Abstract

We characterize long (up to 285 mm) gradient index (GRIN) lens endoscope systems for multiphoton imaging. We fabricate a portable, rigid endoscope system suitable for imaging unstained tissues, potentially deep within the body, using a GRIN lens system of 1 mm diameter and 8 cm length. The portable device is capable of imaging a ~200 µm diameter field of view at 4 frames/s. The lateral and axial resolution in water is 0.85 µm and 7.4 µm respectively. In vivo images of unstained tissues in live, anesthetized rats using the portable device are presented. These results show great promise for GRIN endoscopy to be used clinically.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (4)

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Use of a lensed fiber for a large-field-of-view, high-resolution, fiber-scanning microendoscope,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 881–883 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Multifocal multiphoton endoscope,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1349–1351 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

R. S. Pillai, D. Lorenser, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep-tissue access with confocal fluorescence microendoscopy through hypodermic needles,” Opt. Express19(8), 7213–7221 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ramasamy, J. Sterling, E. S. Fisher, P. S. Li, M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, M. Shevchuck, D. Huland, C. Xu, S. Mukherjee, and P. N. Schlegel, “Identification of spermatogenesis with multiphoton microscopy: an evaluation in a rodent model,” J. Urol.186(6), 2487–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kobat, N. G. Horton, and C. Xu, “In vivo two-photon microscopy to 1.6-mm depth in mouse cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(10), 106014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (6)

M. E. Durst, D. Kobat, and C. Xu, “Tunable dispersion compensation by a rotating cylindrical lens,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1195–1197 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, Y. Leng, J. Xi, and X. Li, “Scanning all-fiber-optic endomicroscopy system for 3D nonlinear optical imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Express17(10), 7907–7915 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kobat, M. E. Durst, N. Nishimura, A. W. Wong, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “Deep tissue multiphoton microscopy using longer wavelength excitation,” Opt. Express17(16), 13354–13364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Wang, F. C. Li, R. J. Wu, V. A. Hovhannisyan, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. M. Lee, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. W. Webb, and D. S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716117, 716117-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.70(5), 398–402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. Xie, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional nonlinear optical endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 040501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Jung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo brain imaging using a portable 3.9 gram two-photon fluorescence microendoscope,” Opt. Lett.30(17), 2272–2274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res.65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue,” J. Neurophysiol.91(4), 1908–1912 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol.92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med.30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. C.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akhtar, M.

S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. M. Lee, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. W. Webb, and D. S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716117, 716117-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aksay, E.

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol.92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. P.

Brenner, M.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, C. M.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Use of a lensed fiber for a large-field-of-view, high-resolution, fiber-scanning microendoscope,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 881–883 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Multifocal multiphoton endoscope,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1349–1351 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bückle, R.

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.70(5), 398–402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. S.

Chen, Y. F.

Chen, Z.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cocker, E. D.

Cranfield, C.

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. Xie, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional nonlinear optical endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 040501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dela Cruz, J. M.

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dombeck, D. A.

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue,” J. Neurophysiol.91(4), 1908–1912 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, C. Y.

C. C. Wang, F. C. Li, R. J. Wu, V. A. Hovhannisyan, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, C. J. Kuo, R. J. Wu, W. C. Lin, J. S. Chen, Y. H. Liao, C. J. Hsu, T. F. Tsai, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Dong, “Discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from normal dermal stroma by quantitative multiphoton imaging,” Opt. Lett.31(18), 2756–2758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durst, M. E.

Ehlers, A.

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.70(5), 398–402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eickhoff, J. C.

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res.65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El Abbadi, N.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eliceiri, K. W.

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res.65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, E. S.

R. Ramasamy, J. Sterling, E. S. Fisher, P. S. Li, M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, M. Shevchuck, D. Huland, C. Xu, S. Mukherjee, and P. N. Schlegel, “Identification of spermatogenesis with multiphoton microscopy: an evaluation in a rodent model,” J. Urol.186(6), 2487–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flanders, J.

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flusberg, B. A.

Fu, L.

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. Xie, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional nonlinear optical endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 040501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A.

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res.65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. Xie, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional nonlinear optical endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 040501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, N.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horton, N. G.

D. Kobat, N. G. Horton, and C. Xu, “In vivo two-photon microscopy to 1.6-mm depth in mouse cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(10), 106014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hovhannisyan, V. A.

C. C. Wang, F. C. Li, R. J. Wu, V. A. Hovhannisyan, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. J.

Huland, D.

R. Ramasamy, J. Sterling, E. S. Fisher, P. S. Li, M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, M. Shevchuck, D. Huland, C. Xu, S. Mukherjee, and P. N. Schlegel, “Identification of spermatogenesis with multiphoton microscopy: an evaluation in a rodent model,” J. Urol.186(6), 2487–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hume, K. R.

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jain, A.

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. Xie, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional nonlinear optical endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 040501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, M.

R. Ramasamy, J. Sterling, E. S. Fisher, P. S. Li, M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, M. Shevchuck, D. Huland, C. Xu, S. Mukherjee, and P. N. Schlegel, “Identification of spermatogenesis with multiphoton microscopy: an evaluation in a rodent model,” J. Urol.186(6), 2487–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jee, S. H.

Jung, J. C.

Jung, W.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaatz, M.

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.70(5), 398–402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasischke, K. A.

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue,” J. Neurophysiol.91(4), 1908–1912 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleinfeld, D.

Q. T. Nguyen, P. S. Tsai, and D. Kleinfeld, “MPScope: a versatile software suite for multiphoton microscopy,” J. Neurosci. Methods156(1-2), 351–359 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobat, D.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kobat, N. G. Horton, and C. Xu, “In vivo two-photon microscopy to 1.6-mm depth in mouse cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(10), 106014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Durst, D. Kobat, and C. Xu, “Tunable dispersion compensation by a rotating cylindrical lens,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1195–1197 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kobat, M. E. Durst, N. Nishimura, A. W. Wong, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “Deep tissue multiphoton microscopy using longer wavelength excitation,” Opt. Express17(16), 13354–13364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

König, K.

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.70(5), 398–402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasieva, T.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, C. J.

Lee, M. M.

S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. M. Lee, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. W. Webb, and D. S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716117, 716117-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leng, Y.

Levene, M. J.

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue,” J. Neurophysiol.91(4), 1908–1912 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, F. C.

C. C. Wang, F. C. Li, R. J. Wu, V. A. Hovhannisyan, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P. S.

R. Ramasamy, J. Sterling, E. S. Fisher, P. S. Li, M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, M. Shevchuck, D. Huland, C. Xu, S. Mukherjee, and P. N. Schlegel, “Identification of spermatogenesis with multiphoton microscopy: an evaluation in a rodent model,” J. Urol.186(6), 2487–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Liao, Y. H.

Lin, S. J.

C. C. Wang, F. C. Li, R. J. Wu, V. A. Hovhannisyan, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, C. J. Kuo, R. J. Wu, W. C. Lin, J. S. Chen, Y. H. Liao, C. J. Hsu, T. F. Tsai, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Dong, “Discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from normal dermal stroma by quantitative multiphoton imaging,” Opt. Lett.31(18), 2756–2758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, W. C.

C. C. Wang, F. C. Li, R. J. Wu, V. A. Hovhannisyan, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, C. J. Kuo, R. J. Wu, W. C. Lin, J. S. Chen, Y. H. Liao, C. J. Hsu, T. F. Tsai, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Dong, “Discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from normal dermal stroma by quantitative multiphoton imaging,” Opt. Lett.31(18), 2756–2758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenser, D.

MacDonald, D. J.

Maxfield, F. R.

S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. M. Lee, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. W. Webb, and D. S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716117, 716117-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, D.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMullen, J. D.

Mehta, A. D.

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol.92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messadi, D.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohanan, S.

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Molloy, R. P.

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue,” J. Neurophysiol.91(4), 1908–1912 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukherjee, S.

R. Ramasamy, J. Sterling, E. S. Fisher, P. S. Li, M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, M. Shevchuck, D. Huland, C. Xu, S. Mukherjee, and P. N. Schlegel, “Identification of spermatogenesis with multiphoton microscopy: an evaluation in a rodent model,” J. Urol.186(6), 2487–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. M. Lee, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. W. Webb, and D. S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716117, 716117-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Myaing, M. T.

Ng, C. K.

S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. M. Lee, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. W. Webb, and D. S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716117, 716117-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, Q. T.

Q. T. Nguyen, P. S. Tsai, and D. Kleinfeld, “MPScope: a versatile software suite for multiphoton microscopy,” J. Neurosci. Methods156(1-2), 351–359 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, N.

Osann, K.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Multifocal multiphoton endoscope,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1349–1351 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Use of a lensed fiber for a large-field-of-view, high-resolution, fiber-scanning microendoscope,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 881–883 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavlova, I.

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perner, S.

S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. M. Lee, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. W. Webb, and D. S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716117, 716117-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pillai, R. S.

Ramanujam, N.

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res.65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramasamy, R.

R. Ramasamy, J. Sterling, E. S. Fisher, P. S. Li, M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, M. Shevchuck, D. Huland, C. Xu, S. Mukherjee, and P. N. Schlegel, “Identification of spermatogenesis with multiphoton microscopy: an evaluation in a rodent model,” J. Urol.186(6), 2487–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riemann, I.

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.70(5), 398–402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivera, D. R.

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Use of a lensed fiber for a large-field-of-view, high-resolution, fiber-scanning microendoscope,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 881–883 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Multifocal multiphoton endoscope,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1349–1351 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, B. D.

R. Ramasamy, J. Sterling, E. S. Fisher, P. S. Li, M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, M. Shevchuck, D. Huland, C. Xu, S. Mukherjee, and P. N. Schlegel, “Identification of spermatogenesis with multiphoton microscopy: an evaluation in a rodent model,” J. Urol.186(6), 2487–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, M. A.

S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. M. Lee, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. W. Webb, and D. S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716117, 716117-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

Schaffer, C. B.

Schenkl, S.

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.70(5), 398–402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherr, D. S.

S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. M. Lee, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. W. Webb, and D. S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716117, 716117-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schlegel, P. N.

R. Ramasamy, J. Sterling, E. S. Fisher, P. S. Li, M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, M. Shevchuck, D. Huland, C. Xu, S. Mukherjee, and P. N. Schlegel, “Identification of spermatogenesis with multiphoton microscopy: an evaluation in a rodent model,” J. Urol.186(6), 2487–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

Seibel, E. J.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med.30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shevchuck, M.

R. Ramasamy, J. Sterling, E. S. Fisher, P. S. Li, M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, M. Shevchuck, D. Huland, C. Xu, S. Mukherjee, and P. N. Schlegel, “Identification of spermatogenesis with multiphoton microscopy: an evaluation in a rodent model,” J. Urol.186(6), 2487–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skala, M. C.

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res.65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smithwick, Q. Y.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med.30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, P. T.

C. C. Wang, F. C. Li, R. J. Wu, V. A. Hovhannisyan, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southard, T. L.

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Squirrell, J. M.

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res.65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepnoski, R.

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol.92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterling, J.

R. Ramasamy, J. Sterling, E. S. Fisher, P. S. Li, M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, M. Shevchuck, D. Huland, C. Xu, S. Mukherjee, and P. N. Schlegel, “Identification of spermatogenesis with multiphoton microscopy: an evaluation in a rodent model,” J. Urol.186(6), 2487–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, S.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, P. S.

Q. T. Nguyen, P. S. Tsai, and D. Kleinfeld, “MPScope: a versatile software suite for multiphoton microscopy,” J. Neurosci. Methods156(1-2), 351–359 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, T. F.

Vrotsos, K. M.

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res.65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. C.

C. C. Wang, F. C. Li, R. J. Wu, V. A. Hovhannisyan, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Use of a lensed fiber for a large-field-of-view, high-resolution, fiber-scanning microendoscope,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 881–883 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Multifocal multiphoton endoscope,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1349–1351 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. M. Lee, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. W. Webb, and D. S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716117, 716117-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue,” J. Neurophysiol.91(4), 1908–1912 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, R. S.

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wilder-Smith, P.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

Williams, W. O.

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wong, A. W.

Wu, R. J.

C. C. Wang, F. C. Li, R. J. Wu, V. A. Hovhannisyan, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, C. J. Kuo, R. J. Wu, W. C. Lin, J. S. Chen, Y. H. Liao, C. J. Hsu, T. F. Tsai, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Dong, “Discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from normal dermal stroma by quantitative multiphoton imaging,” Opt. Lett.31(18), 2756–2758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Wysock, J. S.

S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. M. Lee, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. W. Webb, and D. S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716117, 716117-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.

Xie, H.

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. Xie, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional nonlinear optical endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 040501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, T.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Multifocal multiphoton endoscope,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1349–1351 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Use of a lensed fiber for a large-field-of-view, high-resolution, fiber-scanning microendoscope,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 881–883 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ramasamy, J. Sterling, E. S. Fisher, P. S. Li, M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, M. Shevchuck, D. Huland, C. Xu, S. Mukherjee, and P. N. Schlegel, “Identification of spermatogenesis with multiphoton microscopy: an evaluation in a rodent model,” J. Urol.186(6), 2487–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kobat, N. G. Horton, and C. Xu, “In vivo two-photon microscopy to 1.6-mm depth in mouse cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(10), 106014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Durst, D. Kobat, and C. Xu, “Tunable dispersion compensation by a rotating cylindrical lens,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1195–1197 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kobat, M. E. Durst, N. Nishimura, A. W. Wong, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “Deep tissue multiphoton microscopy using longer wavelength excitation,” Opt. Express17(16), 13354–13364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazinski, S. A.

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zipfel, W. R.

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Cancer Res. (1)

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res.65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (6)

C. C. Wang, F. C. Li, R. J. Wu, V. A. Hovhannisyan, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, K. R. Hume, S. A. Yazinski, J. Flanders, T. L. Southard, R. S. Weiss, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 036014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Kobat, N. G. Horton, and C. Xu, “In vivo two-photon microscopy to 1.6-mm depth in mouse cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(10), 106014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. Xie, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional nonlinear optical endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 040501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (2)

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue,” J. Neurophysiol.91(4), 1908–1912 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol.92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

Q. T. Nguyen, P. S. Tsai, and D. Kleinfeld, “MPScope: a versatile software suite for multiphoton microscopy,” J. Neurosci. Methods156(1-2), 351–359 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Urol. (1)

R. Ramasamy, J. Sterling, E. S. Fisher, P. S. Li, M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, M. Shevchuck, D. Huland, C. Xu, S. Mukherjee, and P. N. Schlegel, “Identification of spermatogenesis with multiphoton microscopy: an evaluation in a rodent model,” J. Urol.186(6), 2487–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med.30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med.35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.70(5), 398–402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Mukherjee, J. S. Wysock, C. K. Ng, M. Akhtar, S. Perner, M. M. Lee, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. W. Webb, and D. S. Scherr, “Human bladder cancer diagnosis using Multiphoton microscopy,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716117, 716117-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L. P. Gartner and J. L. Hiatt, Color Textbook of Histology (W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 2001).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used for the optical characterization of the long gradient index endoscope systems and close-up of the doublet GRIN system design (shown here using a 0.75 relay lens pitch).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-photon lateral and axial resolution of GRIN system 2C (285 mm length). (a) Lateral intensity line profile across a subresolution fluorescent bead with a Gaussian fit in black. (b) Axial intensity profile across a thin film rhodamine slide with a Lorentzian fit in black.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized one photon transmission intensity across the field of view for (a) GRIN system 1B and (b) GRIN system 2C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Off-axis performance. Axial FWHM of GRIN system 2C in µm plotted (a) Across the FOV and (b) Across a line (dashed blue in (a)) through the center of the FOV. Scale bar is 50µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Portable GRIN endoscope. (a) Optical drawing and (b) Solidworks drawing of the GRIN based endoscope system. Total system length of the portable device is 10.6” (including GRIN system).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Unaveraged in vivo images of unstained rat tissue. The pseudo-color images show red SHG signal (<405 nm) and green intrinsic fluorescent emission (405-700 nm). (a) Image of the superficial kidney renal cortex shows dark renal interstitium (RI), dark cellular nuclei (N) and bright intrinsic fluorescent cytoplasm (CY) that form the epithelial cells in the renal tubules (RT), SHG signal from the tough fibrous layer that forms the renal capsule (RC), and the dark blood filled lumen (L) inside the renal tubules. (b) Image of the inner colon wall shows bright intrinsic fluorescent signal from entrocytes (E) surrounding dark circular crypts (C). (c) Image of the rat liver showing ~20 µm diameter hapatocytes (coarse dashed line) with dark nuclei (N, solid line) chained together to form hepatic chords (HC), a dark bile duct (BD, fine dashed line) and bright intrinsically fluorescent bile salts (BS), as well as SHG emission from the septa (S) a fibrous tissue bands that separates hapatocyte nodules. (d) Image of the rat liver without labels shown for clarity. In these images, scale bars are 20 µm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of Optical Characterization Resultsa

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