Abstract

Current treatment of unilateral breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is only directed to the afflicted arm. Near-infrared fluorescent imaging (NIRF) of arm lymphatic vessel architecture and function in BCRL and control subjects revealed a trend of increased lymphatic abnormalities in both the afflicted and unafflicted arms with increasing time after lymphedema onset. These pilot results show that BCRL may progress to affect the clinically “normal” arm, and suggest that cancer-related lymphedema may become a systemic, rather than local, malady. These findings support further study to understand the etiology of cancer-related lymphedema and lead to better diagnostics and therapeutics directed to the systemic lymphatic system.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. S. J. Pain, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, A. D. Purushotham, and A. M. Peters, “Local vascular access of radioprotein injected subcutaneously in healthy subjects and patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema,” J. Nucl. Med.45(5), 789–796 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  36. S. J. Pain, A. D. Purushotham, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Variation in lymphatic function may predispose to development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.30(5), 508–514 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. S. Modi, A. W. Stanton, W. E. Svensson, A. M. Peters, P. S. Mortimer, and J. R. Levick, “Human lymphatic pumping measured in healthy and lymphoedematous arms by lymphatic congestion lymphoscintigraphy,” J. Physiol.583(1), 271–285 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. S. K. Daley, M. J. Bernas, B. D. Stea, F. Bracamonte, M. McKenna, A. Stejskal, E. D. Hirleman, and M. H. Witte, “Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection,” Lymphology43(2), 48–58 (2010).
    [PubMed]

2012 (2)

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Translation of near-infrared fluorescence imaging technologies: emerging clinical applications,” Annu. Rev. Med.63(1), 217–231 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Burnand, D. M. Glass, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Lymphatic dysfunction in the apparently clinically normal contralateral limbs of patients with unilateral lower limb swelling,” Clin. Nucl. Med.37(1), 9–13 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (9)

A. Soran, W. C. Wu, A. Dirican, R. Johnson, O. Andacoglu, and J. Wilson, “Estimating the probability of lymphedema after breast cancer surgery,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol.34(5), 506–510 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. H. Ridner, M. S. Dietrich, B. R. Stewart, and J. M. Armer, “Body mass index and breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema,” Support. Care Cancer19(6), 853–857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, K. Doi, A. Oshima, H. Yoshimatsu, T. Todokoro, F. Ogata, M. Mihara, M. Narushima, T. Iida, and I. Koshima, “Indocyanine green-enhanced lymphography for upper extremity lymphedema: a novel severity staging system using dermal backflow patterns,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.128(4), 941–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Park, S. Kim, I. G. Jeong, C. Song, J. H. Hong, C. S. Kim, and H. Ahn, “Does the greater number of lymph nodes removed during standard lymph node dissection predict better patient survival following radical cystectomy?” World J. Urol.29(4), 443–449 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Giuliano, K. K. Hunt, K. V. Ballman, P. D. Beitsch, P. W. Whitworth, P. W. Blumencranz, A. M. Leitch, S. Saha, L. M. McCall, and M. Morrow, “Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA305(6), 569–575 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohba, Y. Todo, N. Kobayashi, M. Kaneuchi, H. Watari, M. Takeda, S. Sudo, M. Kudo, H. Kato, and N. Sakuragi, “Risk factors for lower-limb lymphedema after surgery for cervical cancer,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol.16(3), 238–243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. U. Cidón, C. Perea, and F. López-Lara, “Life after breast cancer: dealing with lymphoedema,” Clin Med Insights Oncol5, 9–14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stamatakos, C. Stefanaki, and K. Kontzoglou, “Lymphedema and breast cancer: a review of the literature,” Breast Cancer18(3), 174–180 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764.e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (12)

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. B. Chang, R. L. Askew, Y. Xing, S. Weaver, J. E. Gershenwald, J. E. Lee, R. Royal, A. Lucci, M. I. Ross, and J. N. Cormier, “Prospective assessment of postoperative complications and associated costs following inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) in melanoma patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.17(10), 2764–2772 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Klernäs, L. J. Kristjanson, and K. Johansson, “Assessment of quality of life in lymphedema patients: validity and reliability of the Swedish version of the Lymphedema Quality of Life Inventory (LQOLI),” Lymphology43(3), 135–145 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. N. Cormier, R. L. Askew, K. S. Mungovan, Y. Xing, M. I. Ross, and J. M. Armer, “Lymphedema beyond breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer-related secondary lymphedema,” Cancer116(22), 5138–5149 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Armer and B. R. Stewart, “Post-breast cancer lymphedema: incidence increases from 12 to 30 to 60 months,” Lymphology43(3), 118–127 (2010).
[PubMed]

L. M. Sena, S. J. Fishman, K. J. Jenkins, H. Xu, M. W. Brechbiel, C. A. Regino, N. Kosaka, M. Bernardo, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Magnetic resonance lymphangiography with a nano-sized gadolinium-labeled dendrimer in small and large animal models,” Nanomedicine (Lond)5(8), 1183–1191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. E. Chung, W. J. Hyung, S. Kweon, S. J. Lim, J. Choi, M. H. Lee, H. Kim, S. Myoung, and J. S. Lim, “Feasibility of interstitial CT lymphography using optimized iodized oil emulsion in rats,” Invest. Radiol.45(3), 142–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cooper, “Early diagnosis of lymphoedema helps to reduce its psychological and social impact,” Nurs. Times106(49–50), 15–17 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. V. Marshall, J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, K. E. Adams, X. Wang, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging in humans with indocyanine green: a review and update,” The Open Surg. Oncol. J.2(2), 12–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Kwan, J. Darbinian, K. H. Schmitz, R. Citron, P. Partee, S. E. Kutner, and L. H. Kushi, “Risk factors for lymphedema in a prospective breast cancer survivorship study: the Pathways Study,” Arch. Surg.145(11), 1055–1063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Daley, M. J. Bernas, B. D. Stea, F. Bracamonte, M. McKenna, A. Stejskal, E. D. Hirleman, and M. H. Witte, “Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection,” Lymphology43(2), 48–58 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

H. Tada, S. Teramukai, M. Fukushima, and H. Sasaki, “Risk factors for lower limb lymphedema after lymph node dissection in patients with ovarian and uterine carcinoma,” BMC Cancer9(1), 47 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kunos, F. Simpkins, H. Gibbons, C. Tian, and H. Homesley, “Radiation therapy compared with pelvic node resection for node-positive vulvar cancer: a randomized controlled trial,” Obstet. Gynecol.114(3), 537–546 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

R. Sharma, J. A. Wendt, J. C. Rasmussen, K. E. Adams, M. V. Marshall, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “New horizons for imaging lymphatic function,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.1131(1), 13–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Allan, A. J. Hayes, and J. M. Thomas, “Ilioinguinal lymph node dissection for palpable metastatic melanoma to the groin,” ANZ J. Surg.78(11), 982–986 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Spillane, R. P. Saw, M. Tucker, K. Byth, and J. F. Thompson, “Defining lower limb lymphedema after inguinal or ilio-inguinal dissection in patients with melanoma using classification and regression tree analysis,” Ann. Surg.248(2), 286–293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Stout Gergich, L. A. Pfalzer, C. McGarvey, B. Springer, L. H. Gerber, and P. Soballe, “Preoperative assessment enables the early diagnosis and successful treatment of lymphedema,” Cancer112(12), 2809–2819 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. Modi, A. W. Stanton, W. E. Svensson, A. M. Peters, P. S. Mortimer, and J. R. Levick, “Human lymphatic pumping measured in healthy and lymphoedematous arms by lymphatic congestion lymphoscintigraphy,” J. Physiol.583(1), 271–285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sato, “Current technical overviews of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer,” Breast Cancer14(4), 354–361 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

G. H. Sakorafas, G. Peros, L. Cataliotti, and G. Vlastos, “Lymphedema following axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer,” Surg. Oncol.15(3), 153–165 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. J. Pain, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, A. D. Purushotham, and A. M. Peters, “Local vascular access of radioprotein injected subcutaneously in healthy subjects and patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema,” J. Nucl. Med.45(5), 789–796 (2004).
[PubMed]

S. J. Pain, A. D. Purushotham, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Variation in lymphatic function may predispose to development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.30(5), 508–514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

D. S. Ko, R. Lerner, G. Klose, and A. B. Cosimi, “Effective treatment of lymphedema of the extremities,” Arch. Surg.133(4), 452–458 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, K. E.

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764.e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. V. Marshall, J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, K. E. Adams, X. Wang, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging in humans with indocyanine green: a review and update,” The Open Surg. Oncol. J.2(2), 12–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, J. A. Wendt, J. C. Rasmussen, K. E. Adams, M. V. Marshall, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “New horizons for imaging lymphatic function,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.1131(1), 13–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, H.

J. Park, S. Kim, I. G. Jeong, C. Song, J. H. Hong, C. S. Kim, and H. Ahn, “Does the greater number of lymph nodes removed during standard lymph node dissection predict better patient survival following radical cystectomy?” World J. Urol.29(4), 443–449 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aldrich, M. B.

M. V. Marshall, J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, K. E. Adams, X. Wang, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging in humans with indocyanine green: a review and update,” The Open Surg. Oncol. J.2(2), 12–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, C. P.

C. P. Allan, A. J. Hayes, and J. M. Thomas, “Ilioinguinal lymph node dissection for palpable metastatic melanoma to the groin,” ANZ J. Surg.78(11), 982–986 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andacoglu, O.

A. Soran, W. C. Wu, A. Dirican, R. Johnson, O. Andacoglu, and J. Wilson, “Estimating the probability of lymphedema after breast cancer surgery,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol.34(5), 506–510 (2011).
[PubMed]

Armer, J. M.

S. H. Ridner, M. S. Dietrich, B. R. Stewart, and J. M. Armer, “Body mass index and breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema,” Support. Care Cancer19(6), 853–857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Cormier, R. L. Askew, K. S. Mungovan, Y. Xing, M. I. Ross, and J. M. Armer, “Lymphedema beyond breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer-related secondary lymphedema,” Cancer116(22), 5138–5149 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Armer and B. R. Stewart, “Post-breast cancer lymphedema: incidence increases from 12 to 30 to 60 months,” Lymphology43(3), 118–127 (2010).
[PubMed]

Askew, R. L.

S. B. Chang, R. L. Askew, Y. Xing, S. Weaver, J. E. Gershenwald, J. E. Lee, R. Royal, A. Lucci, M. I. Ross, and J. N. Cormier, “Prospective assessment of postoperative complications and associated costs following inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) in melanoma patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.17(10), 2764–2772 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Cormier, R. L. Askew, K. S. Mungovan, Y. Xing, M. I. Ross, and J. M. Armer, “Lymphedema beyond breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer-related secondary lymphedema,” Cancer116(22), 5138–5149 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballinger, J. R.

S. J. Pain, A. D. Purushotham, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Variation in lymphatic function may predispose to development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.30(5), 508–514 (2004).
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S. J. Pain, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, A. D. Purushotham, and A. M. Peters, “Local vascular access of radioprotein injected subcutaneously in healthy subjects and patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema,” J. Nucl. Med.45(5), 789–796 (2004).
[PubMed]

Ballman, K. V.

A. E. Giuliano, K. K. Hunt, K. V. Ballman, P. D. Beitsch, P. W. Whitworth, P. W. Blumencranz, A. M. Leitch, S. Saha, L. M. McCall, and M. Morrow, “Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA305(6), 569–575 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barber, R. W.

S. J. Pain, A. D. Purushotham, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Variation in lymphatic function may predispose to development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.30(5), 508–514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Pain, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, A. D. Purushotham, and A. M. Peters, “Local vascular access of radioprotein injected subcutaneously in healthy subjects and patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema,” J. Nucl. Med.45(5), 789–796 (2004).
[PubMed]

Beitsch, P. D.

A. E. Giuliano, K. K. Hunt, K. V. Ballman, P. D. Beitsch, P. W. Whitworth, P. W. Blumencranz, A. M. Leitch, S. Saha, L. M. McCall, and M. Morrow, “Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA305(6), 569–575 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernardo, M.

L. M. Sena, S. J. Fishman, K. J. Jenkins, H. Xu, M. W. Brechbiel, C. A. Regino, N. Kosaka, M. Bernardo, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Magnetic resonance lymphangiography with a nano-sized gadolinium-labeled dendrimer in small and large animal models,” Nanomedicine (Lond)5(8), 1183–1191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernas, M. J.

S. K. Daley, M. J. Bernas, B. D. Stea, F. Bracamonte, M. McKenna, A. Stejskal, E. D. Hirleman, and M. H. Witte, “Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection,” Lymphology43(2), 48–58 (2010).
[PubMed]

Blumencranz, P. W.

A. E. Giuliano, K. K. Hunt, K. V. Ballman, P. D. Beitsch, P. W. Whitworth, P. W. Blumencranz, A. M. Leitch, S. Saha, L. M. McCall, and M. Morrow, “Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA305(6), 569–575 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bracamonte, F.

S. K. Daley, M. J. Bernas, B. D. Stea, F. Bracamonte, M. McKenna, A. Stejskal, E. D. Hirleman, and M. H. Witte, “Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection,” Lymphology43(2), 48–58 (2010).
[PubMed]

Brechbiel, M. W.

L. M. Sena, S. J. Fishman, K. J. Jenkins, H. Xu, M. W. Brechbiel, C. A. Regino, N. Kosaka, M. Bernardo, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Magnetic resonance lymphangiography with a nano-sized gadolinium-labeled dendrimer in small and large animal models,” Nanomedicine (Lond)5(8), 1183–1191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnand, K. M.

K. M. Burnand, D. M. Glass, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Lymphatic dysfunction in the apparently clinically normal contralateral limbs of patients with unilateral lower limb swelling,” Clin. Nucl. Med.37(1), 9–13 (2012).
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Byth, K.

A. J. Spillane, R. P. Saw, M. Tucker, K. Byth, and J. F. Thompson, “Defining lower limb lymphedema after inguinal or ilio-inguinal dissection in patients with melanoma using classification and regression tree analysis,” Ann. Surg.248(2), 286–293 (2008).
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Cataliotti, L.

G. H. Sakorafas, G. Peros, L. Cataliotti, and G. Vlastos, “Lymphedema following axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer,” Surg. Oncol.15(3), 153–165 (2006).
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Chan, W.

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764.e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. B.

S. B. Chang, R. L. Askew, Y. Xing, S. Weaver, J. E. Gershenwald, J. E. Lee, R. Royal, A. Lucci, M. I. Ross, and J. N. Cormier, “Prospective assessment of postoperative complications and associated costs following inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) in melanoma patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.17(10), 2764–2772 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J.

Y. E. Chung, W. J. Hyung, S. Kweon, S. J. Lim, J. Choi, M. H. Lee, H. Kim, S. Myoung, and J. S. Lim, “Feasibility of interstitial CT lymphography using optimized iodized oil emulsion in rats,” Invest. Radiol.45(3), 142–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choyke, P. L.

L. M. Sena, S. J. Fishman, K. J. Jenkins, H. Xu, M. W. Brechbiel, C. A. Regino, N. Kosaka, M. Bernardo, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Magnetic resonance lymphangiography with a nano-sized gadolinium-labeled dendrimer in small and large animal models,” Nanomedicine (Lond)5(8), 1183–1191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, Y. E.

Y. E. Chung, W. J. Hyung, S. Kweon, S. J. Lim, J. Choi, M. H. Lee, H. Kim, S. Myoung, and J. S. Lim, “Feasibility of interstitial CT lymphography using optimized iodized oil emulsion in rats,” Invest. Radiol.45(3), 142–148 (2010).
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E. U. Cidón, C. Perea, and F. López-Lara, “Life after breast cancer: dealing with lymphoedema,” Clin Med Insights Oncol5, 9–14 (2011).
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Citron, R.

M. L. Kwan, J. Darbinian, K. H. Schmitz, R. Citron, P. Partee, S. E. Kutner, and L. H. Kushi, “Risk factors for lymphedema in a prospective breast cancer survivorship study: the Pathways Study,” Arch. Surg.145(11), 1055–1063 (2010).
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Cooper, G.

G. Cooper, “Early diagnosis of lymphoedema helps to reduce its psychological and social impact,” Nurs. Times106(49–50), 15–17 (2010).
[PubMed]

Cormier, J. N.

J. N. Cormier, R. L. Askew, K. S. Mungovan, Y. Xing, M. I. Ross, and J. M. Armer, “Lymphedema beyond breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer-related secondary lymphedema,” Cancer116(22), 5138–5149 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Chang, R. L. Askew, Y. Xing, S. Weaver, J. E. Gershenwald, J. E. Lee, R. Royal, A. Lucci, M. I. Ross, and J. N. Cormier, “Prospective assessment of postoperative complications and associated costs following inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) in melanoma patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.17(10), 2764–2772 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cosimi, A. B.

D. S. Ko, R. Lerner, G. Klose, and A. B. Cosimi, “Effective treatment of lymphedema of the extremities,” Arch. Surg.133(4), 452–458 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Covington, K. R.

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

Daley, S. K.

S. K. Daley, M. J. Bernas, B. D. Stea, F. Bracamonte, M. McKenna, A. Stejskal, E. D. Hirleman, and M. H. Witte, “Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection,” Lymphology43(2), 48–58 (2010).
[PubMed]

Darbinian, J.

M. L. Kwan, J. Darbinian, K. H. Schmitz, R. Citron, P. Partee, S. E. Kutner, and L. H. Kushi, “Risk factors for lymphedema in a prospective breast cancer survivorship study: the Pathways Study,” Arch. Surg.145(11), 1055–1063 (2010).
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Darne, C.

Dietrich, M. S.

S. H. Ridner, M. S. Dietrich, B. R. Stewart, and J. M. Armer, “Body mass index and breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema,” Support. Care Cancer19(6), 853–857 (2011).
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Dirican, A.

A. Soran, W. C. Wu, A. Dirican, R. Johnson, O. Andacoglu, and J. Wilson, “Estimating the probability of lymphedema after breast cancer surgery,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol.34(5), 506–510 (2011).
[PubMed]

Doi, K.

T. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, K. Doi, A. Oshima, H. Yoshimatsu, T. Todokoro, F. Ogata, M. Mihara, M. Narushima, T. Iida, and I. Koshima, “Indocyanine green-enhanced lymphography for upper extremity lymphedema: a novel severity staging system using dermal backflow patterns,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.128(4), 941–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fife, C. E.

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764.e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
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J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. V. Marshall, J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, K. E. Adams, X. Wang, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging in humans with indocyanine green: a review and update,” The Open Surg. Oncol. J.2(2), 12–25 (2010).
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J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
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Fishman, S. J.

L. M. Sena, S. J. Fishman, K. J. Jenkins, H. Xu, M. W. Brechbiel, C. A. Regino, N. Kosaka, M. Bernardo, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Magnetic resonance lymphangiography with a nano-sized gadolinium-labeled dendrimer in small and large animal models,” Nanomedicine (Lond)5(8), 1183–1191 (2010).
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Fukushima, M.

H. Tada, S. Teramukai, M. Fukushima, and H. Sasaki, “Risk factors for lower limb lymphedema after lymph node dissection in patients with ovarian and uterine carcinoma,” BMC Cancer9(1), 47 (2009).
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N. L. Stout Gergich, L. A. Pfalzer, C. McGarvey, B. Springer, L. H. Gerber, and P. Soballe, “Preoperative assessment enables the early diagnosis and successful treatment of lymphedema,” Cancer112(12), 2809–2819 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gershenwald, J. E.

S. B. Chang, R. L. Askew, Y. Xing, S. Weaver, J. E. Gershenwald, J. E. Lee, R. Royal, A. Lucci, M. I. Ross, and J. N. Cormier, “Prospective assessment of postoperative complications and associated costs following inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) in melanoma patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.17(10), 2764–2772 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbons, H.

C. Kunos, F. Simpkins, H. Gibbons, C. Tian, and H. Homesley, “Radiation therapy compared with pelvic node resection for node-positive vulvar cancer: a randomized controlled trial,” Obstet. Gynecol.114(3), 537–546 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giuliano, A. E.

A. E. Giuliano, K. K. Hunt, K. V. Ballman, P. D. Beitsch, P. W. Whitworth, P. W. Blumencranz, A. M. Leitch, S. Saha, L. M. McCall, and M. Morrow, “Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA305(6), 569–575 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glass, D. M.

K. M. Burnand, D. M. Glass, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Lymphatic dysfunction in the apparently clinically normal contralateral limbs of patients with unilateral lower limb swelling,” Clin. Nucl. Med.37(1), 9–13 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guilloid, R.

Hayes, A. J.

C. P. Allan, A. J. Hayes, and J. M. Thomas, “Ilioinguinal lymph node dissection for palpable metastatic melanoma to the groin,” ANZ J. Surg.78(11), 982–986 (2008).
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Hirleman, E. D.

S. K. Daley, M. J. Bernas, B. D. Stea, F. Bracamonte, M. McKenna, A. Stejskal, E. D. Hirleman, and M. H. Witte, “Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection,” Lymphology43(2), 48–58 (2010).
[PubMed]

Homesley, H.

C. Kunos, F. Simpkins, H. Gibbons, C. Tian, and H. Homesley, “Radiation therapy compared with pelvic node resection for node-positive vulvar cancer: a randomized controlled trial,” Obstet. Gynecol.114(3), 537–546 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, J. H.

J. Park, S. Kim, I. G. Jeong, C. Song, J. H. Hong, C. S. Kim, and H. Ahn, “Does the greater number of lymph nodes removed during standard lymph node dissection predict better patient survival following radical cystectomy?” World J. Urol.29(4), 443–449 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoy, S.

Hunt, K. K.

A. E. Giuliano, K. K. Hunt, K. V. Ballman, P. D. Beitsch, P. W. Whitworth, P. W. Blumencranz, A. M. Leitch, S. Saha, L. M. McCall, and M. Morrow, “Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA305(6), 569–575 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyung, W. J.

Y. E. Chung, W. J. Hyung, S. Kweon, S. J. Lim, J. Choi, M. H. Lee, H. Kim, S. Myoung, and J. S. Lim, “Feasibility of interstitial CT lymphography using optimized iodized oil emulsion in rats,” Invest. Radiol.45(3), 142–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iida, T.

T. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, K. Doi, A. Oshima, H. Yoshimatsu, T. Todokoro, F. Ogata, M. Mihara, M. Narushima, T. Iida, and I. Koshima, “Indocyanine green-enhanced lymphography for upper extremity lymphedema: a novel severity staging system using dermal backflow patterns,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.128(4), 941–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, K. J.

L. M. Sena, S. J. Fishman, K. J. Jenkins, H. Xu, M. W. Brechbiel, C. A. Regino, N. Kosaka, M. Bernardo, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Magnetic resonance lymphangiography with a nano-sized gadolinium-labeled dendrimer in small and large animal models,” Nanomedicine (Lond)5(8), 1183–1191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, I. G.

J. Park, S. Kim, I. G. Jeong, C. Song, J. H. Hong, C. S. Kim, and H. Ahn, “Does the greater number of lymph nodes removed during standard lymph node dissection predict better patient survival following radical cystectomy?” World J. Urol.29(4), 443–449 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansson, K.

P. Klernäs, L. J. Kristjanson, and K. Johansson, “Assessment of quality of life in lymphedema patients: validity and reliability of the Swedish version of the Lymphedema Quality of Life Inventory (LQOLI),” Lymphology43(3), 135–145 (2010).
[PubMed]

Johnson, R.

A. Soran, W. C. Wu, A. Dirican, R. Johnson, O. Andacoglu, and J. Wilson, “Estimating the probability of lymphedema after breast cancer surgery,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol.34(5), 506–510 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kaneuchi, M.

Y. Ohba, Y. Todo, N. Kobayashi, M. Kaneuchi, H. Watari, M. Takeda, S. Sudo, M. Kudo, H. Kato, and N. Sakuragi, “Risk factors for lower-limb lymphedema after surgery for cervical cancer,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol.16(3), 238–243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, H.

Y. Ohba, Y. Todo, N. Kobayashi, M. Kaneuchi, H. Watari, M. Takeda, S. Sudo, M. Kudo, H. Kato, and N. Sakuragi, “Risk factors for lower-limb lymphedema after surgery for cervical cancer,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol.16(3), 238–243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C. S.

J. Park, S. Kim, I. G. Jeong, C. Song, J. H. Hong, C. S. Kim, and H. Ahn, “Does the greater number of lymph nodes removed during standard lymph node dissection predict better patient survival following radical cystectomy?” World J. Urol.29(4), 443–449 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

Y. E. Chung, W. J. Hyung, S. Kweon, S. J. Lim, J. Choi, M. H. Lee, H. Kim, S. Myoung, and J. S. Lim, “Feasibility of interstitial CT lymphography using optimized iodized oil emulsion in rats,” Invest. Radiol.45(3), 142–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

J. Park, S. Kim, I. G. Jeong, C. Song, J. H. Hong, C. S. Kim, and H. Ahn, “Does the greater number of lymph nodes removed during standard lymph node dissection predict better patient survival following radical cystectomy?” World J. Urol.29(4), 443–449 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klernäs, P.

P. Klernäs, L. J. Kristjanson, and K. Johansson, “Assessment of quality of life in lymphedema patients: validity and reliability of the Swedish version of the Lymphedema Quality of Life Inventory (LQOLI),” Lymphology43(3), 135–145 (2010).
[PubMed]

Klose, G.

D. S. Ko, R. Lerner, G. Klose, and A. B. Cosimi, “Effective treatment of lymphedema of the extremities,” Arch. Surg.133(4), 452–458 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, D. S.

D. S. Ko, R. Lerner, G. Klose, and A. B. Cosimi, “Effective treatment of lymphedema of the extremities,” Arch. Surg.133(4), 452–458 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, H.

L. M. Sena, S. J. Fishman, K. J. Jenkins, H. Xu, M. W. Brechbiel, C. A. Regino, N. Kosaka, M. Bernardo, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Magnetic resonance lymphangiography with a nano-sized gadolinium-labeled dendrimer in small and large animal models,” Nanomedicine (Lond)5(8), 1183–1191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, N.

Y. Ohba, Y. Todo, N. Kobayashi, M. Kaneuchi, H. Watari, M. Takeda, S. Sudo, M. Kudo, H. Kato, and N. Sakuragi, “Risk factors for lower-limb lymphedema after surgery for cervical cancer,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol.16(3), 238–243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kontzoglou, K.

M. Stamatakos, C. Stefanaki, and K. Kontzoglou, “Lymphedema and breast cancer: a review of the literature,” Breast Cancer18(3), 174–180 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosaka, N.

L. M. Sena, S. J. Fishman, K. J. Jenkins, H. Xu, M. W. Brechbiel, C. A. Regino, N. Kosaka, M. Bernardo, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Magnetic resonance lymphangiography with a nano-sized gadolinium-labeled dendrimer in small and large animal models,” Nanomedicine (Lond)5(8), 1183–1191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshima, I.

T. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, K. Doi, A. Oshima, H. Yoshimatsu, T. Todokoro, F. Ogata, M. Mihara, M. Narushima, T. Iida, and I. Koshima, “Indocyanine green-enhanced lymphography for upper extremity lymphedema: a novel severity staging system using dermal backflow patterns,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.128(4), 941–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristjanson, L. J.

P. Klernäs, L. J. Kristjanson, and K. Johansson, “Assessment of quality of life in lymphedema patients: validity and reliability of the Swedish version of the Lymphedema Quality of Life Inventory (LQOLI),” Lymphology43(3), 135–145 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kudo, M.

Y. Ohba, Y. Todo, N. Kobayashi, M. Kaneuchi, H. Watari, M. Takeda, S. Sudo, M. Kudo, H. Kato, and N. Sakuragi, “Risk factors for lower-limb lymphedema after surgery for cervical cancer,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol.16(3), 238–243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunos, C.

C. Kunos, F. Simpkins, H. Gibbons, C. Tian, and H. Homesley, “Radiation therapy compared with pelvic node resection for node-positive vulvar cancer: a randomized controlled trial,” Obstet. Gynecol.114(3), 537–546 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kushi, L. H.

M. L. Kwan, J. Darbinian, K. H. Schmitz, R. Citron, P. Partee, S. E. Kutner, and L. H. Kushi, “Risk factors for lymphedema in a prospective breast cancer survivorship study: the Pathways Study,” Arch. Surg.145(11), 1055–1063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kutner, S. E.

M. L. Kwan, J. Darbinian, K. H. Schmitz, R. Citron, P. Partee, S. E. Kutner, and L. H. Kushi, “Risk factors for lymphedema in a prospective breast cancer survivorship study: the Pathways Study,” Arch. Surg.145(11), 1055–1063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwan, M. L.

M. L. Kwan, J. Darbinian, K. H. Schmitz, R. Citron, P. Partee, S. E. Kutner, and L. H. Kushi, “Risk factors for lymphedema in a prospective breast cancer survivorship study: the Pathways Study,” Arch. Surg.145(11), 1055–1063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kweon, S.

Y. E. Chung, W. J. Hyung, S. Kweon, S. J. Lim, J. Choi, M. H. Lee, H. Kim, S. Myoung, and J. S. Lim, “Feasibility of interstitial CT lymphography using optimized iodized oil emulsion in rats,” Invest. Radiol.45(3), 142–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lee, J. E.

S. B. Chang, R. L. Askew, Y. Xing, S. Weaver, J. E. Gershenwald, J. E. Lee, R. Royal, A. Lucci, M. I. Ross, and J. N. Cormier, “Prospective assessment of postoperative complications and associated costs following inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) in melanoma patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.17(10), 2764–2772 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. H.

Y. E. Chung, W. J. Hyung, S. Kweon, S. J. Lim, J. Choi, M. H. Lee, H. Kim, S. Myoung, and J. S. Lim, “Feasibility of interstitial CT lymphography using optimized iodized oil emulsion in rats,” Invest. Radiol.45(3), 142–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitch, A. M.

A. E. Giuliano, K. K. Hunt, K. V. Ballman, P. D. Beitsch, P. W. Whitworth, P. W. Blumencranz, A. M. Leitch, S. Saha, L. M. McCall, and M. Morrow, “Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA305(6), 569–575 (2011).
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D. S. Ko, R. Lerner, G. Klose, and A. B. Cosimi, “Effective treatment of lymphedema of the extremities,” Arch. Surg.133(4), 452–458 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Modi, A. W. Stanton, W. E. Svensson, A. M. Peters, P. S. Mortimer, and J. R. Levick, “Human lymphatic pumping measured in healthy and lymphoedematous arms by lymphatic congestion lymphoscintigraphy,” J. Physiol.583(1), 271–285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, J. S.

Y. E. Chung, W. J. Hyung, S. Kweon, S. J. Lim, J. Choi, M. H. Lee, H. Kim, S. Myoung, and J. S. Lim, “Feasibility of interstitial CT lymphography using optimized iodized oil emulsion in rats,” Invest. Radiol.45(3), 142–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, S. J.

Y. E. Chung, W. J. Hyung, S. Kweon, S. J. Lim, J. Choi, M. H. Lee, H. Kim, S. Myoung, and J. S. Lim, “Feasibility of interstitial CT lymphography using optimized iodized oil emulsion in rats,” Invest. Radiol.45(3), 142–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

López-Lara, F.

E. U. Cidón, C. Perea, and F. López-Lara, “Life after breast cancer: dealing with lymphoedema,” Clin Med Insights Oncol5, 9–14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucci, A.

S. B. Chang, R. L. Askew, Y. Xing, S. Weaver, J. E. Gershenwald, J. E. Lee, R. Royal, A. Lucci, M. I. Ross, and J. N. Cormier, “Prospective assessment of postoperative complications and associated costs following inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) in melanoma patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.17(10), 2764–2772 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, M. V.

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764.e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Marshall, J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, K. E. Adams, X. Wang, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging in humans with indocyanine green: a review and update,” The Open Surg. Oncol. J.2(2), 12–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, J. A. Wendt, J. C. Rasmussen, K. E. Adams, M. V. Marshall, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “New horizons for imaging lymphatic function,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.1131(1), 13–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maus, E. A.

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764.e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. V. Marshall, J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, K. E. Adams, X. Wang, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging in humans with indocyanine green: a review and update,” The Open Surg. Oncol. J.2(2), 12–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. E. Giuliano, K. K. Hunt, K. V. Ballman, P. D. Beitsch, P. W. Whitworth, P. W. Blumencranz, A. M. Leitch, S. Saha, L. M. McCall, and M. Morrow, “Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA305(6), 569–575 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. L. Stout Gergich, L. A. Pfalzer, C. McGarvey, B. Springer, L. H. Gerber, and P. Soballe, “Preoperative assessment enables the early diagnosis and successful treatment of lymphedema,” Cancer112(12), 2809–2819 (2008).
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S. K. Daley, M. J. Bernas, B. D. Stea, F. Bracamonte, M. McKenna, A. Stejskal, E. D. Hirleman, and M. H. Witte, “Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection,” Lymphology43(2), 48–58 (2010).
[PubMed]

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T. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, K. Doi, A. Oshima, H. Yoshimatsu, T. Todokoro, F. Ogata, M. Mihara, M. Narushima, T. Iida, and I. Koshima, “Indocyanine green-enhanced lymphography for upper extremity lymphedema: a novel severity staging system using dermal backflow patterns,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.128(4), 941–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Modi, S.

S. Modi, A. W. Stanton, W. E. Svensson, A. M. Peters, P. S. Mortimer, and J. R. Levick, “Human lymphatic pumping measured in healthy and lymphoedematous arms by lymphatic congestion lymphoscintigraphy,” J. Physiol.583(1), 271–285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morrow, M.

A. E. Giuliano, K. K. Hunt, K. V. Ballman, P. D. Beitsch, P. W. Whitworth, P. W. Blumencranz, A. M. Leitch, S. Saha, L. M. McCall, and M. Morrow, “Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA305(6), 569–575 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mortimer, P. S.

K. M. Burnand, D. M. Glass, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Lymphatic dysfunction in the apparently clinically normal contralateral limbs of patients with unilateral lower limb swelling,” Clin. Nucl. Med.37(1), 9–13 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Modi, A. W. Stanton, W. E. Svensson, A. M. Peters, P. S. Mortimer, and J. R. Levick, “Human lymphatic pumping measured in healthy and lymphoedematous arms by lymphatic congestion lymphoscintigraphy,” J. Physiol.583(1), 271–285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Pain, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, A. D. Purushotham, and A. M. Peters, “Local vascular access of radioprotein injected subcutaneously in healthy subjects and patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema,” J. Nucl. Med.45(5), 789–796 (2004).
[PubMed]

S. J. Pain, A. D. Purushotham, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Variation in lymphatic function may predispose to development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.30(5), 508–514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. N. Cormier, R. L. Askew, K. S. Mungovan, Y. Xing, M. I. Ross, and J. M. Armer, “Lymphedema beyond breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer-related secondary lymphedema,” Cancer116(22), 5138–5149 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. E. Chung, W. J. Hyung, S. Kweon, S. J. Lim, J. Choi, M. H. Lee, H. Kim, S. Myoung, and J. S. Lim, “Feasibility of interstitial CT lymphography using optimized iodized oil emulsion in rats,” Invest. Radiol.45(3), 142–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, K. Doi, A. Oshima, H. Yoshimatsu, T. Todokoro, F. Ogata, M. Mihara, M. Narushima, T. Iida, and I. Koshima, “Indocyanine green-enhanced lymphography for upper extremity lymphedema: a novel severity staging system using dermal backflow patterns,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.128(4), 941–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, K. Doi, A. Oshima, H. Yoshimatsu, T. Todokoro, F. Ogata, M. Mihara, M. Narushima, T. Iida, and I. Koshima, “Indocyanine green-enhanced lymphography for upper extremity lymphedema: a novel severity staging system using dermal backflow patterns,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.128(4), 941–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Ohba, Y. Todo, N. Kobayashi, M. Kaneuchi, H. Watari, M. Takeda, S. Sudo, M. Kudo, H. Kato, and N. Sakuragi, “Risk factors for lower-limb lymphedema after surgery for cervical cancer,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol.16(3), 238–243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, K. Doi, A. Oshima, H. Yoshimatsu, T. Todokoro, F. Ogata, M. Mihara, M. Narushima, T. Iida, and I. Koshima, “Indocyanine green-enhanced lymphography for upper extremity lymphedema: a novel severity staging system using dermal backflow patterns,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.128(4), 941–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pain, S. J.

S. J. Pain, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, A. D. Purushotham, and A. M. Peters, “Local vascular access of radioprotein injected subcutaneously in healthy subjects and patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema,” J. Nucl. Med.45(5), 789–796 (2004).
[PubMed]

S. J. Pain, A. D. Purushotham, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Variation in lymphatic function may predispose to development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.30(5), 508–514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Park, S. Kim, I. G. Jeong, C. Song, J. H. Hong, C. S. Kim, and H. Ahn, “Does the greater number of lymph nodes removed during standard lymph node dissection predict better patient survival following radical cystectomy?” World J. Urol.29(4), 443–449 (2011).
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M. L. Kwan, J. Darbinian, K. H. Schmitz, R. Citron, P. Partee, S. E. Kutner, and L. H. Kushi, “Risk factors for lymphedema in a prospective breast cancer survivorship study: the Pathways Study,” Arch. Surg.145(11), 1055–1063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perea, C.

E. U. Cidón, C. Perea, and F. López-Lara, “Life after breast cancer: dealing with lymphoedema,” Clin Med Insights Oncol5, 9–14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peros, G.

G. H. Sakorafas, G. Peros, L. Cataliotti, and G. Vlastos, “Lymphedema following axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer,” Surg. Oncol.15(3), 153–165 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, A. M.

K. M. Burnand, D. M. Glass, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Lymphatic dysfunction in the apparently clinically normal contralateral limbs of patients with unilateral lower limb swelling,” Clin. Nucl. Med.37(1), 9–13 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Modi, A. W. Stanton, W. E. Svensson, A. M. Peters, P. S. Mortimer, and J. R. Levick, “Human lymphatic pumping measured in healthy and lymphoedematous arms by lymphatic congestion lymphoscintigraphy,” J. Physiol.583(1), 271–285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Pain, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, A. D. Purushotham, and A. M. Peters, “Local vascular access of radioprotein injected subcutaneously in healthy subjects and patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema,” J. Nucl. Med.45(5), 789–796 (2004).
[PubMed]

S. J. Pain, A. D. Purushotham, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Variation in lymphatic function may predispose to development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.30(5), 508–514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfalzer, L. A.

N. L. Stout Gergich, L. A. Pfalzer, C. McGarvey, B. Springer, L. H. Gerber, and P. Soballe, “Preoperative assessment enables the early diagnosis and successful treatment of lymphedema,” Cancer112(12), 2809–2819 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purushotham, A. D.

S. J. Pain, A. D. Purushotham, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Variation in lymphatic function may predispose to development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.30(5), 508–514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Pain, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, A. D. Purushotham, and A. M. Peters, “Local vascular access of radioprotein injected subcutaneously in healthy subjects and patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema,” J. Nucl. Med.45(5), 789–796 (2004).
[PubMed]

Rasmussen, J. C.

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764.e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Marshall, J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, K. E. Adams, X. Wang, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging in humans with indocyanine green: a review and update,” The Open Surg. Oncol. J.2(2), 12–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, J. A. Wendt, J. C. Rasmussen, K. E. Adams, M. V. Marshall, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “New horizons for imaging lymphatic function,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.1131(1), 13–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. M. Sena, S. J. Fishman, K. J. Jenkins, H. Xu, M. W. Brechbiel, C. A. Regino, N. Kosaka, M. Bernardo, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Magnetic resonance lymphangiography with a nano-sized gadolinium-labeled dendrimer in small and large animal models,” Nanomedicine (Lond)5(8), 1183–1191 (2010).
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S. H. Ridner, M. S. Dietrich, B. R. Stewart, and J. M. Armer, “Body mass index and breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema,” Support. Care Cancer19(6), 853–857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, M. I.

J. N. Cormier, R. L. Askew, K. S. Mungovan, Y. Xing, M. I. Ross, and J. M. Armer, “Lymphedema beyond breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer-related secondary lymphedema,” Cancer116(22), 5138–5149 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Chang, R. L. Askew, Y. Xing, S. Weaver, J. E. Gershenwald, J. E. Lee, R. Royal, A. Lucci, M. I. Ross, and J. N. Cormier, “Prospective assessment of postoperative complications and associated costs following inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) in melanoma patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.17(10), 2764–2772 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royal, R.

S. B. Chang, R. L. Askew, Y. Xing, S. Weaver, J. E. Gershenwald, J. E. Lee, R. Royal, A. Lucci, M. I. Ross, and J. N. Cormier, “Prospective assessment of postoperative complications and associated costs following inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) in melanoma patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.17(10), 2764–2772 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saha, S.

A. E. Giuliano, K. K. Hunt, K. V. Ballman, P. D. Beitsch, P. W. Whitworth, P. W. Blumencranz, A. M. Leitch, S. Saha, L. M. McCall, and M. Morrow, “Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA305(6), 569–575 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakorafas, G. H.

G. H. Sakorafas, G. Peros, L. Cataliotti, and G. Vlastos, “Lymphedema following axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer,” Surg. Oncol.15(3), 153–165 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakuragi, N.

Y. Ohba, Y. Todo, N. Kobayashi, M. Kaneuchi, H. Watari, M. Takeda, S. Sudo, M. Kudo, H. Kato, and N. Sakuragi, “Risk factors for lower-limb lymphedema after surgery for cervical cancer,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol.16(3), 238–243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, H.

H. Tada, S. Teramukai, M. Fukushima, and H. Sasaki, “Risk factors for lower limb lymphedema after lymph node dissection in patients with ovarian and uterine carcinoma,” BMC Cancer9(1), 47 (2009).
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K. Sato, “Current technical overviews of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer,” Breast Cancer14(4), 354–361 (2007).
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A. J. Spillane, R. P. Saw, M. Tucker, K. Byth, and J. F. Thompson, “Defining lower limb lymphedema after inguinal or ilio-inguinal dissection in patients with melanoma using classification and regression tree analysis,” Ann. Surg.248(2), 286–293 (2008).
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M. L. Kwan, J. Darbinian, K. H. Schmitz, R. Citron, P. Partee, S. E. Kutner, and L. H. Kushi, “Risk factors for lymphedema in a prospective breast cancer survivorship study: the Pathways Study,” Arch. Surg.145(11), 1055–1063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sena, L. M.

L. M. Sena, S. J. Fishman, K. J. Jenkins, H. Xu, M. W. Brechbiel, C. A. Regino, N. Kosaka, M. Bernardo, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Magnetic resonance lymphangiography with a nano-sized gadolinium-labeled dendrimer in small and large animal models,” Nanomedicine (Lond)5(8), 1183–1191 (2010).
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E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Translation of near-infrared fluorescence imaging technologies: emerging clinical applications,” Annu. Rev. Med.63(1), 217–231 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764.e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Marshall, J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, K. E. Adams, X. Wang, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging in humans with indocyanine green: a review and update,” The Open Surg. Oncol. J.2(2), 12–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, J. A. Wendt, J. C. Rasmussen, K. E. Adams, M. V. Marshall, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “New horizons for imaging lymphatic function,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.1131(1), 13–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, R.

R. Sharma, J. A. Wendt, J. C. Rasmussen, K. E. Adams, M. V. Marshall, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “New horizons for imaging lymphatic function,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.1131(1), 13–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Kunos, F. Simpkins, H. Gibbons, C. Tian, and H. Homesley, “Radiation therapy compared with pelvic node resection for node-positive vulvar cancer: a randomized controlled trial,” Obstet. Gynecol.114(3), 537–546 (2009).
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Smith, L. A.

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764.e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. V. Marshall, J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, K. E. Adams, X. Wang, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging in humans with indocyanine green: a review and update,” The Open Surg. Oncol. J.2(2), 12–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soballe, P.

N. L. Stout Gergich, L. A. Pfalzer, C. McGarvey, B. Springer, L. H. Gerber, and P. Soballe, “Preoperative assessment enables the early diagnosis and successful treatment of lymphedema,” Cancer112(12), 2809–2819 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solanki, C. K.

S. J. Pain, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, A. D. Purushotham, and A. M. Peters, “Local vascular access of radioprotein injected subcutaneously in healthy subjects and patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema,” J. Nucl. Med.45(5), 789–796 (2004).
[PubMed]

S. J. Pain, A. D. Purushotham, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Variation in lymphatic function may predispose to development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.30(5), 508–514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, C.

J. Park, S. Kim, I. G. Jeong, C. Song, J. H. Hong, C. S. Kim, and H. Ahn, “Does the greater number of lymph nodes removed during standard lymph node dissection predict better patient survival following radical cystectomy?” World J. Urol.29(4), 443–449 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soran, A.

A. Soran, W. C. Wu, A. Dirican, R. Johnson, O. Andacoglu, and J. Wilson, “Estimating the probability of lymphedema after breast cancer surgery,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol.34(5), 506–510 (2011).
[PubMed]

Spillane, A. J.

A. J. Spillane, R. P. Saw, M. Tucker, K. Byth, and J. F. Thompson, “Defining lower limb lymphedema after inguinal or ilio-inguinal dissection in patients with melanoma using classification and regression tree analysis,” Ann. Surg.248(2), 286–293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Springer, B.

N. L. Stout Gergich, L. A. Pfalzer, C. McGarvey, B. Springer, L. H. Gerber, and P. Soballe, “Preoperative assessment enables the early diagnosis and successful treatment of lymphedema,” Cancer112(12), 2809–2819 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamatakos, M.

M. Stamatakos, C. Stefanaki, and K. Kontzoglou, “Lymphedema and breast cancer: a review of the literature,” Breast Cancer18(3), 174–180 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanton, A. W.

S. Modi, A. W. Stanton, W. E. Svensson, A. M. Peters, P. S. Mortimer, and J. R. Levick, “Human lymphatic pumping measured in healthy and lymphoedematous arms by lymphatic congestion lymphoscintigraphy,” J. Physiol.583(1), 271–285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stea, B. D.

S. K. Daley, M. J. Bernas, B. D. Stea, F. Bracamonte, M. McKenna, A. Stejskal, E. D. Hirleman, and M. H. Witte, “Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection,” Lymphology43(2), 48–58 (2010).
[PubMed]

Stefanaki, C.

M. Stamatakos, C. Stefanaki, and K. Kontzoglou, “Lymphedema and breast cancer: a review of the literature,” Breast Cancer18(3), 174–180 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stejskal, A.

S. K. Daley, M. J. Bernas, B. D. Stea, F. Bracamonte, M. McKenna, A. Stejskal, E. D. Hirleman, and M. H. Witte, “Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection,” Lymphology43(2), 48–58 (2010).
[PubMed]

Stewart, B. R.

S. H. Ridner, M. S. Dietrich, B. R. Stewart, and J. M. Armer, “Body mass index and breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema,” Support. Care Cancer19(6), 853–857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Armer and B. R. Stewart, “Post-breast cancer lymphedema: incidence increases from 12 to 30 to 60 months,” Lymphology43(3), 118–127 (2010).
[PubMed]

Stout Gergich, N. L.

N. L. Stout Gergich, L. A. Pfalzer, C. McGarvey, B. Springer, L. H. Gerber, and P. Soballe, “Preoperative assessment enables the early diagnosis and successful treatment of lymphedema,” Cancer112(12), 2809–2819 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sudo, S.

Y. Ohba, Y. Todo, N. Kobayashi, M. Kaneuchi, H. Watari, M. Takeda, S. Sudo, M. Kudo, H. Kato, and N. Sakuragi, “Risk factors for lower-limb lymphedema after surgery for cervical cancer,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol.16(3), 238–243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svensson, W. E.

S. Modi, A. W. Stanton, W. E. Svensson, A. M. Peters, P. S. Mortimer, and J. R. Levick, “Human lymphatic pumping measured in healthy and lymphoedematous arms by lymphatic congestion lymphoscintigraphy,” J. Physiol.583(1), 271–285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tada, H.

H. Tada, S. Teramukai, M. Fukushima, and H. Sasaki, “Risk factors for lower limb lymphedema after lymph node dissection in patients with ovarian and uterine carcinoma,” BMC Cancer9(1), 47 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, M.

Y. Ohba, Y. Todo, N. Kobayashi, M. Kaneuchi, H. Watari, M. Takeda, S. Sudo, M. Kudo, H. Kato, and N. Sakuragi, “Risk factors for lower-limb lymphedema after surgery for cervical cancer,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol.16(3), 238–243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, I.-C.

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764.e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Marshall, J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, K. E. Adams, X. Wang, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging in humans with indocyanine green: a review and update,” The Open Surg. Oncol. J.2(2), 12–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teramukai, S.

H. Tada, S. Teramukai, M. Fukushima, and H. Sasaki, “Risk factors for lower limb lymphedema after lymph node dissection in patients with ovarian and uterine carcinoma,” BMC Cancer9(1), 47 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, J. M.

C. P. Allan, A. J. Hayes, and J. M. Thomas, “Ilioinguinal lymph node dissection for palpable metastatic melanoma to the groin,” ANZ J. Surg.78(11), 982–986 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, J. F.

A. J. Spillane, R. P. Saw, M. Tucker, K. Byth, and J. F. Thompson, “Defining lower limb lymphedema after inguinal or ilio-inguinal dissection in patients with melanoma using classification and regression tree analysis,” Ann. Surg.248(2), 286–293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, C.

C. Kunos, F. Simpkins, H. Gibbons, C. Tian, and H. Homesley, “Radiation therapy compared with pelvic node resection for node-positive vulvar cancer: a randomized controlled trial,” Obstet. Gynecol.114(3), 537–546 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Todo, Y.

Y. Ohba, Y. Todo, N. Kobayashi, M. Kaneuchi, H. Watari, M. Takeda, S. Sudo, M. Kudo, H. Kato, and N. Sakuragi, “Risk factors for lower-limb lymphedema after surgery for cervical cancer,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol.16(3), 238–243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Todokoro, T.

T. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, K. Doi, A. Oshima, H. Yoshimatsu, T. Todokoro, F. Ogata, M. Mihara, M. Narushima, T. Iida, and I. Koshima, “Indocyanine green-enhanced lymphography for upper extremity lymphedema: a novel severity staging system using dermal backflow patterns,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.128(4), 941–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tucker, M.

A. J. Spillane, R. P. Saw, M. Tucker, K. Byth, and J. F. Thompson, “Defining lower limb lymphedema after inguinal or ilio-inguinal dissection in patients with melanoma using classification and regression tree analysis,” Ann. Surg.248(2), 286–293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlastos, G.

G. H. Sakorafas, G. Peros, L. Cataliotti, and G. Vlastos, “Lymphedema following axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer,” Surg. Oncol.15(3), 153–165 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

M. V. Marshall, J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, K. E. Adams, X. Wang, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging in humans with indocyanine green: a review and update,” The Open Surg. Oncol. J.2(2), 12–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Watari, H.

Y. Ohba, Y. Todo, N. Kobayashi, M. Kaneuchi, H. Watari, M. Takeda, S. Sudo, M. Kudo, H. Kato, and N. Sakuragi, “Risk factors for lower-limb lymphedema after surgery for cervical cancer,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol.16(3), 238–243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weaver, S.

S. B. Chang, R. L. Askew, Y. Xing, S. Weaver, J. E. Gershenwald, J. E. Lee, R. Royal, A. Lucci, M. I. Ross, and J. N. Cormier, “Prospective assessment of postoperative complications and associated costs following inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) in melanoma patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.17(10), 2764–2772 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wendt, J. A.

R. Sharma, J. A. Wendt, J. C. Rasmussen, K. E. Adams, M. V. Marshall, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “New horizons for imaging lymphatic function,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.1131(1), 13–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitworth, P. W.

A. E. Giuliano, K. K. Hunt, K. V. Ballman, P. D. Beitsch, P. W. Whitworth, P. W. Blumencranz, A. M. Leitch, S. Saha, L. M. McCall, and M. Morrow, “Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA305(6), 569–575 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, J.

A. Soran, W. C. Wu, A. Dirican, R. Johnson, O. Andacoglu, and J. Wilson, “Estimating the probability of lymphedema after breast cancer surgery,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol.34(5), 506–510 (2011).
[PubMed]

Witte, M. H.

S. K. Daley, M. J. Bernas, B. D. Stea, F. Bracamonte, M. McKenna, A. Stejskal, E. D. Hirleman, and M. H. Witte, “Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection,” Lymphology43(2), 48–58 (2010).
[PubMed]

Wu, W. C.

A. Soran, W. C. Wu, A. Dirican, R. Johnson, O. Andacoglu, and J. Wilson, “Estimating the probability of lymphedema after breast cancer surgery,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol.34(5), 506–510 (2011).
[PubMed]

Xing, Y.

S. B. Chang, R. L. Askew, Y. Xing, S. Weaver, J. E. Gershenwald, J. E. Lee, R. Royal, A. Lucci, M. I. Ross, and J. N. Cormier, “Prospective assessment of postoperative complications and associated costs following inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) in melanoma patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.17(10), 2764–2772 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Cormier, R. L. Askew, K. S. Mungovan, Y. Xing, M. I. Ross, and J. M. Armer, “Lymphedema beyond breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer-related secondary lymphedema,” Cancer116(22), 5138–5149 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

L. M. Sena, S. J. Fishman, K. J. Jenkins, H. Xu, M. W. Brechbiel, C. A. Regino, N. Kosaka, M. Bernardo, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Magnetic resonance lymphangiography with a nano-sized gadolinium-labeled dendrimer in small and large animal models,” Nanomedicine (Lond)5(8), 1183–1191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, N.

T. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, K. Doi, A. Oshima, H. Yoshimatsu, T. Todokoro, F. Ogata, M. Mihara, M. Narushima, T. Iida, and I. Koshima, “Indocyanine green-enhanced lymphography for upper extremity lymphedema: a novel severity staging system using dermal backflow patterns,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.128(4), 941–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, K. Doi, A. Oshima, H. Yoshimatsu, T. Todokoro, F. Ogata, M. Mihara, M. Narushima, T. Iida, and I. Koshima, “Indocyanine green-enhanced lymphography for upper extremity lymphedema: a novel severity staging system using dermal backflow patterns,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.128(4), 941–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimatsu, H.

T. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, K. Doi, A. Oshima, H. Yoshimatsu, T. Todokoro, F. Ogata, M. Mihara, M. Narushima, T. Iida, and I. Koshima, “Indocyanine green-enhanced lymphography for upper extremity lymphedema: a novel severity staging system using dermal backflow patterns,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.128(4), 941–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

A. Soran, W. C. Wu, A. Dirican, R. Johnson, O. Andacoglu, and J. Wilson, “Estimating the probability of lymphedema after breast cancer surgery,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol.34(5), 506–510 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

R. Sharma, J. A. Wendt, J. C. Rasmussen, K. E. Adams, M. V. Marshall, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “New horizons for imaging lymphatic function,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.1131(1), 13–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. (1)

A. J. Spillane, R. P. Saw, M. Tucker, K. Byth, and J. F. Thompson, “Defining lower limb lymphedema after inguinal or ilio-inguinal dissection in patients with melanoma using classification and regression tree analysis,” Ann. Surg.248(2), 286–293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. Oncol. (1)

S. B. Chang, R. L. Askew, Y. Xing, S. Weaver, J. E. Gershenwald, J. E. Lee, R. Royal, A. Lucci, M. I. Ross, and J. N. Cormier, “Prospective assessment of postoperative complications and associated costs following inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) in melanoma patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.17(10), 2764–2772 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Med. (1)

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Translation of near-infrared fluorescence imaging technologies: emerging clinical applications,” Annu. Rev. Med.63(1), 217–231 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ANZ J. Surg. (1)

C. P. Allan, A. J. Hayes, and J. M. Thomas, “Ilioinguinal lymph node dissection for palpable metastatic melanoma to the groin,” ANZ J. Surg.78(11), 982–986 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. (1)

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.92(5), 756–764.e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Surg. (2)

M. L. Kwan, J. Darbinian, K. H. Schmitz, R. Citron, P. Partee, S. E. Kutner, and L. H. Kushi, “Risk factors for lymphedema in a prospective breast cancer survivorship study: the Pathways Study,” Arch. Surg.145(11), 1055–1063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ko, R. Lerner, G. Klose, and A. B. Cosimi, “Effective treatment of lymphedema of the extremities,” Arch. Surg.133(4), 452–458 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

BMC Cancer (1)

H. Tada, S. Teramukai, M. Fukushima, and H. Sasaki, “Risk factors for lower limb lymphedema after lymph node dissection in patients with ovarian and uterine carcinoma,” BMC Cancer9(1), 47 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breast Cancer (2)

K. Sato, “Current technical overviews of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer,” Breast Cancer14(4), 354–361 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stamatakos, C. Stefanaki, and K. Kontzoglou, “Lymphedema and breast cancer: a review of the literature,” Breast Cancer18(3), 174–180 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer (2)

J. N. Cormier, R. L. Askew, K. S. Mungovan, Y. Xing, M. I. Ross, and J. M. Armer, “Lymphedema beyond breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer-related secondary lymphedema,” Cancer116(22), 5138–5149 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Stout Gergich, L. A. Pfalzer, C. McGarvey, B. Springer, L. H. Gerber, and P. Soballe, “Preoperative assessment enables the early diagnosis and successful treatment of lymphedema,” Cancer112(12), 2809–2819 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin Med Insights Oncol (1)

E. U. Cidón, C. Perea, and F. López-Lara, “Life after breast cancer: dealing with lymphoedema,” Clin Med Insights Oncol5, 9–14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Nucl. Med. (1)

K. M. Burnand, D. M. Glass, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Lymphatic dysfunction in the apparently clinically normal contralateral limbs of patients with unilateral lower limb swelling,” Clin. Nucl. Med.37(1), 9–13 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. (1)

S. J. Pain, A. D. Purushotham, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, and A. M. Peters, “Variation in lymphatic function may predispose to development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.30(5), 508–514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

Y. Ohba, Y. Todo, N. Kobayashi, M. Kaneuchi, H. Watari, M. Takeda, S. Sudo, M. Kudo, H. Kato, and N. Sakuragi, “Risk factors for lower-limb lymphedema after surgery for cervical cancer,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol.16(3), 238–243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Radiol. (1)

Y. E. Chung, W. J. Hyung, S. Kweon, S. J. Lim, J. Choi, M. H. Lee, H. Kim, S. Myoung, and J. S. Lim, “Feasibility of interstitial CT lymphography using optimized iodized oil emulsion in rats,” Invest. Radiol.45(3), 142–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nucl. Med. (1)

S. J. Pain, R. W. Barber, J. R. Ballinger, C. K. Solanki, P. S. Mortimer, A. D. Purushotham, and A. M. Peters, “Local vascular access of radioprotein injected subcutaneously in healthy subjects and patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema,” J. Nucl. Med.45(5), 789–796 (2004).
[PubMed]

J. Physiol. (1)

S. Modi, A. W. Stanton, W. E. Svensson, A. M. Peters, P. S. Mortimer, and J. R. Levick, “Human lymphatic pumping measured in healthy and lymphoedematous arms by lymphatic congestion lymphoscintigraphy,” J. Physiol.583(1), 271–285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

JAMA (1)

A. E. Giuliano, K. K. Hunt, K. V. Ballman, P. D. Beitsch, P. W. Whitworth, P. W. Blumencranz, A. M. Leitch, S. Saha, L. M. McCall, and M. Morrow, “Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA305(6), 569–575 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lymphology (3)

S. K. Daley, M. J. Bernas, B. D. Stea, F. Bracamonte, M. McKenna, A. Stejskal, E. D. Hirleman, and M. H. Witte, “Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection,” Lymphology43(2), 48–58 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. M. Armer and B. R. Stewart, “Post-breast cancer lymphedema: incidence increases from 12 to 30 to 60 months,” Lymphology43(3), 118–127 (2010).
[PubMed]

P. Klernäs, L. J. Kristjanson, and K. Johansson, “Assessment of quality of life in lymphedema patients: validity and reliability of the Swedish version of the Lymphedema Quality of Life Inventory (LQOLI),” Lymphology43(3), 135–145 (2010).
[PubMed]

Nanomedicine (Lond) (1)

L. M. Sena, S. J. Fishman, K. J. Jenkins, H. Xu, M. W. Brechbiel, C. A. Regino, N. Kosaka, M. Bernardo, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Magnetic resonance lymphangiography with a nano-sized gadolinium-labeled dendrimer in small and large animal models,” Nanomedicine (Lond)5(8), 1183–1191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nurs. Times (1)

G. Cooper, “Early diagnosis of lymphoedema helps to reduce its psychological and social impact,” Nurs. Times106(49–50), 15–17 (2010).
[PubMed]

Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

C. Kunos, F. Simpkins, H. Gibbons, C. Tian, and H. Homesley, “Radiation therapy compared with pelvic node resection for node-positive vulvar cancer: a randomized controlled trial,” Obstet. Gynecol.114(3), 537–546 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (1)

T. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, K. Doi, A. Oshima, H. Yoshimatsu, T. Todokoro, F. Ogata, M. Mihara, M. Narushima, T. Iida, and I. Koshima, “Indocyanine green-enhanced lymphography for upper extremity lymphedema: a novel severity staging system using dermal backflow patterns,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.128(4), 941–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Support. Care Cancer (1)

S. H. Ridner, M. S. Dietrich, B. R. Stewart, and J. M. Armer, “Body mass index and breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema,” Support. Care Cancer19(6), 853–857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surg. Oncol. (1)

G. H. Sakorafas, G. Peros, L. Cataliotti, and G. Vlastos, “Lymphedema following axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer,” Surg. Oncol.15(3), 153–165 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The Open Surg. Oncol. J. (1)

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J. C. Rasmussen, I.-C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol3(6), 362–372 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. May, A. Bryant, H. O. Dickinson, S. Kehoe, and J. Morrison, “Lymphadenectomy for the management of endometrial cancer,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 1, Art. No. CD007585, Jan. 20, 2010.

J. E. Zuther, Lymphedema Management: the Comprehensive Guide for Practitioners (Thieme Medical, New York, 2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System used for NIRF lymphatic imaging. (a) Each system consists of a 785-nm excitation light source, a NIR-sensitive image intensifier, and a customized charge-coupled device (CCD) camera outfitted with filters to selectively collect ICG fluorescence at 830 nm. The emitted excitation light covered a maximal tissue surface area of approximately 900 cm2. Injected ICG typically entered lymphatic capillaries near injection sites, and then moved into pre-collector and collector lymphatic vessels in subject arms. (b) Indocyanine green (ICG) is injected intradermally for uptake by dermal lymphatic capillaries, which feed into lymphatic pre-collector and collector vessels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near-infrared images of lymphatic vessels in (a) dorsal hand, (b) dorsal forearm, (c) ventral forearm, (d) medial elbow, and (e) axilla of a healthy control subject. Yellow scale bars = 5 cm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

“Pumping,” or lymphatic propulsion, in a normal healthy control subject arm. Lymph “packets” are visible moving from valve to valve along lymphatic vessels Media 1. Shown are multiple lymphatic vessels in a normal, healthy control ventral forearm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical lymphatic architectural anomalies observed in BCRL subjects. (a) Hyperplasia/tortuous lymphatic vessels located on the medial elbow of a BCRL subject 13 years after onset (top) and the dorsal forearm of a subject 5 years after BCRL onset (bottom), (b) nonmobile extravascular ICG/hypoplasia on a dorsal hand of a subject 6 months after BCRL onset (top) and a dorsal forearm of a subject 6 months after BCRL onset (bottom), (c) mobile extravascular ICG/hypoplasia on the lateral forearm of a subject 6 months after BCRL onset (top) and on a medial elbow of a subject 6 months after BCRL onset (bottom), (d) punctuated ICG “clusters” located on the lateral forearm of a subject 5 years after BCRL onset (top) and on a lateral forearm of a subject 5 years after BCRL onset (bottom). Yellow scale bars = 5 cm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Unaffected and affected (b) arms from one subject in group 3 (5 years since BCRL onset). Blue arrows = tortuous vessels/hyperplasia, yellow arrows = nonmobile extravascular ICG, white arrows = mobile extravascular ICG. Yellow scale bars = 5 cm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Percent of images with architectural aberrations. Percent of (a) hands, (b) dorsal forearms, (c) ventral forearms, (d) medial elbows, and (e) axillary regions displaying lymphatic anomalies in groups 1 (6 months or less since onset), 2 (1-2 years since onset), and 3 (more than 5 years since onset).

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