Abstract

A hologram of a specially designed multivergence target which displays real and virtual objects (numbers) simultaneously has been used to test the vision of various spectacle corrected subjects. Through the hologram, the subjects see standard ‘60-meter’ numbers that have different amounts of blur. It is found that there is a difference between myopes and hyperopes in the amount of positive blur with which they can recognize numbers seen through the hologram and this difference is statistically significant. A similar study was then conducted in white light illumination using the ‘60-meter’ numbers of a standard test chart at 6 meter distance and positive lenses to provide the blur at the eye. This study showed no difference between the refractive groups. Our results indicate that hyperopes may be relaxing their accommodation more than myopes in viewing through the hologram.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. K. V. Avudainayagam and C. S. Avudainayagam, “Holographic multivergence target for subjective measurement of the spherical power error of the human eye,” Opt. Lett.28(2), 123–125 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. V. Avudainayagam, C. S. Avudainayagam, N. Nguyen, K. W. Chiam, and C. Truong, “Performance of the holographic multivergence target in the subjective measurement of spherical refractive error and amplitude of accommodation of the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(10), 3037–3044 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. V. Avudainayagam and C. S. Avudainayagam, “Holographic multivergence target for subjective measurement of the astigmatic error of the human eye,” Opt. Lett.32(13), 1926–1928 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Radhakrishnan, S. Pardhan, R. I. Calver, and D. J. O’Leary, “Unequal reduction in visual acuity with positive and negative defocusing lenses in myopes,” Optom. Vis. Sci.81(1), 14–17 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. V. Avudainayagam, C. S. Avudainayagam, and N. Nguyen, “Holographic multivergence target throws more light on the vision of hyperopes,” in ICO-21 Proceedings (2008), pp. 192–192.
  6. N. Nguyen, C. S. Avudainayagam, and K. V. Avudainayagam, “Holographic target probes the vision of myopes and hyperopes,” Clin. Exp. Optom.92(1), 55 (2009).

2009

N. Nguyen, C. S. Avudainayagam, and K. V. Avudainayagam, “Holographic target probes the vision of myopes and hyperopes,” Clin. Exp. Optom.92(1), 55 (2009).

2007

2004

H. Radhakrishnan, S. Pardhan, R. I. Calver, and D. J. O’Leary, “Unequal reduction in visual acuity with positive and negative defocusing lenses in myopes,” Optom. Vis. Sci.81(1), 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Avudainayagam, C. S.

Avudainayagam, K. V.

Calver, R. I.

H. Radhakrishnan, S. Pardhan, R. I. Calver, and D. J. O’Leary, “Unequal reduction in visual acuity with positive and negative defocusing lenses in myopes,” Optom. Vis. Sci.81(1), 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiam, K. W.

Nguyen, N.

O’Leary, D. J.

H. Radhakrishnan, S. Pardhan, R. I. Calver, and D. J. O’Leary, “Unequal reduction in visual acuity with positive and negative defocusing lenses in myopes,” Optom. Vis. Sci.81(1), 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pardhan, S.

H. Radhakrishnan, S. Pardhan, R. I. Calver, and D. J. O’Leary, “Unequal reduction in visual acuity with positive and negative defocusing lenses in myopes,” Optom. Vis. Sci.81(1), 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radhakrishnan, H.

H. Radhakrishnan, S. Pardhan, R. I. Calver, and D. J. O’Leary, “Unequal reduction in visual acuity with positive and negative defocusing lenses in myopes,” Optom. Vis. Sci.81(1), 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Truong, C.

Clin. Exp. Optom.

N. Nguyen, C. S. Avudainayagam, and K. V. Avudainayagam, “Holographic target probes the vision of myopes and hyperopes,” Clin. Exp. Optom.92(1), 55 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Lett.

Optom. Vis. Sci.

H. Radhakrishnan, S. Pardhan, R. I. Calver, and D. J. O’Leary, “Unequal reduction in visual acuity with positive and negative defocusing lenses in myopes,” Optom. Vis. Sci.81(1), 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

K. V. Avudainayagam, C. S. Avudainayagam, and N. Nguyen, “Holographic multivergence target throws more light on the vision of hyperopes,” in ICO-21 Proceedings (2008), pp. 192–192.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The 3-D target.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the arrangement used to test subjects with the hologram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Simulation of a spectacle corrected subject’s view through the hologram, obtained using the camera focused to infinity. (b) Simulation of an uncorrected and relaxed hyperope’s view through the hologram, obtained with a −2 D lens placed in front of the camera focused to infinity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Limiting blur obtained with the hologram.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Limiting blur in white light.

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Vergences for Various Numbers in the Multivergence Target

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Table 2 Data Obtained with the Hologram for Myopes

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Table 3 Data Obtained with the Hologram for Hyperopes

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Table 4 Data Obtained with the Hologram for Emmetropes.

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Table 5 Data obtained in White Light for Myopes

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Table 6 Data obtained in White Light for Hyperopes

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Table 7 Data obtained in White Light for Emmetropes

Metrics