Abstract

The water distribution in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage has been quantitatively characterized using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz TDS). We measured the refractive index and absorption coefficient of cartilage tissue in the THz frequency range. Based on our measurements, the estimated water content was observed to decrease with increasing depth cartilage tissue, showing good agreement with a previous report based on destructive biochemical methods.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. R. Stringer, D. N. Lund, A. P. Foulds, A. Uddin, E. Berry, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, “The analysis of human cortical bone by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(14), 3211–3219 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(10), 2438–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liess, S. Lüsse, N. Karger, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Detection of changes in cartilage water content using MRI T2-mapping in vivo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 10(12), 907–913 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

C.-B. James and T. L. Uhl, “A review of articular cartilage pathology and the use of glucosamine sulfate,” J. Athl. Train. 36(4), 413–419 (2001).
[PubMed]

E. M. Shapiro, A. Borthakur, J. H. Kaufman, J. S. Leigh, and R. Reddy, “Water distribution patterns inside bovine articular cartilage as visualized by 1H magnetic resonance imaging,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 9(6), 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 391(391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Lüssea, H. Claassen, T. Gehrke, J. Hassenpflug, M. Schünke, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Evaluation of water content by spatially resolved transverse relaxation times of human articular cartilage,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 18(4), 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

L. Ro̸nne, P.-O. Thrane, A. Åstrand, K. V. Wallqvist, Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

Y. Xia, T. Farquhar, N. Burton-Wurster, E. Ray, and L. W. Jelinski, “Diffusion and relaxation mapping of cartilage-bone plugs and excised disks using microscopic magnetic resonance imaging,” Magn. Reson. Med. 31(3), 273–282 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

R. Brocklehurst, M. T. Bayliss, A. Maroudas, H. L. Coysh, M. A. Freeman, P. A. Revell, and S. Y. Ali, “The composition of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage from human knee joints. With special reference to unicompartmental replacement and osteotomy of the knee,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 66(1), 95–106 (1984).
[PubMed]

1975 (1)

H. J. Mankin and A. Z. Thrasher, “Water content and binding in normal and osteoarthritic human cartilage,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 57(1), 76–80 (1975).
[PubMed]

Ali, S. Y.

R. Brocklehurst, M. T. Bayliss, A. Maroudas, H. L. Coysh, M. A. Freeman, P. A. Revell, and S. Y. Ali, “The composition of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage from human knee joints. With special reference to unicompartmental replacement and osteotomy of the knee,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 66(1), 95–106 (1984).
[PubMed]

Arnone, D.

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Åstrand, A.

L. Ro̸nne, P.-O. Thrane, A. Åstrand, K. V. Wallqvist, Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bayliss, M. T.

R. Brocklehurst, M. T. Bayliss, A. Maroudas, H. L. Coysh, M. A. Freeman, P. A. Revell, and S. Y. Ali, “The composition of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage from human knee joints. With special reference to unicompartmental replacement and osteotomy of the knee,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 66(1), 95–106 (1984).
[PubMed]

Berry, E.

M. R. Stringer, D. N. Lund, A. P. Foulds, A. Uddin, E. Berry, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, “The analysis of human cortical bone by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(14), 3211–3219 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borthakur, A.

E. M. Shapiro, A. Borthakur, J. H. Kaufman, J. S. Leigh, and R. Reddy, “Water distribution patterns inside bovine articular cartilage as visualized by 1H magnetic resonance imaging,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 9(6), 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brocklehurst, R.

R. Brocklehurst, M. T. Bayliss, A. Maroudas, H. L. Coysh, M. A. Freeman, P. A. Revell, and S. Y. Ali, “The composition of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage from human knee joints. With special reference to unicompartmental replacement and osteotomy of the knee,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 66(1), 95–106 (1984).
[PubMed]

Burton-Wurster, N.

Y. Xia, T. Farquhar, N. Burton-Wurster, E. Ray, and L. W. Jelinski, “Diffusion and relaxation mapping of cartilage-bone plugs and excised disks using microscopic magnetic resonance imaging,” Magn. Reson. Med. 31(3), 273–282 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, W.-H.

Cho, K.-S.

Choi, H.-J.

Claassen, H.

S. Lüssea, H. Claassen, T. Gehrke, J. Hassenpflug, M. Schünke, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Evaluation of water content by spatially resolved transverse relaxation times of human articular cartilage,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 18(4), 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cluff, J.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, B.

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coysh, H. L.

R. Brocklehurst, M. T. Bayliss, A. Maroudas, H. L. Coysh, M. A. Freeman, P. A. Revell, and S. Y. Ali, “The composition of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage from human knee joints. With special reference to unicompartmental replacement and osteotomy of the knee,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 66(1), 95–106 (1984).
[PubMed]

Crawley, D.

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

M. R. Stringer, D. N. Lund, A. P. Foulds, A. Uddin, E. Berry, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, “The analysis of human cortical bone by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(14), 3211–3219 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Do, Y.-W.

Farquhar, T.

Y. Xia, T. Farquhar, N. Burton-Wurster, E. Ray, and L. W. Jelinski, “Diffusion and relaxation mapping of cartilage-bone plugs and excised disks using microscopic magnetic resonance imaging,” Magn. Reson. Med. 31(3), 273–282 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flanagan, N.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foulds, A. P.

M. R. Stringer, D. N. Lund, A. P. Foulds, A. Uddin, E. Berry, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, “The analysis of human cortical bone by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(14), 3211–3219 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, M. A.

R. Brocklehurst, M. T. Bayliss, A. Maroudas, H. L. Coysh, M. A. Freeman, P. A. Revell, and S. Y. Ali, “The composition of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage from human knee joints. With special reference to unicompartmental replacement and osteotomy of the knee,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 66(1), 95–106 (1984).
[PubMed]

Gehrke, T.

S. Lüssea, H. Claassen, T. Gehrke, J. Hassenpflug, M. Schünke, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Evaluation of water content by spatially resolved transverse relaxation times of human articular cartilage,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 18(4), 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glüer, C.-C.

C. Liess, S. Lüsse, N. Karger, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Detection of changes in cartilage water content using MRI T2-mapping in vivo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 10(12), 907–913 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lüssea, H. Claassen, T. Gehrke, J. Hassenpflug, M. Schünke, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Evaluation of water content by spatially resolved transverse relaxation times of human articular cartilage,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 18(4), 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, H.-W.

Hassenpflug, J.

S. Lüssea, H. Claassen, T. Gehrke, J. Hassenpflug, M. Schünke, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Evaluation of water content by spatially resolved transverse relaxation times of human articular cartilage,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 18(4), 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heller, M.

C. Liess, S. Lüsse, N. Karger, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Detection of changes in cartilage water content using MRI T2-mapping in vivo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 10(12), 907–913 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lüssea, H. Claassen, T. Gehrke, J. Hassenpflug, M. Schünke, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Evaluation of water content by spatially resolved transverse relaxation times of human articular cartilage,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 18(4), 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, B. B.

James, C.-B.

C.-B. James and T. L. Uhl, “A review of articular cartilage pathology and the use of glucosamine sulfate,” J. Athl. Train. 36(4), 413–419 (2001).
[PubMed]

Jelinski, L. W.

Y. Xia, T. Farquhar, N. Burton-Wurster, E. Ray, and L. W. Jelinski, “Diffusion and relaxation mapping of cartilage-bone plugs and excised disks using microscopic magnetic resonance imaging,” Magn. Reson. Med. 31(3), 273–282 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, E.-A.

Kan, W.-C.

Karger, N.

C. Liess, S. Lüsse, N. Karger, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Detection of changes in cartilage water content using MRI T2-mapping in vivo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 10(12), 907–913 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufman, J. H.

E. M. Shapiro, A. Borthakur, J. H. Kaufman, J. S. Leigh, and R. Reddy, “Water distribution patterns inside bovine articular cartilage as visualized by 1H magnetic resonance imaging,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 9(6), 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keiding, S. R.

L. Ro̸nne, P.-O. Thrane, A. Åstrand, K. V. Wallqvist, Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-R.

Kobayashi, M.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 391(391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kojima, T.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 391(391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laverty, S.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 391(391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-S.

Lee, W.-S.

Leigh, J. S.

E. M. Shapiro, A. Borthakur, J. H. Kaufman, J. S. Leigh, and R. Reddy, “Water distribution patterns inside bovine articular cartilage as visualized by 1H magnetic resonance imaging,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 9(6), 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liess, C.

C. Liess, S. Lüsse, N. Karger, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Detection of changes in cartilage water content using MRI T2-mapping in vivo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 10(12), 907–913 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, M.-H.

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Longbottom, C.

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lund, D. N.

M. R. Stringer, D. N. Lund, A. P. Foulds, A. Uddin, E. Berry, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, “The analysis of human cortical bone by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(14), 3211–3219 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüsse, S.

C. Liess, S. Lüsse, N. Karger, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Detection of changes in cartilage water content using MRI T2-mapping in vivo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 10(12), 907–913 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüssea, S.

S. Lüssea, H. Claassen, T. Gehrke, J. Hassenpflug, M. Schünke, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Evaluation of water content by spatially resolved transverse relaxation times of human articular cartilage,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 18(4), 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mankin, H. J.

H. J. Mankin and A. Z. Thrasher, “Water content and binding in normal and osteoarthritic human cartilage,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 57(1), 76–80 (1975).
[PubMed]

Maroudas, A.

R. Brocklehurst, M. T. Bayliss, A. Maroudas, H. L. Coysh, M. A. Freeman, P. A. Revell, and S. Y. Ali, “The composition of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage from human knee joints. With special reference to unicompartmental replacement and osteotomy of the knee,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 66(1), 95–106 (1984).
[PubMed]

Mikkelsen,

L. Ro̸nne, P.-O. Thrane, A. Åstrand, K. V. Wallqvist, Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. E.

M. R. Stringer, D. N. Lund, A. P. Foulds, A. Uddin, E. Berry, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, “The analysis of human cortical bone by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(14), 3211–3219 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, K.-W.

Mwale, F.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 391(391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuss, M. C.

Pepper, M.

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickwell-Macpherson, E.

Poole, A. R.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 391(391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pye, R.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ray, E.

Y. Xia, T. Farquhar, N. Burton-Wurster, E. Ray, and L. W. Jelinski, “Diffusion and relaxation mapping of cartilage-bone plugs and excised disks using microscopic magnetic resonance imaging,” Magn. Reson. Med. 31(3), 273–282 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reddy, R.

E. M. Shapiro, A. Borthakur, J. H. Kaufman, J. S. Leigh, and R. Reddy, “Water distribution patterns inside bovine articular cartilage as visualized by 1H magnetic resonance imaging,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 9(6), 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Revell, P. A.

R. Brocklehurst, M. T. Bayliss, A. Maroudas, H. L. Coysh, M. A. Freeman, P. A. Revell, and S. Y. Ali, “The composition of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage from human knee joints. With special reference to unicompartmental replacement and osteotomy of the knee,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 66(1), 95–106 (1984).
[PubMed]

Ro?nne, L.

L. Ro̸nne, P.-O. Thrane, A. Åstrand, K. V. Wallqvist, Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schünke, M.

S. Lüssea, H. Claassen, T. Gehrke, J. Hassenpflug, M. Schünke, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Evaluation of water content by spatially resolved transverse relaxation times of human articular cartilage,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 18(4), 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shankar, S.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, E. M.

E. M. Shapiro, A. Borthakur, J. H. Kaufman, J. S. Leigh, and R. Reddy, “Water distribution patterns inside bovine articular cartilage as visualized by 1H magnetic resonance imaging,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 9(6), 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(10), 2438–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stringer, M. R.

M. R. Stringer, D. N. Lund, A. P. Foulds, A. Uddin, E. Berry, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, “The analysis of human cortical bone by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(14), 3211–3219 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thrane, P.-O.

L. Ro̸nne, P.-O. Thrane, A. Åstrand, K. V. Wallqvist, Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thrasher, A. Z.

H. J. Mankin and A. Z. Thrasher, “Water content and binding in normal and osteoarthritic human cartilage,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 57(1), 76–80 (1975).
[PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uddin, A.

M. R. Stringer, D. N. Lund, A. P. Foulds, A. Uddin, E. Berry, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, “The analysis of human cortical bone by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(14), 3211–3219 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uhl, T. L.

C.-B. James and T. L. Uhl, “A review of articular cartilage pathology and the use of glucosamine sulfate,” J. Athl. Train. 36(4), 413–419 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

W.-C. Kan, W.-S. Lee, W.-H. Cheung, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of knee cartilage,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3), 967–974 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallqvist, K. V.

L. Ro̸nne, P.-O. Thrane, A. Åstrand, K. V. Wallqvist, Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia, T. Farquhar, N. Burton-Wurster, E. Ray, and L. W. Jelinski, “Diffusion and relaxation mapping of cartilage-bone plugs and excised disks using microscopic magnetic resonance imaging,” Magn. Reson. Med. 31(3), 273–282 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasuda, T.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 391(391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1)

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 391(391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(10), 2438–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Athl. Train. (1)

C.-B. James and T. L. Uhl, “A review of articular cartilage pathology and the use of glucosamine sulfate,” J. Athl. Train. 36(4), 413–419 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. (2)

H. J. Mankin and A. Z. Thrasher, “Water content and binding in normal and osteoarthritic human cartilage,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 57(1), 76–80 (1975).
[PubMed]

R. Brocklehurst, M. T. Bayliss, A. Maroudas, H. L. Coysh, M. A. Freeman, P. A. Revell, and S. Y. Ali, “The composition of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage from human knee joints. With special reference to unicompartmental replacement and osteotomy of the knee,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 66(1), 95–106 (1984).
[PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Ro̸nne, P.-O. Thrane, A. Åstrand, K. V. Wallqvist, Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Magn. Reson. Imaging (1)

S. Lüssea, H. Claassen, T. Gehrke, J. Hassenpflug, M. Schünke, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Evaluation of water content by spatially resolved transverse relaxation times of human articular cartilage,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 18(4), 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magn. Reson. Med. (1)

Y. Xia, T. Farquhar, N. Burton-Wurster, E. Ray, and L. W. Jelinski, “Diffusion and relaxation mapping of cartilage-bone plugs and excised disks using microscopic magnetic resonance imaging,” Magn. Reson. Med. 31(3), 273–282 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Osteoarthritis Cartilage (2)

E. M. Shapiro, A. Borthakur, J. H. Kaufman, J. S. Leigh, and R. Reddy, “Water distribution patterns inside bovine articular cartilage as visualized by 1H magnetic resonance imaging,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 9(6), 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liess, S. Lüsse, N. Karger, M. Heller, and C.-C. Glüer, “Detection of changes in cartilage water content using MRI T2-mapping in vivo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 10(12), 907–913 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. R. Stringer, D. N. Lund, A. P. Foulds, A. Uddin, E. Berry, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, “The analysis of human cortical bone by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(14), 3211–3219 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1995), p. 209.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical image of human articular cartilage tissue. (b) Schematic of reference and cartilage samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

THz signals and transmitted amplitudes of reference and cartilage tissue.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency dependence of (a) the refractive index and (b) the power absorption coefficient along the depth of the cartilage tissue. Each dotted line indicates the values for liquid water as reported in a previous literature [18].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive index images and absorption coefficient images of articular cartilage at 0.4 and 0.8 THz. The dashed lines indicate the cartilage surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Refractive index profile and (b) absorption coefficient profile along the depth of cartilage tissue at 0.4 and 0.8 THz.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Weight-fractional distribution of water in cartilage. The red and black curves represent the measurements by THz TDS and destructive biochemical method [20], respectively. The first points in the two curves correspond to the cartilage surfaces.

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