), 13396–13401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, S. G.

H. G. Kang, M. L. Clarke, J. Y. Tang, J. T. Woodward, S. G. Chou, Z. P. Zhou, J. R. Simpson, A. R. H. Walker, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Multimodal, nanoscale, hyperspectral imaging demonstrated on heterostructures of quantum dots and DNA-wrapped single-wall carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano3(11), 3769–3775 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarke, M.

H. G. Kang, F. Tokumasu, M. Clarke, Z. P. Zhou, J. Y. Tang, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Probing dynamic fluorescence properties of single and clustered quantum dots toward quantitative biomedical imaging of cells,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol2(1), 48–58 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarke, M. L.

L. F. Pease, J. I. Feldblyum, S. H. Depaoli Lacaerda, Y. L. Liu, A. R. Hight Walker, R. Anumolu, P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, H. G. Kang, and J. Hwang, “Structural analysis of soft multicomponent nanoparticle clusters,” ACS Nano4(11), 6982–6988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Kang, M. L. Clarke, J. Y. Tang, J. T. Woodward, S. G. Chou, Z. P. Zhou, J. R. Simpson, A. R. H. Walker, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Multimodal, nanoscale, hyperspectral imaging demonstrated on heterostructures of quantum dots and DNA-wrapped single-wall carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano3(11), 3769–3775 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Zhou, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, S. H. D. Lacerda, M. H. Zhao, J. A. Fagan, A. Shapiro, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Water-soluble DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon-nanotube/quantum-dot complexes,” Small5(19), 2149–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, M. McKinstry, S. H. De Paoli Lacerda, L. F. Pease, M. A. Dobrovolskaia, H. G. Kang, T. D. Read, S. Sozhamannan, and J. S. Hwang, “Quantitative characterization of quantum dot-labeled lambda phage for Escherichia coli detection,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.104(6), 1059–1067 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Krogmeier, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, P. Yim, and J. Hwang, “Probing the dynamic fluorescence properties of single water-soluble quantum dots,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1781–1788 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, B. E.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Credi, A.

V. Balzani, A. Credi, and M. Venturi, “Molecular machines working on surfaces and at interfaces,” ChemPhysChem9(2), 202–220 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crouch, C. H.

S. Wang, C. Querner, M. D. Fischbein, L. Willis, D. S. Novikov, C. H. Crouch, and M. Drndic, “Blinking statistics correlated with nanoparticle number,” Nano Lett.8(11), 4020–4026 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dadani, F.

M. Roy, A. Kim, F. Dadani, and B. C. Wilson, “Homogenized tissue phantoms for quantitative evaluation of subsurface fluorescence contrast,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 016013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, M. C.

S. Pathak, E. Cao, M. C. Davidson, S. H. Jin, and G. A. Silva, “Quantum dot applications to neuroscience: new tools for probing neurons and glia,” J. Neurosci.26(7), 1893–1895 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Mello Donegá, C.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. Van den Heuvel, H. C. Gerritsen, A. A. Bol, J. N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(35), 8281–8284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Paoli Lacerda, S. H.

P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, M. McKinstry, S. H. De Paoli Lacerda, L. F. Pease, M. A. Dobrovolskaia, H. G. Kang, T. D. Read, S. Sozhamannan, and J. S. Hwang, “Quantitative characterization of quantum dot-labeled lambda phage for Escherichia coli detection,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.104(6), 1059–1067 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depaoli Lacaerda, S. H.

L. F. Pease, J. I. Feldblyum, S. H. Depaoli Lacaerda, Y. L. Liu, A. R. Hight Walker, R. Anumolu, P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, H. G. Kang, and J. Hwang, “Structural analysis of soft multicomponent nanoparticle clusters,” ACS Nano4(11), 6982–6988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobrovolskaia, M. A.

P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, M. McKinstry, S. H. De Paoli Lacerda, L. F. Pease, M. A. Dobrovolskaia, H. G. Kang, T. D. Read, S. Sozhamannan, and J. S. Hwang, “Quantitative characterization of quantum dot-labeled lambda phage for Escherichia coli detection,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.104(6), 1059–1067 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doré, K.

V. Veilleux, D. Lachance-Quirion, K. Doré, D. B. Landry, P. G. Charette, and C. N. Allen, “Strain-induced effects in colloidal quantum dots: lifetime measurements and blinking statistics,” Nanotechnology21(13), 134024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drndic, M.

S. Wang, C. Querner, M. D. Fischbein, L. Willis, D. S. Novikov, C. H. Crouch, and M. Drndic, “Blinking statistics correlated with nanoparticle number,” Nano Lett.8(11), 4020–4026 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dvorak, J. A.

F. Tokumasu, R. M. Fairhurst, G. R. Ostera, N. J. Brittain, J. Hwang, T. E. Wellems, and J. A. Dvorak, “Band 3 modifications in Plasmodium falciparum-infected AA and CC erythrocytes assayed by autocorrelation analysis using quantum dots,” J. Cell Sci.118(5), 1091–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edgar, R.

R. Edgar, M. McKinstry, J. Hwang, A. B. Oppenheim, R. A. Fekete, G. Giulian, C. Merril, K. Nagashima, and S. Adhya, “High-sensitivity bacterial detection using biotin-tagged phage and quantum-dot nanocomplexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4841–4845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellingson, R. J.

M. Jones, J. Nedeljkovic, R. J. Ellingson, A. J. Nozik, and G. Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(41), 11346–11352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, J. T.

L. F. Pease, J. T. Elliott, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Determination of protein aggregation with differential mobility analysis: application to IgG antibody,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.101(6), 1214–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fafard, S.

M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z. R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, “Coupling and entangling of quantum states in quantum dot molecules,” Science291(5503), 451–453 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fagan, J. A.

Z. P. Zhou, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, S. H. D. Lacerda, M. H. Zhao, J. A. Fagan, A. Shapiro, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Water-soluble DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon-nanotube/quantum-dot complexes,” Small5(19), 2149–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fairhurst, R. M.

F. Tokumasu, R. M. Fairhurst, G. R. Ostera, N. J. Brittain, J. Hwang, T. E. Wellems, and J. A. Dvorak, “Band 3 modifications in Plasmodium falciparum-infected AA and CC erythrocytes assayed by autocorrelation analysis using quantum dots,” J. Cell Sci.118(5), 1091–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fekete, R. A.

R. Edgar, M. McKinstry, J. Hwang, A. B. Oppenheim, R. A. Fekete, G. Giulian, C. Merril, K. Nagashima, and S. Adhya, “High-sensitivity bacterial detection using biotin-tagged phage and quantum-dot nanocomplexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4841–4845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldblyum, J. I.

L. F. Pease, J. I. Feldblyum, S. H. Depaoli Lacaerda, Y. L. Liu, A. R. Hight Walker, R. Anumolu, P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, H. G. Kang, and J. Hwang, “Structural analysis of soft multicomponent nanoparticle clusters,” ACS Nano4(11), 6982–6988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischbein, M. D.

S. Wang, C. Querner, M. D. Fischbein, L. Willis, D. S. Novikov, C. H. Crouch, and M. Drndic, “Blinking statistics correlated with nanoparticle number,” Nano Lett.8(11), 4020–4026 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forchel, A.

M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z. R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, “Coupling and entangling of quantum states in quantum dot molecules,” Science291(5503), 451–453 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frederix, P. L. T. M.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. Van den Heuvel, H. C. Gerritsen, A. A. Bol, J. N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(35), 8281–8284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Galland, C.

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, M. Sykora, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, and H. Htoon, “Two types of luminescence blinking revealed by spectroelectrochemistry of single quantum dots,” Nature479(7372), 203–207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, X. H.

L. D. True and X. H. Gao, “Quantum dots for molecular pathology: their time has arrived,” J. Mol. Diagn.9(1), 7–11 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelfand, M. P.

D. P. Shepherd, K. J. Whitcomb, K. K. Milligan, P. M. Goodwin, M. P. Gelfand, and A. Van Orden, “Fluorescence Intermittency and Energy Transfer in Small Clusters of Semiconductor Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C114, 14831–14837 (2010).

Gerritsen, H. C.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. Van den Heuvel, H. C. Gerritsen, A. A. Bol, J. N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(35), 8281–8284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ghandehari, H.

R. Anumolu, J. A. Gustafson, J. J. Magda, J. Cappello, H. Ghandehari, and L. F. Pease, “Fabrication of highly uniform nanoparticles from recombinant silk-elastin-like protein polymers for therapeutic agent delivery,” ACS Nano5(7), 5374–5382 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, Y.

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, M. Sykora, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, and H. Htoon, “Two types of luminescence blinking revealed by spectroelectrochemistry of single quantum dots,” Nature479(7372), 203–207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giulian, G.

R. Edgar, M. McKinstry, J. Hwang, A. B. Oppenheim, R. A. Fekete, G. Giulian, C. Merril, K. Nagashima, and S. Adhya, “High-sensitivity bacterial detection using biotin-tagged phage and quantum-dot nanocomplexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4841–4845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodwin, P. M.

D. P. Shepherd, K. J. Whitcomb, K. K. Milligan, P. M. Goodwin, M. P. Gelfand, and A. Van Orden, “Fluorescence Intermittency and Energy Transfer in Small Clusters of Semiconductor Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C114, 14831–14837 (2010).

Guo, J.

Y. Zhang, J. He, P. N. Wang, J. Y. Chen, Z. J. Lu, D. R. Lu, J. Guo, C. C. Wang, and W. L. Yang, “Time-dependent photoluminescence blue shift of the quantum dots in living cells: effect of oxidation by singlet oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(41), 13396–13401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustafson, J. A.

R. Anumolu, J. A. Gustafson, J. J. Magda, J. Cappello, H. Ghandehari, and L. F. Pease, “Fabrication of highly uniform nanoparticles from recombinant silk-elastin-like protein polymers for therapeutic agent delivery,” ACS Nano5(7), 5374–5382 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, G.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawrylak, P.

M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z. R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, “Coupling and entangling of quantum states in quantum dot molecules,” Science291(5503), 451–453 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, Y.

M. Howarth, K. Takao, Y. Hayashi, and A. Y. Ting, “Targeting quantum dots to surface proteins in living cells with biotin ligase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(21), 7583–7588 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, J.

Y. Zhang, J. He, P. N. Wang, J. Y. Chen, Z. J. Lu, D. R. Lu, J. Guo, C. C. Wang, and W. L. Yang, “Time-dependent photoluminescence blue shift of the quantum dots in living cells: effect of oxidation by singlet oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(41), 13396–13401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertz, J. L.

L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, J. L. Hertz, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Packing and size determination of colloidal nanoclusters,” Langmuir26(13), 11384–11390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hight Walker, A. R.

L. F. Pease, J. I. Feldblyum, S. H. Depaoli Lacaerda, Y. L. Liu, A. R. Hight Walker, R. Anumolu, P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, H. G. Kang, and J. Hwang, “Structural analysis of soft multicomponent nanoparticle clusters,” ACS Nano4(11), 6982–6988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinzer, K.

M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z. R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, “Coupling and entangling of quantum states in quantum dot molecules,” Science291(5503), 451–453 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollingsworth, J. A.

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, M. Sykora, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, and H. Htoon, “Two types of luminescence blinking revealed by spectroelectrochemistry of single quantum dots,” Nature479(7372), 203–207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howarth, M.

M. Howarth, K. Takao, Y. Hayashi, and A. Y. Ting, “Targeting quantum dots to surface proteins in living cells with biotin ligase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(21), 7583–7588 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Htoon, H.

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, M. Sykora, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, and H. Htoon, “Two types of luminescence blinking revealed by spectroelectrochemistry of single quantum dots,” Nature479(7372), 203–207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, J.

L. F. Pease, J. I. Feldblyum, S. H. Depaoli Lacaerda, Y. L. Liu, A. R. Hight Walker, R. Anumolu, P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, H. G. Kang, and J. Hwang, “Structural analysis of soft multicomponent nanoparticle clusters,” ACS Nano4(11), 6982–6988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Kang, F. Tokumasu, M. Clarke, Z. P. Zhou, J. Y. Tang, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Probing dynamic fluorescence properties of single and clustered quantum dots toward quantitative biomedical imaging of cells,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol2(1), 48–58 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Kang, M. L. Clarke, J. Y. Tang, J. T. Woodward, S. G. Chou, Z. P. Zhou, J. R. Simpson, A. R. H. Walker, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Multimodal, nanoscale, hyperspectral imaging demonstrated on heterostructures of quantum dots and DNA-wrapped single-wall carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano3(11), 3769–3775 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Zhou, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, S. H. D. Lacerda, M. H. Zhao, J. A. Fagan, A. Shapiro, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Water-soluble DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon-nanotube/quantum-dot complexes,” Small5(19), 2149–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Krogmeier, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, P. Yim, and J. Hwang, “Probing the dynamic fluorescence properties of single water-soluble quantum dots,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1781–1788 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Edgar, M. McKinstry, J. Hwang, A. B. Oppenheim, R. A. Fekete, G. Giulian, C. Merril, K. Nagashima, and S. Adhya, “High-sensitivity bacterial detection using biotin-tagged phage and quantum-dot nanocomplexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4841–4845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tokumasu, R. M. Fairhurst, G. R. Ostera, N. J. Brittain, J. Hwang, T. E. Wellems, and J. A. Dvorak, “Band 3 modifications in Plasmodium falciparum-infected AA and CC erythrocytes assayed by autocorrelation analysis using quantum dots,” J. Cell Sci.118(5), 1091–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, J. S.

P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, M. McKinstry, S. H. De Paoli Lacerda, L. F. Pease, M. A. Dobrovolskaia, H. G. Kang, T. D. Read, S. Sozhamannan, and J. S. Hwang, “Quantitative characterization of quantum dot-labeled lambda phage for Escherichia coli detection,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.104(6), 1059–1067 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Issac, A.

A. Issac, S. Y. Jin, and T. Q. Lian, “Intermittent electron transfer activity from single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(34), 11280–11281 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, S. H.

S. Pathak, E. Cao, M. C. Davidson, S. H. Jin, and G. A. Silva, “Quantum dot applications to neuroscience: new tools for probing neurons and glia,” J. Neurosci.26(7), 1893–1895 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, S. Y.

A. Issac, S. Y. Jin, and T. Q. Lian, “Intermittent electron transfer activity from single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(34), 11280–11281 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, M.

M. Jones, J. Nedeljkovic, R. J. Ellingson, A. J. Nozik, and G. Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(41), 11346–11352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joo, J.

J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41(12), 1810–1819 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamat, P. V.

P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells. semiconductor nanocrystals as light harvesters,” J. Phys. Chem. C112, 18737–18753 (2008).

Kang, H.

Z. P. Zhou, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, S. H. D. Lacerda, M. H. Zhao, J. A. Fagan, A. Shapiro, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Water-soluble DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon-nanotube/quantum-dot complexes,” Small5(19), 2149–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Krogmeier, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, P. Yim, and J. Hwang, “Probing the dynamic fluorescence properties of single water-soluble quantum dots,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1781–1788 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H. G.

H. G. Kang, F. Tokumasu, M. Clarke, Z. P. Zhou, J. Y. Tang, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Probing dynamic fluorescence properties of single and clustered quantum dots toward quantitative biomedical imaging of cells,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol2(1), 48–58 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, J. I. Feldblyum, S. H. Depaoli Lacaerda, Y. L. Liu, A. R. Hight Walker, R. Anumolu, P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, H. G. Kang, and J. Hwang, “Structural analysis of soft multicomponent nanoparticle clusters,” ACS Nano4(11), 6982–6988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Kang, M. L. Clarke, J. Y. Tang, J. T. Woodward, S. G. Chou, Z. P. Zhou, J. R. Simpson, A. R. H. Walker, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Multimodal, nanoscale, hyperspectral imaging demonstrated on heterostructures of quantum dots and DNA-wrapped single-wall carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano3(11), 3769–3775 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, M. McKinstry, S. H. De Paoli Lacerda, L. F. Pease, M. A. Dobrovolskaia, H. G. Kang, T. D. Read, S. Sozhamannan, and J. S. Hwang, “Quantitative characterization of quantum dot-labeled lambda phage for Escherichia coli detection,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.104(6), 1059–1067 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, A.

M. Roy, A. Kim, F. Dadani, and B. C. Wilson, “Homogenized tissue phantoms for quantitative evaluation of subsurface fluorescence contrast,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 016013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klimov, V. I.

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, M. Sykora, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, and H. Htoon, “Two types of luminescence blinking revealed by spectroelectrochemistry of single quantum dots,” Nature479(7372), 203–207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41(12), 1810–1819 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, J. A. McGuire, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Rupasov, “Scaling of multiexciton lifetimes in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B77(19), 195324 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, “Mechanisms for photogeneration and recombination of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals: implications for lasing and solar energy conversion,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(34), 16827–16845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korkusinski, M.

M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z. R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, “Coupling and entangling of quantum states in quantum dot molecules,” Science291(5503), 451–453 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krogmeier, J. R.

J. R. Krogmeier, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, P. Yim, and J. Hwang, “Probing the dynamic fluorescence properties of single water-soluble quantum dots,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1781–1788 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lacerda, S. H. D.

Z. P. Zhou, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, S. H. D. Lacerda, M. H. Zhao, J. A. Fagan, A. Shapiro, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Water-soluble DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon-nanotube/quantum-dot complexes,” Small5(19), 2149–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lachance-Quirion, D.

V. Veilleux, D. Lachance-Quirion, K. Doré, D. B. Landry, P. G. Charette, and C. N. Allen, “Strain-induced effects in colloidal quantum dots: lifetime measurements and blinking statistics,” Nanotechnology21(13), 134024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landry, D. B.

V. Veilleux, D. Lachance-Quirion, K. Doré, D. B. Landry, P. G. Charette, and C. N. Allen, “Strain-induced effects in colloidal quantum dots: lifetime measurements and blinking statistics,” Nanotechnology21(13), 134024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lian, T. Q.

A. Issac, S. Y. Jin, and T. Q. Lian, “Intermittent electron transfer activity from single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(34), 11280–11281 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipin, D. I.

L. F. Pease, D. I. Lipin, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, L. H. L. Lua, M. J. Tarlov, and A. P. J. Middelberg, “Quantitative characterization of virus-like particles by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation, electrospray differential mobility analysis, and transmission electron microscopy,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(3), 845–855 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. L.

L. F. Pease, J. I. Feldblyum, S. H. Depaoli Lacaerda, Y. L. Liu, A. R. Hight Walker, R. Anumolu, P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, H. G. Kang, and J. Hwang, “Structural analysis of soft multicomponent nanoparticle clusters,” ACS Nano4(11), 6982–6988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, D. R.

Y. Zhang, J. He, P. N. Wang, J. Y. Chen, Z. J. Lu, D. R. Lu, J. Guo, C. C. Wang, and W. L. Yang, “Time-dependent photoluminescence blue shift of the quantum dots in living cells: effect of oxidation by singlet oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(41), 13396–13401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z. J.

Y. Zhang, J. He, P. N. Wang, J. Y. Chen, Z. J. Lu, D. R. Lu, J. Guo, C. C. Wang, and W. L. Yang, “Time-dependent photoluminescence blue shift of the quantum dots in living cells: effect of oxidation by singlet oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(41), 13396–13401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lua, L. H. L.

L. F. Pease, D. I. Lipin, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, L. H. L. Lua, M. J. Tarlov, and A. P. J. Middelberg, “Quantitative characterization of virus-like particles by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation, electrospray differential mobility analysis, and transmission electron microscopy,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(3), 845–855 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magda, J. J.

R. Anumolu, J. A. Gustafson, J. J. Magda, J. Cappello, H. Ghandehari, and L. F. Pease, “Fabrication of highly uniform nanoparticles from recombinant silk-elastin-like protein polymers for therapeutic agent delivery,” ACS Nano5(7), 5374–5382 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGuire, J. A.

J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41(12), 1810–1819 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, J. A. McGuire, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Rupasov, “Scaling of multiexciton lifetimes in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B77(19), 195324 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McKinstry, M.

P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, M. McKinstry, S. H. De Paoli Lacerda, L. F. Pease, M. A. Dobrovolskaia, H. G. Kang, T. D. Read, S. Sozhamannan, and J. S. Hwang, “Quantitative characterization of quantum dot-labeled lambda phage for Escherichia coli detection,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.104(6), 1059–1067 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Edgar, M. McKinstry, J. Hwang, A. B. Oppenheim, R. A. Fekete, G. Giulian, C. Merril, K. Nagashima, and S. Adhya, “High-sensitivity bacterial detection using biotin-tagged phage and quantum-dot nanocomplexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4841–4845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meijerink, A.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. Van den Heuvel, H. C. Gerritsen, A. A. Bol, J. N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(35), 8281–8284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Merril, C.

R. Edgar, M. McKinstry, J. Hwang, A. B. Oppenheim, R. A. Fekete, G. Giulian, C. Merril, K. Nagashima, and S. Adhya, “High-sensitivity bacterial detection using biotin-tagged phage and quantum-dot nanocomplexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4841–4845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mews, A.

G. Schlegel, J. Bohnenberger, I. Potapova, and A. Mews, “Fluorescence decay time of single semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 137401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Middelberg, A. P. J.

L. F. Pease, D. I. Lipin, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, L. H. L. Lua, M. J. Tarlov, and A. P. J. Middelberg, “Quantitative characterization of virus-like particles by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation, electrospray differential mobility analysis, and transmission electron microscopy,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(3), 845–855 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milligan, K. K.

D. P. Shepherd, K. J. Whitcomb, K. K. Milligan, P. M. Goodwin, M. P. Gelfand, and A. Van Orden, “Fluorescence Intermittency and Energy Transfer in Small Clusters of Semiconductor Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C114, 14831–14837 (2010).

Milliron, D. J.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagashima, K.

R. Edgar, M. McKinstry, J. Hwang, A. B. Oppenheim, R. A. Fekete, G. Giulian, C. Merril, K. Nagashima, and S. Adhya, “High-sensitivity bacterial detection using biotin-tagged phage and quantum-dot nanocomplexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4841–4845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nazzal, A.

X. Y. Wang, J. Y. Zhang, A. Nazzal, and M. Xiao, “Photo-oxidation-enhanced coupling in densely packed CdSe quantum-dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 162–164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nazzal, A. Y.

A. Y. Nazzal, X. Y. Wang, L. H. Qu, W. Yu, Y. J. Wang, X. G. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Environmental effects on photoluminescence of highly luminescent CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals in polymer thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(18), 5507–5515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nedeljkovic, J.

M. Jones, J. Nedeljkovic, R. J. Ellingson, A. J. Nozik, and G. Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(41), 11346–11352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nesbitt, D. J.

J. J. Peterson and D. J. Nesbitt, “Modified power law behavior in quantum dot blinking: a novel role for biexcitons and auger ionization,” Nano Lett.9(1), 338–345 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T.

H. G. Kang, F. Tokumasu, M. Clarke, Z. P. Zhou, J. Y. Tang, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Probing dynamic fluorescence properties of single and clustered quantum dots toward quantitative biomedical imaging of cells,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol2(1), 48–58 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Kang, M. L. Clarke, J. Y. Tang, J. T. Woodward, S. G. Chou, Z. P. Zhou, J. R. Simpson, A. R. H. Walker, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Multimodal, nanoscale, hyperspectral imaging demonstrated on heterostructures of quantum dots and DNA-wrapped single-wall carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano3(11), 3769–3775 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Zhou, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, S. H. D. Lacerda, M. H. Zhao, J. A. Fagan, A. Shapiro, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Water-soluble DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon-nanotube/quantum-dot complexes,” Small5(19), 2149–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novikov, D. S.

S. Wang, C. Querner, M. D. Fischbein, L. Willis, D. S. Novikov, C. H. Crouch, and M. Drndic, “Blinking statistics correlated with nanoparticle number,” Nano Lett.8(11), 4020–4026 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nozik, A. J.

M. Jones, J. Nedeljkovic, R. J. Ellingson, A. J. Nozik, and G. Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(41), 11346–11352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheim, A. B.

R. Edgar, M. McKinstry, J. Hwang, A. B. Oppenheim, R. A. Fekete, G. Giulian, C. Merril, K. Nagashima, and S. Adhya, “High-sensitivity bacterial detection using biotin-tagged phage and quantum-dot nanocomplexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4841–4845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ostera, G. R.

F. Tokumasu, R. M. Fairhurst, G. R. Ostera, N. J. Brittain, J. Hwang, T. E. Wellems, and J. A. Dvorak, “Band 3 modifications in Plasmodium falciparum-infected AA and CC erythrocytes assayed by autocorrelation analysis using quantum dots,” J. Cell Sci.118(5), 1091–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pathak, S.

S. Pathak, E. Cao, M. C. Davidson, S. H. Jin, and G. A. Silva, “Quantum dot applications to neuroscience: new tools for probing neurons and glia,” J. Neurosci.26(7), 1893–1895 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pease, L. F.

R. Anumolu, J. A. Gustafson, J. J. Magda, J. Cappello, H. Ghandehari, and L. F. Pease, “Fabrication of highly uniform nanoparticles from recombinant silk-elastin-like protein polymers for therapeutic agent delivery,” ACS Nano5(7), 5374–5382 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, “Optimizing the yield and selectivity of high purity nanoparticle clusters,” J. Nanopart. Res.13(5), 2157–2172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, J. L. Hertz, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Packing and size determination of colloidal nanoclusters,” Langmuir26(13), 11384–11390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, J. I. Feldblyum, S. H. Depaoli Lacaerda, Y. L. Liu, A. R. Hight Walker, R. Anumolu, P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, H. G. Kang, and J. Hwang, “Structural analysis of soft multicomponent nanoparticle clusters,” ACS Nano4(11), 6982–6988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, D. I. Lipin, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, L. H. L. Lua, M. J. Tarlov, and A. P. J. Middelberg, “Quantitative characterization of virus-like particles by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation, electrospray differential mobility analysis, and transmission electron microscopy,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(3), 845–855 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, M. McKinstry, S. H. De Paoli Lacerda, L. F. Pease, M. A. Dobrovolskaia, H. G. Kang, T. D. Read, S. Sozhamannan, and J. S. Hwang, “Quantitative characterization of quantum dot-labeled lambda phage for Escherichia coli detection,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.104(6), 1059–1067 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, J. T. Elliott, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Determination of protein aggregation with differential mobility analysis: application to IgG antibody,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.101(6), 1214–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, L. F. Pease, M. J. Tarlov, and M. R. Zachariah, “Gas-phase ion-mobility characterization of SAM-functionalized Au nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(16), 8483–8490 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Quantifying the surface coverage of conjugate molecules on functionalized nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(46), 17155–17157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X. G.

A. Y. Nazzal, X. Y. Wang, L. H. Qu, W. Yu, Y. J. Wang, X. G. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Environmental effects on photoluminescence of highly luminescent CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals in polymer thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(18), 5507–5515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, J. J.

J. J. Peterson and D. J. Nesbitt, “Modified power law behavior in quantum dot blinking: a novel role for biexcitons and auger ionization,” Nano Lett.9(1), 338–345 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pietryga, J. M.

J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41(12), 1810–1819 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potapova, I.

G. Schlegel, J. Bohnenberger, I. Potapova, and A. Mews, “Fluorescence decay time of single semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 137401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, L. H.

A. Y. Nazzal, X. Y. Wang, L. H. Qu, W. Yu, Y. J. Wang, X. G. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Environmental effects on photoluminescence of highly luminescent CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals in polymer thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(18), 5507–5515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Querner, C.

S. Wang, C. Querner, M. D. Fischbein, L. Willis, D. S. Novikov, C. H. Crouch, and M. Drndic, “Blinking statistics correlated with nanoparticle number,” Nano Lett.8(11), 4020–4026 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Read, T. D.

P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, M. McKinstry, S. H. De Paoli Lacerda, L. F. Pease, M. A. Dobrovolskaia, H. G. Kang, T. D. Read, S. Sozhamannan, and J. S. Hwang, “Quantitative characterization of quantum dot-labeled lambda phage for Escherichia coli detection,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.104(6), 1059–1067 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, M.

M. Roy, A. Kim, F. Dadani, and B. C. Wilson, “Homogenized tissue phantoms for quantitative evaluation of subsurface fluorescence contrast,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 016013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rumbles, G.

M. Jones, J. Nedeljkovic, R. J. Ellingson, A. J. Nozik, and G. Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(41), 11346–11352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rupasov, V. I.

V. I. Klimov, J. A. McGuire, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Rupasov, “Scaling of multiexciton lifetimes in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B77(19), 195324 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schaller, R. D.

V. I. Klimov, J. A. McGuire, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Rupasov, “Scaling of multiexciton lifetimes in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B77(19), 195324 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41(12), 1810–1819 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlegel, G.

G. Schlegel, J. Bohnenberger, I. Potapova, and A. Mews, “Fluorescence decay time of single semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 137401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuck, P. J.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, A.

Z. P. Zhou, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, S. H. D. Lacerda, M. H. Zhao, J. A. Fagan, A. Shapiro, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Water-soluble DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon-nanotube/quantum-dot complexes,” Small5(19), 2149–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shepherd, D. P.

D. P. Shepherd, K. J. Whitcomb, K. K. Milligan, P. M. Goodwin, M. P. Gelfand, and A. Van Orden, “Fluorescence Intermittency and Energy Transfer in Small Clusters of Semiconductor Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C114, 14831–14837 (2010).

Silva, G. A.

S. Pathak, E. Cao, M. C. Davidson, S. H. Jin, and G. A. Silva, “Quantum dot applications to neuroscience: new tools for probing neurons and glia,” J. Neurosci.26(7), 1893–1895 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, J. R.

H. G. Kang, M. L. Clarke, J. Y. Tang, J. T. Woodward, S. G. Chou, Z. P. Zhou, J. R. Simpson, A. R. H. Walker, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Multimodal, nanoscale, hyperspectral imaging demonstrated on heterostructures of quantum dots and DNA-wrapped single-wall carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano3(11), 3769–3775 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sozhamannan, S.

P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, M. McKinstry, S. H. De Paoli Lacerda, L. F. Pease, M. A. Dobrovolskaia, H. G. Kang, T. D. Read, S. Sozhamannan, and J. S. Hwang, “Quantitative characterization of quantum dot-labeled lambda phage for Escherichia coli detection,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.104(6), 1059–1067 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbrück, A.

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, M. Sykora, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, and H. Htoon, “Two types of luminescence blinking revealed by spectroelectrochemistry of single quantum dots,” Nature479(7372), 203–207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stern, O.

M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z. R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, “Coupling and entangling of quantum states in quantum dot molecules,” Science291(5503), 451–453 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sykora, M.

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, M. Sykora, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, and H. Htoon, “Two types of luminescence blinking revealed by spectroelectrochemistry of single quantum dots,” Nature479(7372), 203–207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takao, K.

M. Howarth, K. Takao, Y. Hayashi, and A. Y. Ting, “Targeting quantum dots to surface proteins in living cells with biotin ligase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(21), 7583–7588 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talapin, D. V.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, J.

J. Tang, “The effects of anomalous diffusion on power-law blinking statistics of CdSe nanorods,” J. Chem. Phys.129(8), 084709 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, J. Y.

H. G. Kang, F. Tokumasu, M. Clarke, Z. P. Zhou, J. Y. Tang, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Probing dynamic fluorescence properties of single and clustered quantum dots toward quantitative biomedical imaging of cells,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol2(1), 48–58 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Kang, M. L. Clarke, J. Y. Tang, J. T. Woodward, S. G. Chou, Z. P. Zhou, J. R. Simpson, A. R. H. Walker, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Multimodal, nanoscale, hyperspectral imaging demonstrated on heterostructures of quantum dots and DNA-wrapped single-wall carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano3(11), 3769–3775 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarlov, M. J.

L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, J. L. Hertz, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Packing and size determination of colloidal nanoclusters,” Langmuir26(13), 11384–11390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, D. I. Lipin, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, L. H. L. Lua, M. J. Tarlov, and A. P. J. Middelberg, “Quantitative characterization of virus-like particles by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation, electrospray differential mobility analysis, and transmission electron microscopy,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(3), 845–855 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, L. F. Pease, M. J. Tarlov, and M. R. Zachariah, “Gas-phase ion-mobility characterization of SAM-functionalized Au nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(16), 8483–8490 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, J. T. Elliott, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Determination of protein aggregation with differential mobility analysis: application to IgG antibody,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.101(6), 1214–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Quantifying the surface coverage of conjugate molecules on functionalized nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(46), 17155–17157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ting, A. Y.

M. Howarth, K. Takao, Y. Hayashi, and A. Y. Ting, “Targeting quantum dots to surface proteins in living cells with biotin ligase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(21), 7583–7588 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokumasu, F.

H. G. Kang, F. Tokumasu, M. Clarke, Z. P. Zhou, J. Y. Tang, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Probing dynamic fluorescence properties of single and clustered quantum dots toward quantitative biomedical imaging of cells,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol2(1), 48–58 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tokumasu, R. M. Fairhurst, G. R. Ostera, N. J. Brittain, J. Hwang, T. E. Wellems, and J. A. Dvorak, “Band 3 modifications in Plasmodium falciparum-infected AA and CC erythrocytes assayed by autocorrelation analysis using quantum dots,” J. Cell Sci.118(5), 1091–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

True, L. D.

L. D. True and X. H. Gao, “Quantum dots for molecular pathology: their time has arrived,” J. Mol. Diagn.9(1), 7–11 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. H.

L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, J. L. Hertz, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Packing and size determination of colloidal nanoclusters,” Langmuir26(13), 11384–11390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, D. I. Lipin, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, L. H. L. Lua, M. J. Tarlov, and A. P. J. Middelberg, “Quantitative characterization of virus-like particles by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation, electrospray differential mobility analysis, and transmission electron microscopy,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(3), 845–855 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, L. F. Pease, M. J. Tarlov, and M. R. Zachariah, “Gas-phase ion-mobility characterization of SAM-functionalized Au nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(16), 8483–8490 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, J. T. Elliott, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Determination of protein aggregation with differential mobility analysis: application to IgG antibody,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.101(6), 1214–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Quantifying the surface coverage of conjugate molecules on functionalized nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(46), 17155–17157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van den Heuvel, D. J.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. Van den Heuvel, H. C. Gerritsen, A. A. Bol, J. N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(35), 8281–8284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Lingen, J. N. J.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. Van den Heuvel, H. C. Gerritsen, A. A. Bol, J. N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(35), 8281–8284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Orden, A.

D. P. Shepherd, K. J. Whitcomb, K. K. Milligan, P. M. Goodwin, M. P. Gelfand, and A. Van Orden, “Fluorescence Intermittency and Energy Transfer in Small Clusters of Semiconductor Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C114, 14831–14837 (2010).

M. Yu and A. Van Orden, “Enhanced fluorescence intermittency of CdSe-ZnS quantum-dot clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(23), 237402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Sark, W. G. J. H. M.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. Van den Heuvel, H. C. Gerritsen, A. A. Bol, J. N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(35), 8281–8284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Veilleux, V.

V. Veilleux, D. Lachance-Quirion, K. Doré, D. B. Landry, P. G. Charette, and C. N. Allen, “Strain-induced effects in colloidal quantum dots: lifetime measurements and blinking statistics,” Nanotechnology21(13), 134024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venturi, M.

V. Balzani, A. Credi, and M. Venturi, “Molecular machines working on surfaces and at interfaces,” ChemPhysChem9(2), 202–220 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, A. R. H.

H. G. Kang, M. L. Clarke, J. Y. Tang, J. T. Woodward, S. G. Chou, Z. P. Zhou, J. R. Simpson, A. R. H. Walker, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Multimodal, nanoscale, hyperspectral imaging demonstrated on heterostructures of quantum dots and DNA-wrapped single-wall carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano3(11), 3769–3775 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. C.

Y. Zhang, J. He, P. N. Wang, J. Y. Chen, Z. J. Lu, D. R. Lu, J. Guo, C. C. Wang, and W. L. Yang, “Time-dependent photoluminescence blue shift of the quantum dots in living cells: effect of oxidation by singlet oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(41), 13396–13401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, P. N.

Y. Zhang, J. He, P. N. Wang, J. Y. Chen, Z. J. Lu, D. R. Lu, J. Guo, C. C. Wang, and W. L. Yang, “Time-dependent photoluminescence blue shift of the quantum dots in living cells: effect of oxidation by singlet oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(41), 13396–13401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, C. Querner, M. D. Fischbein, L. Willis, D. S. Novikov, C. H. Crouch, and M. Drndic, “Blinking statistics correlated with nanoparticle number,” Nano Lett.8(11), 4020–4026 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. Y.

A. Y. Nazzal, X. Y. Wang, L. H. Qu, W. Yu, Y. J. Wang, X. G. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Environmental effects on photoluminescence of highly luminescent CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals in polymer thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(18), 5507–5515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Wang, J. Y. Zhang, A. Nazzal, and M. Xiao, “Photo-oxidation-enhanced coupling in densely packed CdSe quantum-dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 162–164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. J.

A. Y. Nazzal, X. Y. Wang, L. H. Qu, W. Yu, Y. J. Wang, X. G. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Environmental effects on photoluminescence of highly luminescent CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals in polymer thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(18), 5507–5515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z. R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, “Coupling and entangling of quantum states in quantum dot molecules,” Science291(5503), 451–453 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wellems, T. E.

F. Tokumasu, R. M. Fairhurst, G. R. Ostera, N. J. Brittain, J. Hwang, T. E. Wellems, and J. A. Dvorak, “Band 3 modifications in Plasmodium falciparum-infected AA and CC erythrocytes assayed by autocorrelation analysis using quantum dots,” J. Cell Sci.118(5), 1091–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitcomb, K. J.

D. P. Shepherd, K. J. Whitcomb, K. K. Milligan, P. M. Goodwin, M. P. Gelfand, and A. Van Orden, “Fluorescence Intermittency and Energy Transfer in Small Clusters of Semiconductor Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C114, 14831–14837 (2010).

Wiedensohler, A.

A. Wiedensohler, “An approximation of the bipolar charge-distribution for particles in the sub-micron size range,” J. Aerosol Sci.19(3), 387–389 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Willis, L.

S. Wang, C. Querner, M. D. Fischbein, L. Willis, D. S. Novikov, C. H. Crouch, and M. Drndic, “Blinking statistics correlated with nanoparticle number,” Nano Lett.8(11), 4020–4026 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

M. Roy, A. Kim, F. Dadani, and B. C. Wilson, “Homogenized tissue phantoms for quantitative evaluation of subsurface fluorescence contrast,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 016013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woodward, J. T.

H. G. Kang, M. L. Clarke, J. Y. Tang, J. T. Woodward, S. G. Chou, Z. P. Zhou, J. R. Simpson, A. R. H. Walker, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Multimodal, nanoscale, hyperspectral imaging demonstrated on heterostructures of quantum dots and DNA-wrapped single-wall carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano3(11), 3769–3775 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. W.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

A. Y. Nazzal, X. Y. Wang, L. H. Qu, W. Yu, Y. J. Wang, X. G. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Environmental effects on photoluminescence of highly luminescent CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals in polymer thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(18), 5507–5515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Wang, J. Y. Zhang, A. Nazzal, and M. Xiao, “Photo-oxidation-enhanced coupling in densely packed CdSe quantum-dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 162–164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. L.

Y. Zhang, J. He, P. N. Wang, J. Y. Chen, Z. J. Lu, D. R. Lu, J. Guo, C. C. Wang, and W. L. Yang, “Time-dependent photoluminescence blue shift of the quantum dots in living cells: effect of oxidation by singlet oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(41), 13396–13401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yim, P.

J. R. Krogmeier, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, P. Yim, and J. Hwang, “Probing the dynamic fluorescence properties of single water-soluble quantum dots,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1781–1788 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yim, P. B.

L. F. Pease, J. I. Feldblyum, S. H. Depaoli Lacaerda, Y. L. Liu, A. R. Hight Walker, R. Anumolu, P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, H. G. Kang, and J. Hwang, “Structural analysis of soft multicomponent nanoparticle clusters,” ACS Nano4(11), 6982–6988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, M. McKinstry, S. H. De Paoli Lacerda, L. F. Pease, M. A. Dobrovolskaia, H. G. Kang, T. D. Read, S. Sozhamannan, and J. S. Hwang, “Quantitative characterization of quantum dot-labeled lambda phage for Escherichia coli detection,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.104(6), 1059–1067 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, M.

M. Yu and A. Van Orden, “Enhanced fluorescence intermittency of CdSe-ZnS quantum-dot clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(23), 237402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, W.

A. Y. Nazzal, X. Y. Wang, L. H. Qu, W. Yu, Y. J. Wang, X. G. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Environmental effects on photoluminescence of highly luminescent CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals in polymer thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(18), 5507–5515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zachariah, M. R.

L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, J. L. Hertz, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Packing and size determination of colloidal nanoclusters,” Langmuir26(13), 11384–11390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, D. I. Lipin, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, L. H. L. Lua, M. J. Tarlov, and A. P. J. Middelberg, “Quantitative characterization of virus-like particles by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation, electrospray differential mobility analysis, and transmission electron microscopy,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(3), 845–855 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, L. F. Pease, M. J. Tarlov, and M. R. Zachariah, “Gas-phase ion-mobility characterization of SAM-functionalized Au nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(16), 8483–8490 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, J. T. Elliott, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Determination of protein aggregation with differential mobility analysis: application to IgG antibody,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.101(6), 1214–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Quantifying the surface coverage of conjugate molecules on functionalized nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(46), 17155–17157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zangmeister, R. A.

L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, J. L. Hertz, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Packing and size determination of colloidal nanoclusters,” Langmuir26(13), 11384–11390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, L. F. Pease, M. J. Tarlov, and M. R. Zachariah, “Gas-phase ion-mobility characterization of SAM-functionalized Au nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(16), 8483–8490 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Quantifying the surface coverage of conjugate molecules on functionalized nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(46), 17155–17157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Y.

X. Y. Wang, J. Y. Zhang, A. Nazzal, and M. Xiao, “Photo-oxidation-enhanced coupling in densely packed CdSe quantum-dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 162–164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, J. He, P. N. Wang, J. Y. Chen, Z. J. Lu, D. R. Lu, J. Guo, C. C. Wang, and W. L. Yang, “Time-dependent photoluminescence blue shift of the quantum dots in living cells: effect of oxidation by singlet oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(41), 13396–13401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, M. H.

Z. P. Zhou, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, S. H. D. Lacerda, M. H. Zhao, J. A. Fagan, A. Shapiro, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Water-soluble DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon-nanotube/quantum-dot complexes,” Small5(19), 2149–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z. P.

H. G. Kang, F. Tokumasu, M. Clarke, Z. P. Zhou, J. Y. Tang, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Probing dynamic fluorescence properties of single and clustered quantum dots toward quantitative biomedical imaging of cells,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol2(1), 48–58 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Zhou, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, S. H. D. Lacerda, M. H. Zhao, J. A. Fagan, A. Shapiro, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Water-soluble DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon-nanotube/quantum-dot complexes,” Small5(19), 2149–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Kang, M. L. Clarke, J. Y. Tang, J. T. Woodward, S. G. Chou, Z. P. Zhou, J. R. Simpson, A. R. H. Walker, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Multimodal, nanoscale, hyperspectral imaging demonstrated on heterostructures of quantum dots and DNA-wrapped single-wall carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano3(11), 3769–3775 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41(12), 1810–1819 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (3)

H. G. Kang, M. L. Clarke, J. Y. Tang, J. T. Woodward, S. G. Chou, Z. P. Zhou, J. R. Simpson, A. R. H. Walker, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Multimodal, nanoscale, hyperspectral imaging demonstrated on heterostructures of quantum dots and DNA-wrapped single-wall carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano3(11), 3769–3775 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Anumolu, J. A. Gustafson, J. J. Magda, J. Cappello, H. Ghandehari, and L. F. Pease, “Fabrication of highly uniform nanoparticles from recombinant silk-elastin-like protein polymers for therapeutic agent delivery,” ACS Nano5(7), 5374–5382 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, J. I. Feldblyum, S. H. Depaoli Lacaerda, Y. L. Liu, A. R. Hight Walker, R. Anumolu, P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, H. G. Kang, and J. Hwang, “Structural analysis of soft multicomponent nanoparticle clusters,” ACS Nano4(11), 6982–6988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Y. Wang, J. Y. Zhang, A. Nazzal, and M. Xiao, “Photo-oxidation-enhanced coupling in densely packed CdSe quantum-dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 162–164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biotechnol. Bioeng. (3)

L. F. Pease, D. I. Lipin, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, L. H. L. Lua, M. J. Tarlov, and A. P. J. Middelberg, “Quantitative characterization of virus-like particles by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation, electrospray differential mobility analysis, and transmission electron microscopy,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(3), 845–855 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Pease, J. T. Elliott, D. H. Tsai, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Determination of protein aggregation with differential mobility analysis: application to IgG antibody,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.101(6), 1214–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Yim, M. L. Clarke, M. McKinstry, S. H. De Paoli Lacerda, L. F. Pease, M. A. Dobrovolskaia, H. G. Kang, T. D. Read, S. Sozhamannan, and J. S. Hwang, “Quantitative characterization of quantum dot-labeled lambda phage for Escherichia coli detection,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.104(6), 1059–1067 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ChemPhysChem (1)

V. Balzani, A. Credi, and M. Venturi, “Molecular machines working on surfaces and at interfaces,” ChemPhysChem9(2), 202–220 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

A. Wiedensohler, “An approximation of the bipolar charge-distribution for particles in the sub-micron size range,” J. Aerosol Sci.19(3), 387–389 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

Y. Zhang, J. He, P. N. Wang, J. Y. Chen, Z. J. Lu, D. R. Lu, J. Guo, C. C. Wang, and W. L. Yang, “Time-dependent photoluminescence blue shift of the quantum dots in living cells: effect of oxidation by singlet oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(41), 13396–13401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Issac, S. Y. Jin, and T. Q. Lian, “Intermittent electron transfer activity from single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(34), 11280–11281 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Roy, A. Kim, F. Dadani, and B. C. Wilson, “Homogenized tissue phantoms for quantitative evaluation of subsurface fluorescence contrast,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 016013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell Sci. (1)

F. Tokumasu, R. M. Fairhurst, G. R. Ostera, N. J. Brittain, J. Hwang, T. E. Wellems, and J. A. Dvorak, “Band 3 modifications in Plasmodium falciparum-infected AA and CC erythrocytes assayed by autocorrelation analysis using quantum dots,” J. Cell Sci.118(5), 1091–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Tang, “The effects of anomalous diffusion on power-law blinking statistics of CdSe nanorods,” J. Chem. Phys.129(8), 084709 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mol. Diagn. (1)

L. D. True and X. H. Gao, “Quantum dots for molecular pathology: their time has arrived,” J. Mol. Diagn.9(1), 7–11 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nanopart. Res. (1)

L. F. Pease, “Optimizing the yield and selectivity of high purity nanoparticle clusters,” J. Nanopart. Res.13(5), 2157–2172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. (1)

S. Pathak, E. Cao, M. C. Davidson, S. H. Jin, and G. A. Silva, “Quantum dot applications to neuroscience: new tools for probing neurons and glia,” J. Neurosci.26(7), 1893–1895 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (4)

V. I. Klimov, “Mechanisms for photogeneration and recombination of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals: implications for lasing and solar energy conversion,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(34), 16827–16845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jones, J. Nedeljkovic, R. J. Ellingson, A. J. Nozik, and G. Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(41), 11346–11352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Nazzal, X. Y. Wang, L. H. Qu, W. Yu, Y. J. Wang, X. G. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Environmental effects on photoluminescence of highly luminescent CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals in polymer thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(18), 5507–5515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. Van den Heuvel, H. C. Gerritsen, A. A. Bol, J. N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(35), 8281–8284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (3)

D. P. Shepherd, K. J. Whitcomb, K. K. Milligan, P. M. Goodwin, M. P. Gelfand, and A. Van Orden, “Fluorescence Intermittency and Energy Transfer in Small Clusters of Semiconductor Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C114, 14831–14837 (2010).

P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells. semiconductor nanocrystals as light harvesters,” J. Phys. Chem. C112, 18737–18753 (2008).

L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Quantifying the surface coverage of conjugate molecules on functionalized nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(46), 17155–17157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (2)

L. F. Pease, D. H. Tsai, J. L. Hertz, R. A. Zangmeister, M. R. Zachariah, and M. J. Tarlov, “Packing and size determination of colloidal nanoclusters,” Langmuir26(13), 11384–11390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Tsai, R. A. Zangmeister, L. F. Pease, M. J. Tarlov, and M. R. Zachariah, “Gas-phase ion-mobility characterization of SAM-functionalized Au nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(16), 8483–8490 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (2)

J. J. Peterson and D. J. Nesbitt, “Modified power law behavior in quantum dot blinking: a novel role for biexcitons and auger ionization,” Nano Lett.9(1), 338–345 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, C. Querner, M. D. Fischbein, L. Willis, D. S. Novikov, C. H. Crouch, and M. Drndic, “Blinking statistics correlated with nanoparticle number,” Nano Lett.8(11), 4020–4026 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

V. Veilleux, D. Lachance-Quirion, K. Doré, D. B. Landry, P. G. Charette, and C. N. Allen, “Strain-induced effects in colloidal quantum dots: lifetime measurements and blinking statistics,” Nanotechnology21(13), 134024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, M. Sykora, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, and H. Htoon, “Two types of luminescence blinking revealed by spectroelectrochemistry of single quantum dots,” Nature479(7372), 203–207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. R. Krogmeier, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, P. Yim, and J. Hwang, “Probing the dynamic fluorescence properties of single water-soluble quantum dots,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1781–1788 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. I. Klimov, J. A. McGuire, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Rupasov, “Scaling of multiexciton lifetimes in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B77(19), 195324 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Yu and A. Van Orden, “Enhanced fluorescence intermittency of CdSe-ZnS quantum-dot clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(23), 237402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schlegel, J. Bohnenberger, I. Potapova, and A. Mews, “Fluorescence decay time of single semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 137401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (3)

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Edgar, M. McKinstry, J. Hwang, A. B. Oppenheim, R. A. Fekete, G. Giulian, C. Merril, K. Nagashima, and S. Adhya, “High-sensitivity bacterial detection using biotin-tagged phage and quantum-dot nanocomplexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4841–4845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Howarth, K. Takao, Y. Hayashi, and A. Y. Ting, “Targeting quantum dots to surface proteins in living cells with biotin ligase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(21), 7583–7588 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z. R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, “Coupling and entangling of quantum states in quantum dot molecules,” Science291(5503), 451–453 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

Z. P. Zhou, H. Kang, M. L. Clarke, S. H. D. Lacerda, M. H. Zhao, J. A. Fagan, A. Shapiro, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Water-soluble DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon-nanotube/quantum-dot complexes,” Small5(19), 2149–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol (1)

H. G. Kang, F. Tokumasu, M. Clarke, Z. P. Zhou, J. Y. Tang, T. Nguyen, and J. Hwang, “Probing dynamic fluorescence properties of single and clustered quantum dots toward quantitative biomedical imaging of cells,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol2(1), 48–58 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup to generate and isolate nanoparticle clusters of a specific number of particles per cluster.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multimodal integrated confocal spectro-microscopy. A schematic diagram of the integrated confocal microscope setup capable of simultaneous measurements of PL lifetimes, PL emission spectra, and the photon counting of fluorescence intermittency of single QDs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TEM images of QD clusters and their size distributions following DMA separation. TEM images of (a) monomeric, (b) dimeric, (c) trimeric, and (d) tetrameric QDs collected on TEM grids using the ES-DMA technique. (e) Distribution of single QDs and clustered QDs after ES-DMA assembly/screening with Gaussian fits for the distribution of each population. The averaged length and width of the each single QD including shell and functionalized coating is about 11 nm and 4 nm, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral diffusion of single QDs in the cluster. Typical time evolution of the PL spectrum of (a) an isolated QD, (b) an isolated dimeric cluster, and (c) an isolated trimeric cluster. For clarity, the PL spectrum taken at each time point is normalized in order that all the maxima of all the spectra are of the same value.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simultaneously measured multiple dynamic PL characteristics of a single QD and a dimeric cluster. (a) PL intensity fluctuations of the PL emission photon counts with a bin time of 10 ms. The signal is colored according to the fitted peak PL emission wavelength as denoted in the color bar, with black used for signals below the fitting threshold. A histogram of this intensity fluctuation is presented on the right side of the plot; (b) spectrum vs. time; (c) PL lifetime vs. time where the data points with arrows denote anomalous increased lifetimes. (d-f) Dynamic PL characteristics of a dimeric QD cluster comparable to results from the single QD (see panels a-c). The red dotted lines are visual guides for the time period of photooxidation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Quantitative analysis of the dynamic PL characteristics. (a) PL lifetimes vs. PL intensities and (b) the on-time probability plot analyzed from two different time periods of the single QD data set (section (i), and section (ii) shown in Fig. 5(a), corresponding to before and during the photooxidation period, respectively). (c, d) Same plots from three different time periods of the dimeric QD data set (sections (i), (ii), and (iii) in Fig. 5(d), corresponding to before, during, and after the photooxidation period, respectively). In panels (a) and (c), mean and standard deviation are displayed over scatter plots.

Metrics