Abstract

Advances in optical imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), enable us to observe tissue microstructure at high resolution and in real time. Currently, core-needle biopsies are guided by external imaging modalities such as ultrasound imaging and x-ray computed tomography (CT) for breast and lung masses, respectively. These image-guided procedures are frequently limited by spatial resolution when using ultrasound imaging, or by temporal resolution (rapid real-time feedback capabilities) when using x-ray CT. One feasible approach is to perform OCT within small gauge needles to optically image tissue microstructure. However, to date, no system or core-needle device has been developed that incorporates both three-dimensional OCT imaging and tissue biopsy within the same needle for true OCT-guided core-needle biopsy. We have developed and demonstrate an integrated core-needle biopsy system that utilizes catheter-based 3-D OCT for real-time image-guidance for target tissue localization, imaging of tissue immediately prior to physical biopsy, and subsequent OCT imaging of the biopsied specimen for immediate assessment at the point-of-care. OCT images of biopsied ex vivo tumor specimens acquired during core-needle placement are correlated with corresponding histology, and computational visualization of arbitrary planes within the 3-D OCT volumes enables feedback on specimen tissue type and biopsy quality. These results demonstrate the potential for using real-time 3-D OCT for needle biopsy guidance by imaging within the needle and tissue during biopsy procedures.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (3)

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rasakanthan, K. Sugden, and P. H. Tomlins, “Processing and rendering of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography images at a line rate over 524 kHz using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

2009 (4)

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, “Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, M. Mujat, T. Ustun, R. D. Ferguson, V. Danthu, and D. X. Hammer, “Spectral-domain low coherence interferometry/optical coherence tomography system for fine needle breast biopsy guidance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(2), 024302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. H. Hwang, M. J. Cobb, M. B. Kimmey, and X. Li, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of the pancreas: a needle-based approach,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.3(7Suppl 1), S49–S52 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wiratkapun, B. Wibulpholprasert, S. Wongwaisayawan, and K. Pulpinyo, “Nondiagnostic core needle biopsy of the breast under imaging guidance: result of rebiopsy,” J. Med. Assoc. Thai.88(3), 350–357 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (3)

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. Hendriks, and P. H. Peeters, “Diagnostic accuracy for different strategies of image-guided breast intervention in cases of nonpalpable breast lesions,” Br. J. Cancer90(3), 595–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

P. M. Rich, M. J. Michell, S. Humphreys, G. P. Howes, and H. B. Nunnerley, “Stereotactic 14G core biopsy of non-palpable breast cancer: what is the relationship between the number of core samples taken and the sensitivity for detection of malignancy?” Clin. Radiol.54(6), 384–389 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

D. D. Dershaw, E. A. Morris, L. Liberman, and A. F. Abramson, “Nondiagnostic stereotaxic core breast biopsy: results of rebiopsy,” Radiology198(2), 323–325 (1996).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramson, A. F.

D. D. Dershaw, E. A. Morris, L. Liberman, and A. F. Abramson, “Nondiagnostic stereotaxic core breast biopsy: results of rebiopsy,” Radiology198(2), 323–325 (1996).
[PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

Ahmad, A.

W. Jung, W. Benalcazar, A. Ahmad, U. Sharma, H. Tu, and S. A. Boppart, “Numerical analysis of gradient index lens-based optical coherence tomography imaging probes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066027 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. J.

Beex, L. V.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellafiore, F. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

Benalcazar, W.

W. Jung, W. Benalcazar, A. Ahmad, U. Sharma, H. Tu, and S. A. Boppart, “Numerical analysis of gradient index lens-based optical coherence tomography imaging probes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066027 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Besnard, P. E.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biedermann, B. R.

Bizheva, K.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bluemke, D. A.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boetes, C.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

W. Jung, W. Benalcazar, A. Ahmad, U. Sharma, H. Tu, and S. A. Boppart, “Numerical analysis of gradient index lens-based optical coherence tomography imaging probes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066027 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, S. G. Adie, J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, D. D. Sampson, F. T. Nguyen, and S. A. Boppart, “Needle-based refractive index measurement using low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett.32(4), 385–387 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, D. L. Marks, D. Y. Liu, and S. A. Boppart, “Needle-based reflection refractometry of scattering samples using coherence-gated detection,” Opt. Express15(8), 4787–4794 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brekelmans, C. T.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Budka, H.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Causer, P.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaney, E. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M. H.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chudoba, C.

Cobb, M. J.

J. H. Hwang, M. J. Cobb, M. B. Kimmey, and X. Li, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of the pancreas: a needle-based approach,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.3(7Suppl 1), S49–S52 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curatolo, A.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danthu, V.

N. V. Iftimia, M. Mujat, T. Ustun, R. D. Ferguson, V. Danthu, and D. X. Hammer, “Spectral-domain low coherence interferometry/optical coherence tomography system for fine needle breast biopsy guidance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(2), 024302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Koning, H. J.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeAngelis, G. A.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeBruhl, N.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dershaw, D. D.

D. D. Dershaw, E. A. Morris, L. Liberman, and A. F. Abramson, “Nondiagnostic stereotaxic core breast biopsy: results of rebiopsy,” Radiology198(2), 323–325 (1996).
[PubMed]

Drexler, W.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Fercher, A. F.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, R. D.

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, “Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, M. Mujat, T. Ustun, R. D. Ferguson, V. Danthu, and D. X. Hammer, “Spectral-domain low coherence interferometry/optical coherence tomography system for fine needle breast biopsy guidance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(2), 024302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

X. Li, C. Chudoba, T. Ko, C. Pitris, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging needle for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.25(20), 1520–1522 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatsonis, C. A.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gittins, C.

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, “Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, “Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, M. Mujat, T. Ustun, R. D. Ferguson, V. Danthu, and D. X. Hammer, “Spectral-domain low coherence interferometry/optical coherence tomography system for fine needle breast biopsy guidance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(2), 024302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harms, S.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendriks, J. H.

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. Hendriks, and P. H. Peeters, “Diagnostic accuracy for different strategies of image-guided breast intervention in cases of nonpalpable breast lesions,” Br. J. Cancer90(3), 595–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heywang-Köbrunner, S. H.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holland, R.

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. Hendriks, and P. H. Peeters, “Diagnostic accuracy for different strategies of image-guided breast intervention in cases of nonpalpable breast lesions,” Br. J. Cancer90(3), 595–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howes, G. P.

P. M. Rich, M. J. Michell, S. Humphreys, G. P. Howes, and H. B. Nunnerley, “Stereotactic 14G core biopsy of non-palpable breast cancer: what is the relationship between the number of core samples taken and the sensitivity for detection of malignancy?” Clin. Radiol.54(6), 384–389 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Humphreys, S.

P. M. Rich, M. J. Michell, S. Humphreys, G. P. Howes, and H. B. Nunnerley, “Stereotactic 14G core biopsy of non-palpable breast cancer: what is the relationship between the number of core samples taken and the sensitivity for detection of malignancy?” Clin. Radiol.54(6), 384–389 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huo, L.

Hwang, J. H.

J. H. Hwang, M. J. Cobb, M. B. Kimmey, and X. Li, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of the pancreas: a needle-based approach,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.3(7Suppl 1), S49–S52 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hylton, N.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, “Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N. V.

N. V. Iftimia, M. Mujat, T. Ustun, R. D. Ferguson, V. Danthu, and D. X. Hammer, “Spectral-domain low coherence interferometry/optical coherence tomography system for fine needle breast biopsy guidance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(2), 024302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. A.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, W.

W. Jung, W. Benalcazar, A. Ahmad, U. Sharma, H. Tu, and S. A. Boppart, “Numerical analysis of gradient index lens-based optical coherence tomography imaging probes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066027 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. U.

Kimmey, M. B.

J. H. Hwang, M. J. Cobb, M. B. Kimmey, and X. Li, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of the pancreas: a needle-based approach,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.3(7Suppl 1), S49–S52 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirk, R. W.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, T.

Klijn, J. G.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

Kok, T.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotynek, J. G.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

Kriege, M.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhl, C. K.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, T.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehman, C.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leigh, M. S.

Li, X.

Liberman, L.

D. D. Dershaw, E. A. Morris, L. Liberman, and A. F. Abramson, “Nondiagnostic stereotaxic core breast biopsy: results of rebiopsy,” Radiology198(2), 323–325 (1996).
[PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, D. Y.

Lorenser, D.

Mali, W. P.

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. Hendriks, and P. H. Peeters, “Diagnostic accuracy for different strategies of image-guided breast intervention in cases of nonpalpable breast lesions,” Br. J. Cancer90(3), 595–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoliu, R. A.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, D. L. Marks, D. Y. Liu, and S. A. Boppart, “Needle-based reflection refractometry of scattering samples using coherence-gated detection,” Opt. Express15(8), 4787–4794 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meijer, S.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michell, M. J.

P. M. Rich, M. J. Michell, S. Humphreys, G. P. Howes, and H. B. Nunnerley, “Stereotactic 14G core biopsy of non-palpable breast cancer: what is the relationship between the number of core samples taken and the sensitivity for detection of malignancy?” Clin. Radiol.54(6), 384–389 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, E. A.

D. D. Dershaw, E. A. Morris, L. Liberman, and A. F. Abramson, “Nondiagnostic stereotaxic core breast biopsy: results of rebiopsy,” Radiology198(2), 323–325 (1996).
[PubMed]

Mujat, M.

N. V. Iftimia, M. Mujat, T. Ustun, R. D. Ferguson, V. Danthu, and D. X. Hammer, “Spectral-domain low coherence interferometry/optical coherence tomography system for fine needle breast biopsy guidance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(2), 024302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, “Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, S. H.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, F. T.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, S. G. Adie, J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, D. D. Sampson, F. T. Nguyen, and S. A. Boppart, “Needle-based refractive index measurement using low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett.32(4), 385–387 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noble, P. B.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nunnerley, H. B.

P. M. Rich, M. J. Michell, S. Humphreys, G. P. Howes, and H. B. Nunnerley, “Stereotactic 14G core biopsy of non-palpable breast cancer: what is the relationship between the number of core samples taken and the sensitivity for detection of malignancy?” Clin. Radiol.54(6), 384–389 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obdeijn, I. M.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, A. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oliphant, U. J.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oosterwijk, J. C.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paduch, A.

Peeters, P. H.

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. Hendriks, and P. H. Peeters, “Diagnostic accuracy for different strategies of image-guided breast intervention in cases of nonpalpable breast lesions,” Br. J. Cancer90(3), 595–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterse, H.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterse, J. L.

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. Hendriks, and P. H. Peeters, “Diagnostic accuracy for different strategies of image-guided breast intervention in cases of nonpalpable breast lesions,” Br. J. Cancer90(3), 595–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pijnappel, R. M.

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. Hendriks, and P. H. Peeters, “Diagnostic accuracy for different strategies of image-guided breast intervention in cases of nonpalpable breast lesions,” Br. J. Cancer90(3), 595–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pisano, E. D.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

X. Li, C. Chudoba, T. Ko, C. Pitris, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging needle for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.25(20), 1520–1522 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Povazay, B.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preusser, M.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pulpinyo, K.

C. Wiratkapun, B. Wibulpholprasert, S. Wongwaisayawan, and K. Pulpinyo, “Nondiagnostic core needle biopsy of the breast under imaging guidance: result of rebiopsy,” J. Med. Assoc. Thai.88(3), 350–357 (2005).
[PubMed]

Quirk, B. C.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasakanthan, J.

J. Rasakanthan, K. Sugden, and P. H. Tomlins, “Processing and rendering of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography images at a line rate over 524 kHz using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rich, P. M.

P. M. Rich, M. J. Michell, S. Humphreys, G. P. Howes, and H. B. Nunnerley, “Stereotactic 14G core biopsy of non-palpable breast cancer: what is the relationship between the number of core samples taken and the sensitivity for detection of malignancy?” Clin. Radiol.54(6), 384–389 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowland, K. M.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

Rutgers, E. J.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

Sattmann, H.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnall, M. D.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitt, S. J.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, U.

W. Jung, W. Benalcazar, A. Ahmad, U. Sharma, H. Tu, and S. A. Boppart, “Numerical analysis of gradient index lens-based optical coherence tomography imaging probes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066027 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smazal, S. F.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stelling, C. B.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stingl, A.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugden, K.

J. Rasakanthan, K. Sugden, and P. H. Tomlins, “Processing and rendering of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography images at a line rate over 524 kHz using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tilanus-Linthorst, M. M.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tollenaar, R. A.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlins, P. H.

J. Rasakanthan, K. Sugden, and P. H. Tomlins, “Processing and rendering of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography images at a line rate over 524 kHz using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, H.

W. Jung, W. Benalcazar, A. Ahmad, U. Sharma, H. Tu, and S. A. Boppart, “Numerical analysis of gradient index lens-based optical coherence tomography imaging probes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066027 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ustun, T.

N. V. Iftimia, M. Mujat, T. Ustun, R. D. Ferguson, V. Danthu, and D. X. Hammer, “Spectral-domain low coherence interferometry/optical coherence tomography system for fine needle breast biopsy guidance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(2), 024302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Donk, M.

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. Hendriks, and P. H. Peeters, “Diagnostic accuracy for different strategies of image-guided breast intervention in cases of nonpalpable breast lesions,” Br. J. Cancer90(3), 595–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weatherall, P. T.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wibulpholprasert, B.

C. Wiratkapun, B. Wibulpholprasert, S. Wongwaisayawan, and K. Pulpinyo, “Nondiagnostic core needle biopsy of the breast under imaging guidance: result of rebiopsy,” J. Med. Assoc. Thai.88(3), 350–357 (2005).
[PubMed]

Wieser, W.

Wiratkapun, C.

C. Wiratkapun, B. Wibulpholprasert, S. Wongwaisayawan, and K. Pulpinyo, “Nondiagnostic core needle biopsy of the breast under imaging guidance: result of rebiopsy,” J. Med. Assoc. Thai.88(3), 350–357 (2005).
[PubMed]

Wongwaisayawan, S.

C. Wiratkapun, B. Wibulpholprasert, S. Wongwaisayawan, and K. Pulpinyo, “Nondiagnostic core needle biopsy of the breast under imaging guidance: result of rebiopsy,” J. Med. Assoc. Thai.88(3), 350–357 (2005).
[PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Xi, J.

Yang, X.

Zhang, K.

Zonderland, H. M.

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zysk, A. M.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, S. G. Adie, J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, D. D. Sampson, F. T. Nguyen, and S. A. Boppart, “Needle-based refractive index measurement using low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett.32(4), 385–387 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, D. L. Marks, D. Y. Liu, and S. A. Boppart, “Needle-based reflection refractometry of scattering samples using coherence-gated detection,” Opt. Express15(8), 4787–4794 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer (1)

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. Hendriks, and P. H. Peeters, “Diagnostic accuracy for different strategies of image-guided breast intervention in cases of nonpalpable breast lesions,” Br. J. Cancer90(3), 595–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

J. H. Hwang, M. J. Cobb, M. B. Kimmey, and X. Li, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of the pancreas: a needle-based approach,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.3(7Suppl 1), S49–S52 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Radiol. (1)

P. M. Rich, M. J. Michell, S. Humphreys, G. P. Howes, and H. B. Nunnerley, “Stereotactic 14G core biopsy of non-palpable breast cancer: what is the relationship between the number of core samples taken and the sensitivity for detection of malignancy?” Clin. Radiol.54(6), 384–389 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (7)

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rasakanthan, K. Sugden, and P. H. Tomlins, “Processing and rendering of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography images at a line rate over 524 kHz using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, “Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jung, W. Benalcazar, A. Ahmad, U. Sharma, H. Tu, and S. A. Boppart, “Numerical analysis of gradient index lens-based optical coherence tomography imaging probes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066027 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Med. Assoc. Thai. (1)

C. Wiratkapun, B. Wibulpholprasert, S. Wongwaisayawan, and K. Pulpinyo, “Nondiagnostic core needle biopsy of the breast under imaging guidance: result of rebiopsy,” J. Med. Assoc. Thai.88(3), 350–357 (2005).
[PubMed]

JAMA (1)

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatsonis, M. H. Chen, G. A. DeAngelis, N. DeBruhl, S. Harms, S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner, N. Hylton, C. K. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. D. Pisano, P. Causer, S. J. Schnitt, S. F. Smazal, C. B. Stelling, P. T. Weatherall, and M. D. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA292(22), 2735–2742 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

M. Kriege, C. T. Brekelmans, C. Boetes, P. E. Besnard, H. M. Zonderland, I. M. Obdeijn, R. A. Manoliu, T. Kok, H. Peterse, M. M. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. H. Muller, S. Meijer, J. C. Oosterwijk, L. V. Beex, R. A. Tollenaar, H. J. de Koning, E. J. Rutgers, J. G. Klijn, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group, “Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition,” N. Engl. J. Med.351(5), 427–437 (2004).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overview of the 3-D OCT-guided vacuum-assisted core-needle breast biopsy system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics and photograph of the modified vacuum-assisted core-needle biopsy hand-piece for 3-D OCT-guided procedures. (A) Schematic of original hand-piece components. Using pressure and vacuum, the unit mechanically opens and closes a cutting cannula, and vacuum is used to both draw tissue into the biopsy channel prior to biopsy, and to draw biopsied tissue back into a tissue trap for retrieval. (B) Schematic of modified hand-piece, which includes the addition of a transparent front window for real-time OCT guidance, the addition of a long steel/plastic tube through which the OCT catheter is inserted, and a Y-valve to allow both linear access for the OCT catheter and the vacuum/pressure tube connection. (C) Photograph of modified hand-piece.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modified hand-piece tip detail. (A) Schematic of the modifications made to the core-needle tip including lengthening of the biopsy channel to accommodate a front window, and the addition of a transparent tube (attached to the distal end of the added metal tube) through which the OCT catheter is passed for imaging. (B) Photograph of modified tip with the cutting cannula retracted to expose the tissue biopsy channel. The plastic tube can be observed in the tissue biopsy channel, with its end opening into the front window region (parallel black lines and red box are added to highlight the OCT catheter tip location when fully inserted into the needle). (C) High-magnification photograph of the distal end of the OCT catheter. This catheter, with its own transparent outer sheath, is positioned either in the front window region or within the tissue biopsy channel for imaging. The scale bar refers only to the photograph in (C). The possible OCT scan volumes during needle tip guidance and during pre- and post-biopsy are shown in (A). Only a cylindrical wedge of 3-D OCT data is possible due to a portion of the radial image being obscured by the metal needle barrel. However, additional 3-D OCT data from other wedge sections can be obtained by rotating the needle about its long axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Real-time cross-sectional radial OCT-guided needle placement and biopsy. (A) Radial OCT image acquired by imaging through the transparent front window. Interfaces of the OCT catheter sheath, tissue, and metal needle barrel are evident. (B) Series of radial OCT images collected in real-time as the needle was advanced into tissue. Distance values are relative to the tissue surface. (C) Series of radial OCT images from a 3-D volume collected from a biopsied tissue specimen retained within the closed biopsy channel (as evident by the outer full-circumference highly-scattering metal needle barrel). (D) Cross-sectional histology corresponding to the locations imaged in (C). The lymphoid tumor tissue is staining darker purple while the normal tissue is lighter pink. Included video (Media 1) of (B) was collected near the interface between the normal and tumor tissue.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Visualization of longitudinal (long-axis) en face planes of tissue data prior to tissue biopsy. (A) Three-dimensional renderings of the acquired OCT data set, illustrating orientation of en face planes relative to catheter and needle. (B) En face plane extracted at a plane that includes not only the tissue but also the transparent plastic tube and sheath housing the OCT catheter. (C) Enlarged region of imaged tissue, from the region indicated by the white dashed box in (B).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Visualization of longitudinal (long-axis) cross-sectional planes of tissue data prior to and after tissue biopsy. (A) Three-dimensional renderings of the acquired OCT data set, illustrating orientation of cross-sectional planes relative to catheter and needle. (B) Cross-sectional plane extracted before physical biopsy. (C) Cross-sectional plane of tissue specimen immediately after physical biopsy. (D) Corresponding histological section of physical biopsy specimen. Insets show magnified histology regions indicating areas of tumor and necrotic tissue. Orientation of histological specimen is approximately that shown in (B) and (C).

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