Abstract

We demonstrate feasibility of endoscopic imaging of Cerenkov light originated when charged nuclear particles, emitted from radionuclides, travel through a biological tissue of living subjects at superluminal velocity. The endoscopy imaging system consists of conventional optical fiber bundle/ clinical endoscopes, an optical imaging lens system, and a sensitive low-noise charge coupled device (CCD) camera. Our systematic studies using phantom samples show that Cerenkov light from as low as 1 µCi of radioactivity emitted from 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) can be coupled and transmitted through conventional optical fibers and endoscopes. In vivo imaging experiments with tumor bearing mice, intravenously administered with 18F-FDG, further demonstrated that Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy is a promising new tool in the field of endoscopic molecular imaging.

© 2012 OSA

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  3. T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in living subjects: seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light,” Genes Dev.17(5), 545–580 (2003).
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  4. G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. S. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Wu, J. J. Liu, W. Adams, G. A. Sonn, K. E. Mach, Y. Pan, A. H. Beck, K. C. Jensen, and J. C. Liao, “Dynamic real-time microscopy of the urinary tract using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Urology78(1), 225–231 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
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  8. A. Quon and S. S. Gambhir, “FDG-PET and beyond: molecular breast cancer imaging,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(8), 1664–1673 (2005).
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  9. A. Iagaru, E. Mittra, S. S. Yaghoubi, D. W. Dick, A. Quon, M. L. Goris, and S. S. Gambhir, “Novel strategy for a cocktail 18F-fluoride and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan for evaluation of malignancy: results of the pilot-phase study,” J. Nucl. Med.50(4), 501–505 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  11. H. Vees, F. Buchegger, S. Albrecht, H. Khan, D. Husarik, H. Zaidi, D. Soloviev, T. F. Hany, and R. Miralbell, “18F-choline and/or 11C-acetate positron emission tomography: detection of residual or progressive subclinical disease at very low prostate-specific antigen values (<1 ng/mL) after radical prostatectomy,” BJU Int.99(6), 1415–1420 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Souvatzoglou, A. L. Grosu, B. Röper, B. J. Krause, R. Beck, G. Reischl, M. Picchio, H. J. Machulla, H. J. Wester, and M. Piert, “Tumour hypoxia imaging with [18F]FAZA PET in head and neck cancer patients: a pilot study,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging34(10), 1566–1575 (2007).
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  13. M. Bruehlmeier, U. Roelcke, P. A. Schubiger, and S. M. Ametamey, “Assessment of hypoxia and perfusion in human brain tumors using PET with 18F-fluoromisonidazole and 15O-H2O,” J. Nucl. Med.45(11), 1851–1859 (2004).
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  14. R. Amzat, P. Taleghani, B. Savir-Baruch, P. T. Nieh, V. A. Master, R. K. Halkar, M. M. Lewis, M. Faurot, L. M. Bellamy, M. M. Goodman, and D. M. Schuster, “Unusual presentations of metastatic prostate carcinoma as detected by anti-3 F-18 FACBC PET/CT,” Clin. Nucl. Med.36(9), 800–802 (2011).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE5(3), e9470 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, and S. R. Cherry, “Cerenkov luminescence tomography for small-animal imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 1109–1111 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. E. Spinelli, C. Kuo, B. W. Rice, R. Calandrino, P. Marzola, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “Multispectral Cerenkov luminescence tomography for small animal optical imaging,” Opt. Express19(13), 12605–12618 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Xu, E. Chang, H. Liu, H. Jiang, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Proof-of-concept study of monitoring cancer drug therapy with cerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.53(2), 312–317 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Y. Xu, H. Liu, and Z. Cheng, “Harnessing the power of radionuclides for optical imaging: Cerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.52(12), 2009–2018 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. (to be published).
  24. S. Kosuda, P. V. Kison, R. Greenough, H. B. Grossman, and R. L. Wahl, “Preliminary assessment of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with bladder cancer,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med.24(6), 615–620 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  25. “Fibers get special,” Nat. Photonics5(8), 461 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

M. L. James and S. S. Gambhir, “A molecular imaging primer: modalities, imaging agents, and applications,” Physiol. Rev.92(2), 897–965 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, E. Chang, H. Liu, H. Jiang, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Proof-of-concept study of monitoring cancer drug therapy with cerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.53(2), 312–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

Y. Xu, H. Liu, and Z. Cheng, “Harnessing the power of radionuclides for optical imaging: Cerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.52(12), 2009–2018 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Spinelli, C. Kuo, B. W. Rice, R. Calandrino, P. Marzola, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “Multispectral Cerenkov luminescence tomography for small animal optical imaging,” Opt. Express19(13), 12605–12618 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

“Fibers get special,” Nat. Photonics5(8), 461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Wu, J. J. Liu, W. Adams, G. A. Sonn, K. E. Mach, Y. Pan, A. H. Beck, K. C. Jensen, and J. C. Liao, “Dynamic real-time microscopy of the urinary tract using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Urology78(1), 225–231 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Amzat, P. Taleghani, B. Savir-Baruch, P. T. Nieh, V. A. Master, R. K. Halkar, M. M. Lewis, M. Faurot, L. M. Bellamy, M. M. Goodman, and D. M. Schuster, “Unusual presentations of metastatic prostate carcinoma as detected by anti-3 F-18 FACBC PET/CT,” Clin. Nucl. Med.36(9), 800–802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zhu and H. Shim, “Current molecular imaging positron emitting radiotracers in oncology,” Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging45(1), 1–14 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, and S. R. Cherry, “Cerenkov luminescence tomography for small-animal imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 1109–1111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Iagaru, E. Mittra, S. S. Yaghoubi, D. W. Dick, A. Quon, M. L. Goris, and S. S. Gambhir, “Novel strategy for a cocktail 18F-fluoride and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan for evaluation of malignancy: results of the pilot-phase study,” J. Nucl. Med.50(4), 501–505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Cerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. Buscombe, H. Hirji, and C. Witney-Smith, “Nuclear medicine in the management of thyroid disease,” Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther.8(9), 1425–1431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. S. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

H. Vees, F. Buchegger, S. Albrecht, H. Khan, D. Husarik, H. Zaidi, D. Soloviev, T. F. Hany, and R. Miralbell, “18F-choline and/or 11C-acetate positron emission tomography: detection of residual or progressive subclinical disease at very low prostate-specific antigen values (<1 ng/mL) after radical prostatectomy,” BJU Int.99(6), 1415–1420 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Souvatzoglou, A. L. Grosu, B. Röper, B. J. Krause, R. Beck, G. Reischl, M. Picchio, H. J. Machulla, H. J. Wester, and M. Piert, “Tumour hypoxia imaging with [18F]FAZA PET in head and neck cancer patients: a pilot study,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging34(10), 1566–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Quon and S. S. Gambhir, “FDG-PET and beyond: molecular breast cancer imaging,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(8), 1664–1673 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

H. Schöder and S. M. Larson, “Positron emission tomography for prostate, bladder, and renal cancer,” Semin. Nucl. Med.34(4), 274–292 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bruehlmeier, U. Roelcke, P. A. Schubiger, and S. M. Ametamey, “Assessment of hypoxia and perfusion in human brain tumors using PET with 18F-fluoromisonidazole and 15O-H2O,” J. Nucl. Med.45(11), 1851–1859 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in living subjects: seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light,” Genes Dev.17(5), 545–580 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. Weissleder, “Scaling down imaging: molecular mapping of cancer in mice,” Nat. Rev. Cancer2(1), 11–18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “In vivo identification of colonic dysplasia using fluorescence endoscopic imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.49(4), 447–455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

S. Kosuda, P. V. Kison, R. Greenough, H. B. Grossman, and R. L. Wahl, “Preliminary assessment of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with bladder cancer,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med.24(6), 615–620 (1997).
[PubMed]

Adams, W.

K. Wu, J. J. Liu, W. Adams, G. A. Sonn, K. E. Mach, Y. Pan, A. H. Beck, K. C. Jensen, and J. C. Liao, “Dynamic real-time microscopy of the urinary tract using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Urology78(1), 225–231 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albrecht, S.

H. Vees, F. Buchegger, S. Albrecht, H. Khan, D. Husarik, H. Zaidi, D. Soloviev, T. F. Hany, and R. Miralbell, “18F-choline and/or 11C-acetate positron emission tomography: detection of residual or progressive subclinical disease at very low prostate-specific antigen values (<1 ng/mL) after radical prostatectomy,” BJU Int.99(6), 1415–1420 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ametamey, S. M.

M. Bruehlmeier, U. Roelcke, P. A. Schubiger, and S. M. Ametamey, “Assessment of hypoxia and perfusion in human brain tumors using PET with 18F-fluoromisonidazole and 15O-H2O,” J. Nucl. Med.45(11), 1851–1859 (2004).
[PubMed]

Amzat, R.

R. Amzat, P. Taleghani, B. Savir-Baruch, P. T. Nieh, V. A. Master, R. K. Halkar, M. M. Lewis, M. Faurot, L. M. Bellamy, M. M. Goodman, and D. M. Schuster, “Unusual presentations of metastatic prostate carcinoma as detected by anti-3 F-18 FACBC PET/CT,” Clin. Nucl. Med.36(9), 800–802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartlett, L. A.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. S. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, A. H.

K. Wu, J. J. Liu, W. Adams, G. A. Sonn, K. E. Mach, Y. Pan, A. H. Beck, K. C. Jensen, and J. C. Liao, “Dynamic real-time microscopy of the urinary tract using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Urology78(1), 225–231 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, R.

M. Souvatzoglou, A. L. Grosu, B. Röper, B. J. Krause, R. Beck, G. Reischl, M. Picchio, H. J. Machulla, H. J. Wester, and M. Piert, “Tumour hypoxia imaging with [18F]FAZA PET in head and neck cancer patients: a pilot study,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging34(10), 1566–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellamy, L. M.

R. Amzat, P. Taleghani, B. Savir-Baruch, P. T. Nieh, V. A. Master, R. K. Halkar, M. M. Lewis, M. Faurot, L. M. Bellamy, M. M. Goodman, and D. M. Schuster, “Unusual presentations of metastatic prostate carcinoma as detected by anti-3 F-18 FACBC PET/CT,” Clin. Nucl. Med.36(9), 800–802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boschi, F.

Boudoux, C.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. S. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruehlmeier, M.

M. Bruehlmeier, U. Roelcke, P. A. Schubiger, and S. M. Ametamey, “Assessment of hypoxia and perfusion in human brain tumors using PET with 18F-fluoromisonidazole and 15O-H2O,” J. Nucl. Med.45(11), 1851–1859 (2004).
[PubMed]

Buchegger, F.

H. Vees, F. Buchegger, S. Albrecht, H. Khan, D. Husarik, H. Zaidi, D. Soloviev, T. F. Hany, and R. Miralbell, “18F-choline and/or 11C-acetate positron emission tomography: detection of residual or progressive subclinical disease at very low prostate-specific antigen values (<1 ng/mL) after radical prostatectomy,” BJU Int.99(6), 1415–1420 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchin, M. P.

H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. (to be published).

Buscombe, J.

J. Buscombe, H. Hirji, and C. Witney-Smith, “Nuclear medicine in the management of thyroid disease,” Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther.8(9), 1425–1431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calandrino, R.

Carpenter, C. M.

H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. (to be published).

Chang, E.

Y. Xu, E. Chang, H. Liu, H. Jiang, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Proof-of-concept study of monitoring cancer drug therapy with cerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.53(2), 312–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

Y. Xu, E. Chang, H. Liu, H. Jiang, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Proof-of-concept study of monitoring cancer drug therapy with cerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.53(2), 312–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, H. Liu, and Z. Cheng, “Harnessing the power of radionuclides for optical imaging: Cerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.52(12), 2009–2018 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. (to be published).

Cherry, S. R.

C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, and S. R. Cherry, “Cerenkov luminescence tomography for small-animal imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 1109–1111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Cerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “In vivo identification of colonic dysplasia using fluorescence endoscopic imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.49(4), 447–455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. S. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dick, D. W.

A. Iagaru, E. Mittra, S. S. Yaghoubi, D. W. Dick, A. Quon, M. L. Goris, and S. S. Gambhir, “Novel strategy for a cocktail 18F-fluoride and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan for evaluation of malignancy: results of the pilot-phase study,” J. Nucl. Med.50(4), 501–505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faurot, M.

R. Amzat, P. Taleghani, B. Savir-Baruch, P. T. Nieh, V. A. Master, R. K. Halkar, M. M. Lewis, M. Faurot, L. M. Bellamy, M. M. Goodman, and D. M. Schuster, “Unusual presentations of metastatic prostate carcinoma as detected by anti-3 F-18 FACBC PET/CT,” Clin. Nucl. Med.36(9), 800–802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “In vivo identification of colonic dysplasia using fluorescence endoscopic imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.49(4), 447–455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freilich, M. I.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. S. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambhir, S. S.

M. L. James and S. S. Gambhir, “A molecular imaging primer: modalities, imaging agents, and applications,” Physiol. Rev.92(2), 897–965 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, E. Chang, H. Liu, H. Jiang, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Proof-of-concept study of monitoring cancer drug therapy with cerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.53(2), 312–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Iagaru, E. Mittra, S. S. Yaghoubi, D. W. Dick, A. Quon, M. L. Goris, and S. S. Gambhir, “Novel strategy for a cocktail 18F-fluoride and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan for evaluation of malignancy: results of the pilot-phase study,” J. Nucl. Med.50(4), 501–505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Quon and S. S. Gambhir, “FDG-PET and beyond: molecular breast cancer imaging,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(8), 1664–1673 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in living subjects: seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light,” Genes Dev.17(5), 545–580 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. (to be published).

Germanos, M. S.

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Cerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, M. M.

R. Amzat, P. Taleghani, B. Savir-Baruch, P. T. Nieh, V. A. Master, R. K. Halkar, M. M. Lewis, M. Faurot, L. M. Bellamy, M. M. Goodman, and D. M. Schuster, “Unusual presentations of metastatic prostate carcinoma as detected by anti-3 F-18 FACBC PET/CT,” Clin. Nucl. Med.36(9), 800–802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goris, M. L.

A. Iagaru, E. Mittra, S. S. Yaghoubi, D. W. Dick, A. Quon, M. L. Goris, and S. S. Gambhir, “Novel strategy for a cocktail 18F-fluoride and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan for evaluation of malignancy: results of the pilot-phase study,” J. Nucl. Med.50(4), 501–505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenough, R.

S. Kosuda, P. V. Kison, R. Greenough, H. B. Grossman, and R. L. Wahl, “Preliminary assessment of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with bladder cancer,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med.24(6), 615–620 (1997).
[PubMed]

Grossman, H. B.

S. Kosuda, P. V. Kison, R. Greenough, H. B. Grossman, and R. L. Wahl, “Preliminary assessment of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with bladder cancer,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med.24(6), 615–620 (1997).
[PubMed]

Grosu, A. L.

M. Souvatzoglou, A. L. Grosu, B. Röper, B. J. Krause, R. Beck, G. Reischl, M. Picchio, H. J. Machulla, H. J. Wester, and M. Piert, “Tumour hypoxia imaging with [18F]FAZA PET in head and neck cancer patients: a pilot study,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging34(10), 1566–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halkar, R. K.

R. Amzat, P. Taleghani, B. Savir-Baruch, P. T. Nieh, V. A. Master, R. K. Halkar, M. M. Lewis, M. Faurot, L. M. Bellamy, M. M. Goodman, and D. M. Schuster, “Unusual presentations of metastatic prostate carcinoma as detected by anti-3 F-18 FACBC PET/CT,” Clin. Nucl. Med.36(9), 800–802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, P.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hany, T. F.

H. Vees, F. Buchegger, S. Albrecht, H. Khan, D. Husarik, H. Zaidi, D. Soloviev, T. F. Hany, and R. Miralbell, “18F-choline and/or 11C-acetate positron emission tomography: detection of residual or progressive subclinical disease at very low prostate-specific antigen values (<1 ng/mL) after radical prostatectomy,” BJU Int.99(6), 1415–1420 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirji, H.

J. Buscombe, H. Hirji, and C. Witney-Smith, “Nuclear medicine in the management of thyroid disease,” Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther.8(9), 1425–1431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husarik, D.

H. Vees, F. Buchegger, S. Albrecht, H. Khan, D. Husarik, H. Zaidi, D. Soloviev, T. F. Hany, and R. Miralbell, “18F-choline and/or 11C-acetate positron emission tomography: detection of residual or progressive subclinical disease at very low prostate-specific antigen values (<1 ng/mL) after radical prostatectomy,” BJU Int.99(6), 1415–1420 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iagaru, A.

A. Iagaru, E. Mittra, S. S. Yaghoubi, D. W. Dick, A. Quon, M. L. Goris, and S. S. Gambhir, “Novel strategy for a cocktail 18F-fluoride and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan for evaluation of malignancy: results of the pilot-phase study,” J. Nucl. Med.50(4), 501–505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “In vivo identification of colonic dysplasia using fluorescence endoscopic imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.49(4), 447–455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

James, M. L.

M. L. James and S. S. Gambhir, “A molecular imaging primer: modalities, imaging agents, and applications,” Physiol. Rev.92(2), 897–965 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, K. C.

K. Wu, J. J. Liu, W. Adams, G. A. Sonn, K. E. Mach, Y. Pan, A. H. Beck, K. C. Jensen, and J. C. Liao, “Dynamic real-time microscopy of the urinary tract using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Urology78(1), 225–231 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

Y. Xu, E. Chang, H. Liu, H. Jiang, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Proof-of-concept study of monitoring cancer drug therapy with cerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.53(2), 312–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. (to be published).

Kang, D.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, H.

H. Vees, F. Buchegger, S. Albrecht, H. Khan, D. Husarik, H. Zaidi, D. Soloviev, T. F. Hany, and R. Miralbell, “18F-choline and/or 11C-acetate positron emission tomography: detection of residual or progressive subclinical disease at very low prostate-specific antigen values (<1 ng/mL) after radical prostatectomy,” BJU Int.99(6), 1415–1420 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kison, P. V.

S. Kosuda, P. V. Kison, R. Greenough, H. B. Grossman, and R. L. Wahl, “Preliminary assessment of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with bladder cancer,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med.24(6), 615–620 (1997).
[PubMed]

Kosuda, S.

S. Kosuda, P. V. Kison, R. Greenough, H. B. Grossman, and R. L. Wahl, “Preliminary assessment of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with bladder cancer,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med.24(6), 615–620 (1997).
[PubMed]

Krause, B. J.

M. Souvatzoglou, A. L. Grosu, B. Röper, B. J. Krause, R. Beck, G. Reischl, M. Picchio, H. J. Machulla, H. J. Wester, and M. Piert, “Tumour hypoxia imaging with [18F]FAZA PET in head and neck cancer patients: a pilot study,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging34(10), 1566–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, C.

Larson, S. M.

H. Schöder and S. M. Larson, “Positron emission tomography for prostate, bladder, and renal cancer,” Semin. Nucl. Med.34(4), 274–292 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauwers, G. Y.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, M. M.

R. Amzat, P. Taleghani, B. Savir-Baruch, P. T. Nieh, V. A. Master, R. K. Halkar, M. M. Lewis, M. Faurot, L. M. Bellamy, M. M. Goodman, and D. M. Schuster, “Unusual presentations of metastatic prostate carcinoma as detected by anti-3 F-18 FACBC PET/CT,” Clin. Nucl. Med.36(9), 800–802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, and S. R. Cherry, “Cerenkov luminescence tomography for small-animal imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 1109–1111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Cerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, J. C.

K. Wu, J. J. Liu, W. Adams, G. A. Sonn, K. E. Mach, Y. Pan, A. H. Beck, K. C. Jensen, and J. C. Liao, “Dynamic real-time microscopy of the urinary tract using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Urology78(1), 225–231 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

Y. Xu, E. Chang, H. Liu, H. Jiang, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Proof-of-concept study of monitoring cancer drug therapy with cerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.53(2), 312–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, H. Liu, and Z. Cheng, “Harnessing the power of radionuclides for optical imaging: Cerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.52(12), 2009–2018 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. (to be published).

Liu, J. J.

K. Wu, J. J. Liu, W. Adams, G. A. Sonn, K. E. Mach, Y. Pan, A. H. Beck, K. C. Jensen, and J. C. Liao, “Dynamic real-time microscopy of the urinary tract using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Urology78(1), 225–231 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mach, K. E.

K. Wu, J. J. Liu, W. Adams, G. A. Sonn, K. E. Mach, Y. Pan, A. H. Beck, K. C. Jensen, and J. C. Liao, “Dynamic real-time microscopy of the urinary tract using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Urology78(1), 225–231 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machulla, H. J.

M. Souvatzoglou, A. L. Grosu, B. Röper, B. J. Krause, R. Beck, G. Reischl, M. Picchio, H. J. Machulla, H. J. Wester, and M. Piert, “Tumour hypoxia imaging with [18F]FAZA PET in head and neck cancer patients: a pilot study,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging34(10), 1566–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marzola, P.

Massoud, T. F.

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in living subjects: seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light,” Genes Dev.17(5), 545–580 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Master, V. A.

R. Amzat, P. Taleghani, B. Savir-Baruch, P. T. Nieh, V. A. Master, R. K. Halkar, M. M. Lewis, M. Faurot, L. M. Bellamy, M. M. Goodman, and D. M. Schuster, “Unusual presentations of metastatic prostate carcinoma as detected by anti-3 F-18 FACBC PET/CT,” Clin. Nucl. Med.36(9), 800–802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, Z.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mino-Kenudson, M.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miralbell, R.

H. Vees, F. Buchegger, S. Albrecht, H. Khan, D. Husarik, H. Zaidi, D. Soloviev, T. F. Hany, and R. Miralbell, “18F-choline and/or 11C-acetate positron emission tomography: detection of residual or progressive subclinical disease at very low prostate-specific antigen values (<1 ng/mL) after radical prostatectomy,” BJU Int.99(6), 1415–1420 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, G. S.

C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, and S. R. Cherry, “Cerenkov luminescence tomography for small-animal imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 1109–1111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Cerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittra, E.

A. Iagaru, E. Mittra, S. S. Yaghoubi, D. W. Dick, A. Quon, M. L. Goris, and S. S. Gambhir, “Novel strategy for a cocktail 18F-fluoride and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan for evaluation of malignancy: results of the pilot-phase study,” J. Nucl. Med.50(4), 501–505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieh, P. T.

R. Amzat, P. Taleghani, B. Savir-Baruch, P. T. Nieh, V. A. Master, R. K. Halkar, M. M. Lewis, M. Faurot, L. M. Bellamy, M. M. Goodman, and D. M. Schuster, “Unusual presentations of metastatic prostate carcinoma as detected by anti-3 F-18 FACBC PET/CT,” Clin. Nucl. Med.36(9), 800–802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. S. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Y.

K. Wu, J. J. Liu, W. Adams, G. A. Sonn, K. E. Mach, Y. Pan, A. H. Beck, K. C. Jensen, and J. C. Liao, “Dynamic real-time microscopy of the urinary tract using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Urology78(1), 225–231 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Picchio, M.

M. Souvatzoglou, A. L. Grosu, B. Röper, B. J. Krause, R. Beck, G. Reischl, M. Picchio, H. J. Machulla, H. J. Wester, and M. Piert, “Tumour hypoxia imaging with [18F]FAZA PET in head and neck cancer patients: a pilot study,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging34(10), 1566–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piert, M.

M. Souvatzoglou, A. L. Grosu, B. Röper, B. J. Krause, R. Beck, G. Reischl, M. Picchio, H. J. Machulla, H. J. Wester, and M. Piert, “Tumour hypoxia imaging with [18F]FAZA PET in head and neck cancer patients: a pilot study,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging34(10), 1566–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pratx, G.

H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. (to be published).

Puricelli, W. P.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quon, A.

A. Iagaru, E. Mittra, S. S. Yaghoubi, D. W. Dick, A. Quon, M. L. Goris, and S. S. Gambhir, “Novel strategy for a cocktail 18F-fluoride and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan for evaluation of malignancy: results of the pilot-phase study,” J. Nucl. Med.50(4), 501–505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Quon and S. S. Gambhir, “FDG-PET and beyond: molecular breast cancer imaging,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(8), 1664–1673 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reischl, G.

M. Souvatzoglou, A. L. Grosu, B. Röper, B. J. Krause, R. Beck, G. Reischl, M. Picchio, H. J. Machulla, H. J. Wester, and M. Piert, “Tumour hypoxia imaging with [18F]FAZA PET in head and neck cancer patients: a pilot study,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging34(10), 1566–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, G.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, B. W.

Robertson, R.

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Cerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roelcke, U.

M. Bruehlmeier, U. Roelcke, P. A. Schubiger, and S. M. Ametamey, “Assessment of hypoxia and perfusion in human brain tumors using PET with 18F-fluoromisonidazole and 15O-H2O,” J. Nucl. Med.45(11), 1851–1859 (2004).
[PubMed]

Röper, B.

M. Souvatzoglou, A. L. Grosu, B. Röper, B. J. Krause, R. Beck, G. Reischl, M. Picchio, H. J. Machulla, H. J. Wester, and M. Piert, “Tumour hypoxia imaging with [18F]FAZA PET in head and neck cancer patients: a pilot study,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging34(10), 1566–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, M.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. S. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savir-Baruch, B.

R. Amzat, P. Taleghani, B. Savir-Baruch, P. T. Nieh, V. A. Master, R. K. Halkar, M. M. Lewis, M. Faurot, L. M. Bellamy, M. M. Goodman, and D. M. Schuster, “Unusual presentations of metastatic prostate carcinoma as detected by anti-3 F-18 FACBC PET/CT,” Clin. Nucl. Med.36(9), 800–802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sbarbati, A.

Schöder, H.

H. Schöder and S. M. Larson, “Positron emission tomography for prostate, bladder, and renal cancer,” Semin. Nucl. Med.34(4), 274–292 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubiger, P. A.

M. Bruehlmeier, U. Roelcke, P. A. Schubiger, and S. M. Ametamey, “Assessment of hypoxia and perfusion in human brain tumors using PET with 18F-fluoromisonidazole and 15O-H2O,” J. Nucl. Med.45(11), 1851–1859 (2004).
[PubMed]

Schuster, D. M.

R. Amzat, P. Taleghani, B. Savir-Baruch, P. T. Nieh, V. A. Master, R. K. Halkar, M. M. Lewis, M. Faurot, L. M. Bellamy, M. M. Goodman, and D. M. Schuster, “Unusual presentations of metastatic prostate carcinoma as detected by anti-3 F-18 FACBC PET/CT,” Clin. Nucl. Med.36(9), 800–802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, H.

A. Zhu and H. Shim, “Current molecular imaging positron emitting radiotracers in oncology,” Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging45(1), 1–14 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shishkov, M. S.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. S. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, M. D.

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Cerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soloviev, D.

H. Vees, F. Buchegger, S. Albrecht, H. Khan, D. Husarik, H. Zaidi, D. Soloviev, T. F. Hany, and R. Miralbell, “18F-choline and/or 11C-acetate positron emission tomography: detection of residual or progressive subclinical disease at very low prostate-specific antigen values (<1 ng/mL) after radical prostatectomy,” BJU Int.99(6), 1415–1420 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonn, G. A.

K. Wu, J. J. Liu, W. Adams, G. A. Sonn, K. E. Mach, Y. Pan, A. H. Beck, K. C. Jensen, and J. C. Liao, “Dynamic real-time microscopy of the urinary tract using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Urology78(1), 225–231 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Souvatzoglou, M.

M. Souvatzoglou, A. L. Grosu, B. Röper, B. J. Krause, R. Beck, G. Reischl, M. Picchio, H. J. Machulla, H. J. Wester, and M. Piert, “Tumour hypoxia imaging with [18F]FAZA PET in head and neck cancer patients: a pilot study,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging34(10), 1566–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinelli, A. E.

Sun, C.

H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. (to be published).

Suter, M. J.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. S. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taleghani, P.

R. Amzat, P. Taleghani, B. Savir-Baruch, P. T. Nieh, V. A. Master, R. K. Halkar, M. M. Lewis, M. Faurot, L. M. Bellamy, M. M. Goodman, and D. M. Schuster, “Unusual presentations of metastatic prostate carcinoma as detected by anti-3 F-18 FACBC PET/CT,” Clin. Nucl. Med.36(9), 800–802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, X.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. S. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. S. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “In vivo identification of colonic dysplasia using fluorescence endoscopic imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.49(4), 447–455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vees, H.

H. Vees, F. Buchegger, S. Albrecht, H. Khan, D. Husarik, H. Zaidi, D. Soloviev, T. F. Hany, and R. Miralbell, “18F-choline and/or 11C-acetate positron emission tomography: detection of residual or progressive subclinical disease at very low prostate-specific antigen values (<1 ng/mL) after radical prostatectomy,” BJU Int.99(6), 1415–1420 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wahl, R. L.

S. Kosuda, P. V. Kison, R. Greenough, H. B. Grossman, and R. L. Wahl, “Preliminary assessment of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with bladder cancer,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med.24(6), 615–620 (1997).
[PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “In vivo identification of colonic dysplasia using fluorescence endoscopic imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.49(4), 447–455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “In vivo identification of colonic dysplasia using fluorescence endoscopic imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.49(4), 447–455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waxman, S.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. S. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

R. Weissleder, “Scaling down imaging: molecular mapping of cancer in mice,” Nat. Rev. Cancer2(1), 11–18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wester, H. J.

M. Souvatzoglou, A. L. Grosu, B. Röper, B. J. Krause, R. Beck, G. Reischl, M. Picchio, H. J. Machulla, H. J. Wester, and M. Piert, “Tumour hypoxia imaging with [18F]FAZA PET in head and neck cancer patients: a pilot study,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging34(10), 1566–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witney-Smith, C.

J. Buscombe, H. Hirji, and C. Witney-Smith, “Nuclear medicine in the management of thyroid disease,” Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther.8(9), 1425–1431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, K.

K. Wu, J. J. Liu, W. Adams, G. A. Sonn, K. E. Mach, Y. Pan, A. H. Beck, K. C. Jensen, and J. C. Liao, “Dynamic real-time microscopy of the urinary tract using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Urology78(1), 225–231 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, L.

H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. (to be published).

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, E. Chang, H. Liu, H. Jiang, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Proof-of-concept study of monitoring cancer drug therapy with cerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.53(2), 312–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, H. Liu, and Z. Cheng, “Harnessing the power of radionuclides for optical imaging: Cerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.52(12), 2009–2018 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yachimski, P. S.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaghoubi, S. S.

A. Iagaru, E. Mittra, S. S. Yaghoubi, D. W. Dick, A. Quon, M. L. Goris, and S. S. Gambhir, “Novel strategy for a cocktail 18F-fluoride and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan for evaluation of malignancy: results of the pilot-phase study,” J. Nucl. Med.50(4), 501–505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, H.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaidi, H.

H. Vees, F. Buchegger, S. Albrecht, H. Khan, D. Husarik, H. Zaidi, D. Soloviev, T. F. Hany, and R. Miralbell, “18F-choline and/or 11C-acetate positron emission tomography: detection of residual or progressive subclinical disease at very low prostate-specific antigen values (<1 ng/mL) after radical prostatectomy,” BJU Int.99(6), 1415–1420 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, A.

A. Zhu and H. Shim, “Current molecular imaging positron emitting radiotracers in oncology,” Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging45(1), 1–14 (2011).
[CrossRef]

BJU Int. (1)

H. Vees, F. Buchegger, S. Albrecht, H. Khan, D. Husarik, H. Zaidi, D. Soloviev, T. F. Hany, and R. Miralbell, “18F-choline and/or 11C-acetate positron emission tomography: detection of residual or progressive subclinical disease at very low prostate-specific antigen values (<1 ng/mL) after radical prostatectomy,” BJU Int.99(6), 1415–1420 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Nucl. Med. (1)

R. Amzat, P. Taleghani, B. Savir-Baruch, P. T. Nieh, V. A. Master, R. K. Halkar, M. M. Lewis, M. Faurot, L. M. Bellamy, M. M. Goodman, and D. M. Schuster, “Unusual presentations of metastatic prostate carcinoma as detected by anti-3 F-18 FACBC PET/CT,” Clin. Nucl. Med.36(9), 800–802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Nucl. Med. (1)

S. Kosuda, P. V. Kison, R. Greenough, H. B. Grossman, and R. L. Wahl, “Preliminary assessment of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with bladder cancer,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med.24(6), 615–620 (1997).
[PubMed]

Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging (1)

M. Souvatzoglou, A. L. Grosu, B. Röper, B. J. Krause, R. Beck, G. Reischl, M. Picchio, H. J. Machulla, H. J. Wester, and M. Piert, “Tumour hypoxia imaging with [18F]FAZA PET in head and neck cancer patients: a pilot study,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging34(10), 1566–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther. (1)

J. Buscombe, H. Hirji, and C. Witney-Smith, “Nuclear medicine in the management of thyroid disease,” Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther.8(9), 1425–1431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (2)

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “In vivo identification of colonic dysplasia using fluorescence endoscopic imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc.49(4), 447–455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genes Dev. (1)

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in living subjects: seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light,” Genes Dev.17(5), 545–580 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

A. Quon and S. S. Gambhir, “FDG-PET and beyond: molecular breast cancer imaging,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(8), 1664–1673 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nucl. Med. (5)

A. Iagaru, E. Mittra, S. S. Yaghoubi, D. W. Dick, A. Quon, M. L. Goris, and S. S. Gambhir, “Novel strategy for a cocktail 18F-fluoride and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan for evaluation of malignancy: results of the pilot-phase study,” J. Nucl. Med.50(4), 501–505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bruehlmeier, U. Roelcke, P. A. Schubiger, and S. M. Ametamey, “Assessment of hypoxia and perfusion in human brain tumors using PET with 18F-fluoromisonidazole and 15O-H2O,” J. Nucl. Med.45(11), 1851–1859 (2004).
[PubMed]

Y. Xu, E. Chang, H. Liu, H. Jiang, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Proof-of-concept study of monitoring cancer drug therapy with cerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.53(2), 312–317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, H. Liu, and Z. Cheng, “Harnessing the power of radionuclides for optical imaging: Cerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.52(12), 2009–2018 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. (to be published).

JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging (1)

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. S. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

“Fibers get special,” Nat. Photonics5(8), 461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Rev. Cancer (1)

R. Weissleder, “Scaling down imaging: molecular mapping of cancer in mice,” Nat. Rev. Cancer2(1), 11–18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging (1)

A. Zhu and H. Shim, “Current molecular imaging positron emitting radiotracers in oncology,” Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging45(1), 1–14 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Cerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Rev. (1)

M. L. James and S. S. Gambhir, “A molecular imaging primer: modalities, imaging agents, and applications,” Physiol. Rev.92(2), 897–965 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE (1)

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semin. Nucl. Med. (1)

H. Schöder and S. M. Larson, “Positron emission tomography for prostate, bladder, and renal cancer,” Semin. Nucl. Med.34(4), 274–292 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urology (1)

K. Wu, J. J. Liu, W. Adams, G. A. Sonn, K. E. Mach, Y. Pan, A. H. Beck, K. C. Jensen, and J. C. Liao, “Dynamic real-time microscopy of the urinary tract using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Urology78(1), 225–231 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

IVIS-200 spectrum imaging system was adapted to image phantom samples/animal subjects (denoted by “S”), pre-administered with 18F-FDG, using different optical fibers/endoscopes (OF). The subject “S” is placed outside the rectangular field of view (FOV) of the imaging system. The input end of the OF is placed close to the subject “S”. The output end of the “OF” is facing the CCD camera such that CCD camera is focused on the output end.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Acceptance angle of a typical step index fiber with a fiber core of refractive index n1 greater than refractive index n2 of cladding. Light ray A outside the acceptance angle escapes into the cladding; Light ray B within the acceptance angle is guided through the fiber by total internal reflection and can therefore be detected by a CCD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phantom sample (0.2 ml PCR tube) containing about 10 μCi of 18F-FDG in 10 μL of PBS was imaged using different optical fibers and endoscopes with a one minute exposure time. Arrows in all figures indicate the distal end of the respective instruments which are within 1 mm distance from the phantom sample. The dashed rectangular boxes in (a) and (b) show the white light illumination channels of respective cystoscopes through which also we observed (in absence of the white illumination) the Cerenkov light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Detection limits of various optical endoscopes and fibers. Luminescence detected by different fibers as a function of concentration of 18F-FDG with one minute exposure time

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral characteristics of Cerenkov luminescence, emitted from 10µCi of 18F-FDG in 10µL solution, transmitted through the 6mm fiber optic bundle and detected using a narrow band pass filter (20 nm) in the IVIS imaging system with one minute exposure time (decay corrected and also background corrected).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

In vivo animal imaging using 6 mm fiber optic bundle with one minute exposure time. Animals (n = 4) bearing sub-cutaneous C6 glioma tumor is intravenously administered with 34.78-35.89 MBq (940-970 μCi) of 18F-FDG then sacrificed at one hour post injection for imaging.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Ex vivo Cerenkov luminescence imaging, with one minute exposure time, of different organs of an animal bearing C6 glioma tumor dissected after one hour post intravenous administration of 900 μCi 18F-FDG. Inset figure on top right corner of each organ represents average Cerenkov radiance detected by a 6 mm fiber optic bundle. (b) Biodistribution of 18F-FDG in various tissues at one hour post injection in mice as measured using Cerenkov luminescence. Respective tissue Cerenkov luminescence was measured by a 6 mm fiber optic bundle (n = 4 for all organs). Bars represent the average tissue uptake plus/minus standard deviation (expressed as % injected dose/g of tissue).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of optical endoscopes/fibers used in the study

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